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Rules for formal writing are quite strict, though often unstated. Formal writing is used in academic and scientific settings whenever you want to convey your ideas to a wide audience, with many possible backgrounds and assumptions.

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  1. Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa Collected and Shared by Tran Manh Trung – Foreign Language Department Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa Province ************************ THE BEST GUIDES TO IELTS WRITING Thanh Hoa City 12/2012 1
  2. Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa FORMAL AND INFORMAL WORD LIST (Collected and selected by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University) Rules for formal writing are quite strict, though often unstated. Formal writing is used in academic and scientific settings whenever you want to convey your ideas to a wide audience, with many possible backgrounds and assumptions. Unlike casual conversation or emails to friends, formal writing needs to be clear, unambiguous, literal, and well structured. Table 01: Ord INFORMAL/EVERYDAY FORMAL/ACADEMIC VIETNAMESE MEANING 01 a lot of/ loads of/ plenty of a great deal of /numerous/ several nhiều 02 a bit Somewhat (before adj. or adv.)/ slightly một chú í t t 03 to get together to collaborate with sbd on smth cộng tá c 04 to start/to begin to initiate/to commence smth/v-ing bắt đầu khởi đầu 05 big large (number/percentage), considerable lớn, to lớn 06 thing device/object vật dụng/vật thể 07 stuff material chất liệu, vật liệu 08 to find out to ascertain/discover tì ra, tì thấy m m 09 to do again to repeat lặp lại 2
  3. Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa 10 to do well to succeed thà cônh ng 11 to set up to establish thiết lập 12 to cut down on to reduce giảm bớt 13 to go up to increase tăng lên 14 to come up with to create tạo ra 15 to look into to investigate điều tra 16 to go up and down to fluctuate dao động 17 to bring up a question to raise a question đưa ra vấn đề 18 to get rid of to eliminate loại bỏ 19 to turn down smth to refuse từ chối 20 to turn out smth to produce là ra, tạo ra m 21 to take smth back to retract (a statement) rú lại t 22 to put off smth to postpone smth hoã lại n 23 to put up with to tolerate chịu đựng 24 to put away smth to save tiết kiệm, để dà nh 25 to put down to smth to attribute to quy cho, gá cho n 26 to come about to occur xảy ra 27 to give up to relinquish từ bỏ 28 to go back/give back return to swh/ smth trở lại/ trả lại 29 to give off smth to produce (heat) sản sinh, tạo ra 30 to give away to betray tiết lộ, phản bội 31 to carry out smth to conduct tiến hà nh 32 to seem to appear hình như, dường như 33 to climb to ascend đi lên, tăng lên (số lượng) 34 to help to assist/ aid giú đỡ p 35 to stop to cease dừng lại 36 to use to consume dù tiê dù ng, u ng 37 to shorten to decrease/ to abbreviate giảm bớt/ rú ngắn t 37 to show to demonstrate chỉ ra, chứng minh 38 to go to depart đi, khởi hà nh 3
  4. Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa 39 to want to desire mong muốn 40 to end to finish/ to terminate kết thú c 41 to tell to inform thô tin, cho biết ng 42 to keep preserve/ retain giữ gì giữ n/ 43 to say no to reject từ chối 44 to free to release/ to liberate trả tự do, phó thí ng ch 45 to mend/ to fix to repair sửa chữa 46 to need to require cần 47 to live to reside ở tại, trútại 48 in the end finally/ultimately cuối cù ng 49 at once immediately ngay lập tức 50 at the same time simultaneously/ concurrently đồng thời, cù lú ng c 51 at first initially đầu tiê n 52 on and off intermittently gián đoạn, lú cólú khô c c ng 53 mainly principally/primarily chủ yếu 54 next subsequently tiếp theo 55 again and again repeatedly lặp đi lặp lại 56 so therefore/ consequently vì vì thế, vậy 57 understanding comprehension sự hiểu 58 lack deficiency sự thiếu hụt 59 chance opportunity cơ hội, dịp 60 sweat perspiration mồ hô i 61 house residence nơi cư trú (count) 62 sight vision khả năng nhìn, thị giá c 63 friendly amiable thâ mật n 64 whole complete toà bộ n 65 lively energetically/animated đầy sinh lực/ sống động 67 lucky fortunate may mắn 4
  5. Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa 68 childish immature/ infantile như trẻ con (tí cánh ch) 69 wrong incorrect/questionable sai/ cóvấn đề 70 worse inferior to thấp kém hơn 71 cheap inexpensive rẻ 72 dim indistinct khô rõrà mờ ng ng, 73 mad insane điên 74 to lay back to relax thư giãn 75 in charge of responsible for chịu trá nhiệm ch 76 enough sufficient đầy đủ 77 better superior to tốt hơn, giỏi hơn 78 clear transparent rõrà ng 79 empty vacant trống khô ng 80 to ask for to require/ to request đòi hỏi, yê cầu u 81 hot (topic) controversial đang gây tranh cãi 82 more and more Increasingly/ unceasingly/non-stop tăng lên không ngừng 83 to get to obtain/ to receive đạt được, lấy , mua 84 bad disappointing tồi tệ, đáng thất vọng 85 to get worse to deteriorate trở nê xấu đi n 86 horrible unacceptable khô thể chấp nhận, kinh khủng ng 87 to come in to enter đi vào 88 to talk about to discuss thảo luận 89 to go down to descend đi xuống, giảm xuống 90 to come up with to suggest gợi ý, đưa ra 91 to look at to examine xem xé t 92 to pin down to determine quyết tâ , dứt khoá m t 93 to experience the influence of to be influenced chịu ảnh hưởng 94 Let’s consider … It is important to consider … hã câ nhắc, xem xé y n t 95 I love/like/prefer Personally, I favour … Tô thí tô ủng hộ i ch, i 96 On top of that Another point is … một điểm khá nữa là c 5
  6. Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa 97 Government must make laws There is a need for laws cần cóluật về … 98 In a nutshell To state it briefly/ In brief tó lại m 99 Every coin has two sides There are advantages and disadvantages to mọi vấn đề đều cóưu điểm vànhược điểm 100 by chance Incidentally nhâ tiện n 101 to try to attempt/ to endeavor cố gắng 102 to swap to exchange trao đổi 103 as far as x goes in respect of / with respect to đối với, về phần 104 to skip omit/not attend smth bỏ qua, khô tham dự ng 105 by accident accidentally ngẫu nhiê tì cờ n, nh 106 kids infants/offsprings trẻ em 107 O.K acceptable/ satisfactory được, chấp nhận được 108 to make up for to compensate for đền bù bùlại , 109 to catch on smth to understand nắm bắt, hiểu 110 to go down with a disease to contract a disease mắc bệnh 111 to go up to increase tăng lên 112 to get in touch with to contact liê hệ. liê lạc n n 113 to let somebody know to inform cho biết 114 to call off to cancel huỷ bỏ, bã bỏi 115 to sort out to resolve giải quyết, đi đến quyết định 116 to deal with to handle/ to address giải quyết, xử lý 117 small minimal/limited/ modest nhỏ, bé 118 to think of to conceive of/imagine nghĩ về, suy tí nh 119 about an estimated, approximately, roughly khoảng chừng 120 to do (research) to carry out, perform, undertake tiến hà (nghiê cứu), đảm nhiệm nh n 121 hard difficult, problematic,challenging khó khăn 122 to keep up to maintain duy trì 123 a lot a substantial amount, a considerable sum nhiều 124 stand for denote, represent chỉ, thay cho 126 next adjacent kề cận 6
  7. Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa 127 prove confirm khẳng định 128 rich affluent, wealthy, prosperous già có u 129 the same as equivalent to giống nhau, tương đương 130 drink beverage (count) đồ uống 131 man male đàn ông 132 old people senior citizens, retirees người cao tuổi 133 crooks offenders, lawbreakers tội phạm 134 great, awesome preferable, desirable tuyệt vời, đáng ao ước 135 sick of, fed up with dissatisfied with khô hà lò ng i ng 136 feature characteristic đặc điểm 137 before Prior to trước 138 to think (that) to assume (that) cho rằng 139 Because Owing to or due to the fact that/As a result of vì 140 Nobody can say It is impossible to predict … Khô cóthể dự đoán trước ng 141 I think that It seems that/ It could be argued that nNười ta nó rằng i 142 About Regarding/ Concerning Về, về phần 143 And as well as còn, cũng như 144 but while/whereas nưng, khi mà 145 to write a cheque to issue a checque viết tờ ngâ phiếu n 146 carefull/cautious prudent (imprudent)/prudential cẩn thận, thận trọng 147 to check to verify kiểm tra 148 to agree with to be bound by đồng ývới 149 to go over exeed vượt quá quámức , 150 to hand / to give to submit trì lê nộp nh n, 152 In accordance with Pursuant to Phùhợp với 153 to involve to entail ké theo, kè theo o m 154 lost inadvertently mislaid vôtì thất lạc nh 155 to make sure to ensure để đảm bảo rằng 156 to order to authorise uỷ quyền 7
  8. Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa 157 to pay to settle trả tiền, thanh toá n 158 to supply to furnish cung cấp 159 to take away to withdraw lấy ra, rú (tiền) ra t 160 when we get … On receipt of … Khi nhận được … 161 Whenever we like / want Without prior notice … Không báo trước … 162 One after the other At regular intervals Đều đặn 163 There are no big differences between No significant differences emerges between Khô cósự khá biệt đáng kể nà ng c o 164 This shows that This demonstrates that Điều nà chỉ ra rằng y 165 to put smth into action To be implemented/ carried out Được tiến hà được đưa và hoạt động nh, o 166 etc./ and so forth./ and so on. among other examples vàv.v 167 i.e namely, / that is, tức là chẳng hạn , 168 e.g For example, ví dụ 169 vs. versus/as apposed of chống lại, ngược với 170 nice/ cute attractive hấp dẫn, lô cuốn i 171 smart intelligent thô minh ng 172 come arrive đến 173 lifestyle way of life / manner of life lối sống 174 19th century The nineteenth century Khô viết tắt ng 175 workmate colleague đồng nghiệp 176 tired exhausted mệt mỏi 177 drunk intoxicated bị say rượu 178 sad dejected buồn, chá nảnn 179 who whom ( đại từ tâ ngữ, sau giới từ) n ai 180 to get your money back refund your payment lấy lại tiền 181 to pay your bills to settle your account trả tiền hoáđơn mua hà thanh toá ng, n 182 really extremely cực kỳ, vôcù ng 183 to go up to to reach lê tới (con số), đạt tới n 184 to work to function hoạt động 185 breathing respiration sự hôhấp 8
  9. Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa 186 meat-eater carnivore động vật ăn thịt 187 chance opportunity cơ hội 188 wrong erroneous sai só t 189 died out extinct tuyệt chủng 190 relevant pertinent thí đáng, đúng chỗ ch 191 relatives kindred họ hà thâ tộc ng n 192 copy imitate bắt chước 193 break fracture đập vỡ 194 mix blend pha trộn 195 preference predilection sự thiê vị n 196 to come across to find tì thấy m 197 to do away with to abolish bã bỏ i 198 to build up to accumulate tí luỹ ch 199 to finish off to conclude kết luận 200 to back up to support/to advocate ủng hộ 201 to put forward propose đề xuất, đề nghị 202 to put across to express biểu lộ, bà tỏ y 203 to obey a law to comply with a law tuâ thủ phá luật n p 204 poor country developing country nước nghè o 205 That’s why/ why For this reason, … / … the reason for … Ví do nà lý y 206 new novel mới 207 dependence surbodination sự phụ thuộc 208 quarrel debate/dispute Cã nhau i 209 In the same way Similarly, Tương tự như vậy 210 to look for to seek Tì kiếm m 211 way manner/solution giải phá p 212 money currency tiền tệ 213 to imagine to conceive / conceivably tưởng tượng 214 place location nơi, vị trí 9
  10. Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa 215 viewpoint stance lập trường, quan điểm 216 fast/quickly rapidly/ as a matter of urgency nhanh 217 how much to what extent (not applicable to price or amount) tới mức độ nà o 218 when (conj) At the time of … Khi mà 219 In/For many years During a considearble period of years Trong nhiều năm 220 to make smth better /to get better to improve/to upgrade cải thiện, là cho tốt hơn m 221 To put on weight to gain weight Tăng câ n 223 verb + not + any + noun verb + no + noun … khô (cá gì ng i ) 224 verb + not + many/much + noun verb + few/little + noun … khô (cá gì ng i ) 225 to give to provide đưa cho, cung cấp 226 as you can be seen as can be seen như ta cóthể thấy 227 wood timber gỗ 228 to describe to depict môtả 229 to learn by heart to memorise ghi nhớ 230 to go on to continue tiếp tục 231 may be possibly, perhaps cólẽ 232 somehow in a certain way bằng cá nà đó ch o 233 job occupation nghề nghiệp 234 to take on employ thuê 235 to give donate, contribute cho, tặng 236 dad father bố 237 plane aeroplane má bay y 238 (not) smoke. to refrain from smoking khô hú thuốc ng t 239 to follow these guidelines. to adhere to these guidelines. theo sự chỉ dẫn 240 gran/granny/nana grandmother bà 241 every year/ each year annually hằng năm 242 glasses spectacles kí đeo mắt nh 243 shop retail outlet cửa hiệu 244 fridge refrigerator tủ lạnh 10
  11. Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa 245 TV/ telly television tivi 246 boss employer ô chủ ng 247 change transform chuyển đổi 248 phone you back return your call gọi điện lại 249 bin man refuse collector người thu rá c 250 and so on. / and so forth / etc. among other examples. / or avoid using them v.v. Academic Language The term academic language commonly refers to the language that is used in formal situations such as classrooms, college or universities. Moreover, it is the language of textbooks and exams. Academic language is the language used by teachers and students in order to acquire new knowledge and skills. It differs in structure and vocabulary from language used in daily social interactions. This means that academic language includes specialized vocabulary, as well as conventional text structures such as the use of nominal groups, i.e., groups of words that provide more information about particular concepts. For example, the language of linguistics includes words like morphology, language acquisition, or language learning. Features of Academic Language The uses of specific linguistic features depend on the discipline for which an assignment is written. For example, an essay in history may contain a number of past tense verbs than a paper that discusses the dialects spoken by a particular speech community in which the present tense verbs are used. The three features of academic languag are lexical, grammatical, and discourse”. 11
  12. Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa IELTS Writing Task 2: Useful Language Memorising set phrases for use in the IELTS test is a highly effective way of achieving a higher score. Try learning the following signposting language which will make you sound more confident and sophisticated when writing an opinion or argument essay in Task 2. Introducing the topic  Some people argue that…  Have you ever considered… ?  The question raises the issue of… Stating an opinion (thesis statement)  I believe that…  It is my belief that…  This essay will argue that… Indicating the scope of the essay  In this essay, I will state…  This essay will examine…  … will be covered in this essay. 12
  13. Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa Giving reasons  One reason for this is that…  This can be explained by…  This can be attributed to the fact that… Giving further reasons  Not only that, but…  A further reason is…  It should also be stated that… Citing general opinions  It has been claimed that…  It is widely believed that…  There is a widespread belief that… Refuting opinions  I would dispute this, however.  However, this is not necessarily the case.  There are some faults with this reasoning, however. Hedging strategies  It could be argued that…  One explanation might be that… 13
  14. Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa  This suggests that… Strengthening an argument  There can be no doubt that…  Therefore, we can say beyond any doubt that…  These are just some of the reasons why… Concluding and summarising  To sum up, … / In summary, … / In short, …  Overall, … / On the whole, …  To return to my original idea,… 14
  15. Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa IELTS Writing Task 1: Useful Language 1. THE LANGUAGE OF APPROXIMATION In report writing it is good style to use approximation. Approximation means describing numbers or statistics by using a fraction that is similar to the exact number. There are a number of reasons for doing this. Firstly, it is easier for people to understand and remember. Secondly, the numbers or statistics may be more detailed than necessary. Table 02: Ord numbers/statistics similar fractions Ord numbers/statistics similar fractions 1 65 % about two-thirds of 13 1,043 over a thousand 2 28 % just over a quarter of 14 115 over a hundred 3 21 % about a fifth of 15 9 fewer than ten 4 49 % just under a half of 16 2 a small number 5 74 % almost three – quarters of 17 4 a few 6 33.333 % a third of 18 6/7 several 7 92 % most of 19 749,982 about three-quarters of a million 8 98,5 % almost all 20 1,256,890,534 over 1.2 billion 9 19.98 % about a fifth of 21 101,997 about 100,000 10 26 % just over a quarter of 22 248.112 a quarter of a million 11 48.873 % almost a half of 23 1,695,193 about 1.7 million 12 74.25 % nearly three - quarters 24 97 just under a hundred 15
  16. Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa 2. THE WORDS AND PHRASES TO DESCRIBE TRENDS: Table 03: a rise an increase a surge a growth a peak a fluctuation a variation Nouns a period of stability a plateau a fall a decrease a decline a dip to rise to increase to surge to grow to peak Verbs to skyrocket to fluctuate to vary to fall to decrease to decline 16
  17. Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa to dip to dive to plunge to show an upward trend to show a downward trend to hit the highest point to hit the lowest point to reach a peak to show some fluctuation to fluctuate wildly to remain stable to remain static to remain unchanged Phrases to stay constant to reach a plateau to level off to flatten out the highest the lowest the second highest the third highest compared to compared with relative to sharply suddenly Adverbs rapidly abruptly dramatically 17
  18. Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa significantly steadily considerably markedly slightly gently gradually wildly sharp sudden rapid abrupt Adjectives dramatic steep significant steady considerable marked slight gentle gradual 18
  19. Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa MORE WORDS AND PHRASES TO DESCRIBE TRENDS: A. Introduction 1. The graph (biểu đồ)/table (bảng)/ shows (cho thấy)/indicates (chỉ)/ illustrates (minh hoạ)/ reveals (tiết lộ)/ represents (trình bày) … 2. It is clear from the graph/table … 3. It can be seen from the graph/table … 4. As the graph/table shows … 5. As can be seen from the graph/table … 6. As is shown by the graph/table … 7. As is illustrated by the graph/table … 8. From the graph / table it is clear … B. Verbs 1. to constitute/ make up: tạo thành 2. to comprise: bao gồm 3. to account for: chiếm đến 4. to amount to : lê đến (số) n 5. to stand at: giữ ở (số) 6. to treble: gấp ba lần 7. to double: gấp đôi 8. to increase three fold: tăng gấp ba lần 9. to halve: chia đôi, giảm đi một nửa 10. to diminish: sụt giảm, là sụt giảm m 11. to slow down: chậm lại 12. to remain the same/ unchanged: khô thay đổi, giữ nguyê ng n 19
  20. Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa 13. to deplete: là giảm m 14. to lessen: giảm bớt, là giảm bớt m 15. to escalate: leo thang, tăng nhan 16. to stand at the same level: giữ nguyên 17. to fall to … %: giảm tới … % 18. to fall from … %: giảm xuống dưới … % 19. to fall by …%: giảm khoảng … % 20. to drop to … : giảm tới … % 21. to rise to … %: tăng tới … % 22. to rise by … %: tăng khoảng 23. to rise from … %: tăng từ … % 24. to increase at …% /reduce at … %: tăng/giảm … % 25. to increase to … /reduce to … : tăng/giảm tới … (số) 26. to remain relatively steady: vẫn duy trìtương đối ổn định C. Adverbs 1. exceptionally: cábiệt, khác thường 2. remarkably: đáng chúý 3. moderately: vừa phải 4. extremely/enormously: cực kỳ, rất 5. substantially: to lớn, đáng kể 6. marginally: hơi, đôi chút 7. hardly/ scarcely: hầu như không 8. slowly: chậm 20



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