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Hướng dẫn giải bài tập Hóa học 10 Nâng cao: Phần 2

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Hướng dẫn giải bài tập Hóa học 10 Nâng cao: Phần 2

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Tài liệu Bài tập Hóa học 10 Nâng cao: Phần 2 được biên soạn nhằm giúp các bạn biết được cách giải những bài tập về nguyên tử; bảng tuần hoàn các nguyên tố Hóa học và định luật tuần hoàn; liên kết hóa học; phản ứng hóa học; nhóm halogen; nhóm oxi; tốc độ phản ứng và cân bằng hóa học. Mời các bạn tham khảo.

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Nội dung Text: Hướng dẫn giải bài tập Hóa học 10 Nâng cao: Phần 2

  1. PHAN HAI: HI/ONG DAN - BAI GIAI - DAP s6 Chuang 1 • NGUYEN TCf BAI ON TAP 1.1. Ndu eft chia ddi lien tiep vien bi sdt thi ddn mdt luc ndo dd ta thu dugc phdn tft nhd nhd't cdn mang tfnh chat dac trung cua sdt dugc ggi la nguyen tft sdt. 1.2. Khi mdu nudc da dugc chia ddi lien tid'p thi ddn mdt luc nao dd ta thu dugc phdn tft nhd be nhd't cdn mang tinh chat cua nudc dugc ggi la phdn tft nudc. 1.3. + Theo dinh nghia vl mol, 1 mol mudi an chfta 6,02.10^^ phan tft NaCl. Vi thd trong 0,1 mol mudi an cd sd phan tft NaCl bdng : 6,02.10^^ phan tft/mol x 0,1 mol = 6,02.10^^ phan tft. + Tuong tg, 1 mol sdt kim loai ed chfta 6,02.10 nguyen tft sdt. Trong X mol sdt chfta 3,01.10 nguyen tft sdt. 3,01.10^^ X=— — = 0,5 (mol) nguyen tft sdt. 6,02.10^^ 1.4. B 1.5. a) Theo dinh nghia vl mol ta ed trong 1 mol nguyen tft C chfta 6,02.10 nguyen tft C. Do dd khd'i lugng cfta 1 mol nguydn tft C bdng : 1,99. 10"^^ kg/nguyen tft x 6,02.10^^ nguydn tft/mol = 11,98.10"^ kg/mol « 12 g/mol. b) Tuang tg, khd'i lugng cua 1 phdn tft C2H5OH bdng : 46 g/mol ^ 7,64.10"^^ g/phdn tft = 7,64.10~^^ kg/phdn tft. ^23 6,02.10^^ phdn tft/mol 72
  2. 1.6. Khdi lugng mol nguyen tft cd tri sd bdng nguyen tft khd'i ciia nguyen td. Khd'i lugng mol phdn tft cd tri sd bdng phdn tft khd'i eua chd't. Khd'i lugng mol dugc tinh bdng g/mol, trong khi nguyen tft khdi va phdn tft khd'i tinh theo dan vi cacbon (dvC). Ta cd : a) Phdn tft khdi cfta clo la : 2 x 35,5 = 71 (dvC). 1 mol khf clo cd khd'i lugng bdng : 2 x 35,5 = 71 (g). 14 2 2 Sd mol phdn tft clo cd trong 14,2 g la : ^, ', =0,2 mol. 71 g/mol Tuong tg: b) Phdn tft khd'i cua canxi cacbonat bdng : 40 + 12 + 3 x 16 = 100 (dvC). 10 g Sd mol phdn tft canxi cacbonat = --——; r =0,1 mol. 100 g/mol c) Luu huynh cd nguydn tft khd'i bdng 32 dvC. 16 2 Sd mol luu huynh cd trong 16 g la : —;—7^—r = 0,5 mol. 32 g/mol d) Phdn tft khdi eua amoniac bdng : 14 + 3 x 1 = 17 (dvC). 34 2 Sd mol NH3 trong 34 g la : ,^ ° , = 2 mol. ^ 1 7 g/mol 1.7. a) Theo dinh nghia ndng dd mol, ta cd sd mol NaOH trong 20 ml dung dich 0,1 Mbdng : 20 ml „ , mol „ „ _^ , — x 0,1 -TT- 1000 ml/lit 1ft = 0,002 mol. Phan ftng cfta NaOH va HCI: NaOH + HCI -> NaCl + H2O Vdi ti le mol cdc chd't tham gia va tao thanh sau phan ftng = 1 : 1 Nhu vdy sd mol HCI cdn dung = sd mol NaOH = 0,002 mol. b) Sd mol sdt = ^^ ' ^ =0,1 mol. 56 g/mol Phuang trinh hod hgc phan ftng gifta sdt vdi HCI: Fe + 2HC1 -^ FeClj + Hjt 73
  3. Theo phuang trinh hod hgc, sd mol HCI cdn dung gdp hai ldn sd mol sdt = 2 X 0,1 mol = 0,2 mol. c) Sdt(III) oxit cd cdng thftc Fe203. Sd mol sdt(in) oxit bdng : 16 2 r—7 =0,1 (mol). Phuang trinh hod hoc : 160 g/mol Fe203 + 6HC1 -^ 2FeCl3 + SHjO Sd mol HQ cdn dung gdp 6 ldn sd mol sdtOOQ) oxit, bdng : 0,1 x 6 = 0,6 (mol). 9 82 d) Sd mol ddng (II) hidroxit = ^„ ' , = 0,1 mol. Phuang trinh hod hoc : 98 g/mol Cu(0H)2 +2HC1 -^ CuCl2 + 2H2O Sd mol HQ cdn dung gdp ddi sd mol ddng(II) hidroxit, bdng: 2 x 0,1 = 02 (mol). 1.8. CJ 0°C va dp sud't 1 atm 1 mol N2 chidm thi tfch bdng 22,4 dm^. Nhu vdy khd'i lugng mol cua nita bdng 22,4 dm^/mol x 1,25 g/dm = 28 g/mol. Do dd phdn tft khd'i cua nita bdng 28 dvC. 1.9. A. 1.10. - Sd mol ddng(n) oxit = ^J' , ^ , = 0,09 mol. Phanftngkhft ddng(II) oxit: 80 g / mol CuO + CO ^°^ > Cu + CO2 - Phan ling xay ra hoan toan ndn san phdm rdn chi la Cu, chd't khf di ra la ' hdn hgp eua CO du va CO2. a) Sd mol ddng kim loai = sd mol ddng(n) oxit = 0,09 mol. Khdi lugng ddng thu dugc : 0,09 x 64 = 5,76 (g). b) Sd mol CO da tham gia phan ftng bdng sd' mol CuO va bdng sd mol CO2 tao thdnh va diu bdng 0,09 mol. Thi tich CO (d dktc) da tham gia phan ftng bdng : 0,09 x 22,4 = 2,016 (dm^). 1.11. Sd mol mudi ddng(II) nitrat = „^ ' ,^ , = 0,1 mol. 188 g/mol Phuofng tnnh hod hgc : 2Cu(N03)2 ^° ) 2CuO + 4NO2 + O2 Theo phuang trinh hod hgc, sd mol ddng(n) oxit = sd mol mudi = 0,1 mol. Khd'i lugng ddng(II) oxit = 0,1 x 80 = 8 (g). 1.12. A. 74
  4. Bai 1 THANH PHAN NGUYEN TCT -27, 1.13. a) Khd'i luang cua proton gdp -^ '• -—2- = 1836 ldn khd'i luang cfta 9,1094.10"^^ kg electron (gdn hai nghin ldn). 9 1094 10"^^ kg 1 b) Khdi luang cfta electron bang — '-——-^ = -r^r^r—z ldn khd'i luong l,6748.10"^^kg 1838,5 cua natron hay gdn bdng mdt phdn hai nghin ldn. c) Khd'i lugng cfta cac hat trong nguyen tft heli bdng : 2 X 1,6726. 10 ~^^ kg + 2 X 1,6748. 10"^^ kg + 2 x 9,1094. 10"^' kg = 6,6966. 10"^'^ kg. Khdi lugng cfta 2 electron = 1,8219.10"^° kg. Do dd khdi lugng cfta electron trong nguydn tft heli chi chidm : 1,82.10 kg X 100% = 0,0272% (rd't nhd). 6,6966.10"^^ kg 1.14. Trong 1 kg sdt cd ^ ' y . l l ^ ^ f ^{^^ = 17,905 mol nguyen tft sdt 55,85 g/mol => Sd nguyen tft sdt = 17,905 x 6,02.10^^ nguyen tft. Ma 1 nguyen tft Fe ed 26 electron —> Trong 1 kg sdt cd lugng electron bdng : 17,905 x 26 = 465,53 mol electron => Khd'i lugng cdc electron bdng : 465,53 mol x 9,1.10"^'kg/e x 6,02.10"e/mol = 2,55.10""^ kg hay 0,255 g (rdt nhd so vdi khd'i lugfng 1 kg sat). 1.15. a) 1 nm = 10~^ m + Thi tfch gdn dung cfta hat nhan nguyen tft hidro bdng : V = l l ^ = -x 3,14 X (1.10"^^m)3 = 4,19.10"^^m^ + Thi tfch gdn dung cfta nguyen tft hidro la : V = l!2L = I x 3,14 X (0,53.10"^W = 6,23.10"^^ m^ 75
  5. Nhu vay, thi tfch cua nguyen tft H ldn han rdt nhilu so vdi thi tfch cua hat nhdn nguyen tft H. Nguyen tft H cd cdu tao rdng. b) Khd'i lugng hat nhdn nguyen tft hidro chinh la khd'i lugng cua proton vd bdng l,672.10"^\g. Khdi lugng rieng cua hat nhan nguyen tft hidro bdng : D=^'^'^-^Cf=3,99.10na'n/cm^ 4,19.10"^^m^ + Khd'i lugng cua nguyen tft hidro (tfnh ca khd'i lugng cfta electron) bdngl,673.10~^^kg. Khdi lugng rieng cua hidro bdng : 1,673.10 kg ^ 2,66 .10^ kg/m^ = 2,66 .10^ g/dm^ = 2,66 g/cm^ 0,63.10"^V^ Khd'i lugng rieng cfta proton ldn han rdt nhilu ldn so vdi khd'i lugng rieng nguyen tft hidro. 1.16. Do lu = 1,6605.10 kg. Khd'i lugng cua nguyen tft oxi tfnh theo kilogam: 1,6605.10"^^ X 15,999 = 2,6566.10"^^ (kg). 1.17. Do nguyen tft khd'i cua C = 12 nen khd'i lugng cfta nguydn tft H bdng : + Tfnh theo u : 12 u/11,905 = 1,008 u. + Tfnh theo gam : 1,008 u x 1,66.10"^"^ g/u = 1,673 .10"^"^ gam. Bai 2 HAT NHAN NGUYEN T Q NGUYEN TO HOA HOC 1.18.A. •> ^ 207 1.19. Nguyen tu cua nguyen td chi ddng vi Pb cd Z = 82, sd khd'i bang 207. Sd natron = 207 - 82 = 125. Nhu vay, ti le sd natron/sd proton bdng : 125 -—-= 1,5244. Trft H, ti Id sd natron/sd proton thdp nhdt d cac nguyen tii 82 la 1. Nhu vdy dilu kien bin cua hat nhdn la 1 < —,— < 1,5244. • sd p 76
  6. 1.20. D. 1.21. - Trong nguyen tft, sd proton = sd electron. Tdng sd cdc hat = sd electron + sd natron + sd proton ; Sd natron tdi thilu bdng sd proton (trft nguyen tft JH). - Ddi vdi cae nguydn tft cfta eac nguyen td cd Z khdng ldn, sd natron khdng chenh lech nhilu so vdi sd proton, chi cdn dem tdng sd hat chia 3 ldy phdn nguydn ta cd sd proton va sd electron. Nhu vdy, dd'i vdi nguyen tft nguyen tdX : ^ = 19,333. - Ndu Z = 19 thi sd natron = 20 la cdc gia tri ddc trung cho nguyen td K cd sd khd'i bdng 39. - Ndu cho Z = 20 thi sd natron = 19 < sd proton, nguyen tft khdng bin. 1.22. Cdc hat mang dien trong nguyen tft la proton va electron. Cae hat khdng mang dien la hat natron. Trong nguyen tft trung hoa, sd electron bdng sd proton. Kf hieu Z va N la sd electron vd sd natron trong nguyen tft. Ta ed he phuang trinh 2 dn sd : J2Z + N = 82 [2Z - N = 22 Giai he, ta dugc Z = 26 va N = 30. Sd khd'i eua nguyen tft X la : 26 + 30 = 56. Nguyen td X la sdt cd kf hieu nguyen tft la ^Fe. 1.23. Theo dilu kien ddu bai, vi sd natron trong hat nhdn va sd hieu nguyen tft cua mdi nguydn td khdng vugt qua 1 dan vi nen cd thi dp dung each xdc dinh sd dien tfch hat nhdn cua cdc nguyen td X, Y va Z nhu sau : Zx = 16/3 « 5, ZY = 5 8 / 3 « 1 9 , Zz = 78/3 « 26. Nguydn td X la nguyen td bo cd sd' electron = 5, sd natron = 6, sd khd'i =11 va cd kf hidu nguyen td' la j B . Nguyen td Y Id nguyen td kali cd 19 electron, sd natron = 20, sd khd'i = 39 vd cd kf hieu nguyen td Id JQK . Nguyen td Z la nguyen td sdt cd 26 electron, sd natron = 30, sd khd'i = 56 va cd kf hieu nguyen td Id 26 Fe. 77
  7. 1.24. Cac nguydn tft ed cftng dien tich hat nhdn thi thudc vl mdt nguydn td hoa hgc. Nhu vdy : + Cdc nguydn tft ciing cd Z = 7 thi thudc vl nguydn td nita: ^7 A va ^C diu cd 7 electron va 7 proton. Trong dd ^7 A cd 7 natron cdn ^70 cd 8 natron. + Cac nguyen tft cung cd Z = 8 thi thudc vl nguyen td oxi : gB, gDvd gG diu cd 8 electron va 8 proton. Trong dd, gBcd 8 natron, gDco 10 natron vd 'gG cd 9 natron. Oft + Cac nguyen tft cung cd Z = 10 thi thudc vl nguyen td neon : joHva 00 00 00 ^QK diu cd 10 electron va 10 proton. Trong dd jgH cd 10 natron vd JQK cd 12 natron. + Nguyen tft jjl cd Z = 11 la nguyen tft cua nguyen td natri cd kf hieu la fyn 11 Na. Nguyen tft natri cd 11 proton va 12 natron d hat nhdn, 11 electron d vd nguyen tft. + Nguyen tft 26 E cd Z = 26 la nguyen tft cfta nguyen td sdt ed kf hidu la ^^Fe.Nguye 26Fe. Nguyen tft sdt ed 26 proton va 30 natron d hat nhdn, 26 electron d vd nguyen tft. + Nguyen tft 27F cd Z = 27 la nguyen tft cfta nguyen td coban cd kf hieu- la 27 Co. Nguyen tft coban cd 27 proton va 29 natron d hat nhdn, 27 electron d vd nguyen tft. Bai 3 DONG VL NGUYEN TCT KHOI VA NGUYEN lO KHOI TRUNG BINH 1.25. D. 1.26. Nguyen tft khd'i trung binh la dai lugng dac trung cho sg tdn tai ddng thdi cua eac loai ddng vi tu nhidn cua nguydn td da cho trdn ldp vd Trdi Ddt. Nguydn tft khd'i trung binh bdng tdng cac phdn ddng gdp cua cac ddng vi. Vi vdy ddi vdi brom ta cd : — 50 69 49 31 ABr = " i ^ x 79 + - ^ x 81 = 0,5069 x 79 + 0,4931 x 81 = 40,045 + 39,941 = 79,986. 78
  8. 1.27. Tuang tu bai 1.26 ta cd : ANi = 58 X 0,6827 + 60 x 0,2610 + 61 x 0,0113 + 62 x 0,0359 + 64 x 0,0091 = = 58,771. Gid tri nguyen tft khd'i thuc cua Ni bdng 58,754. 1.28. Sd khd'i cfta ddng vi thft nhd't la : 35 + 44 = 79. Sd khdi cfta ddng vi thft hai la : 35 + 44 + 2 = 81. 27 „. 23 Ta cd : Ax = 79 x + 81 X 79,92. 27 + 23 23 + 27 1.29. a) Ggi sd khd'i cua cdc ddng vi ldn lugt la Xj, Xj, X3. Ta cd he phuong trinh 3 dn sd : Xl + X2 + X3 = 87 X2 = Xl + 1 0,9223 X Xl + 0,0467 x Xj + 0,031 x X3 = 28,0855 Giai he phuang trinh, ta cd Xi = 28, X2 = 29, X3 = 30. 28 b) Trong Xi cd sd natron = sd proton = Z = — = 14. Nhu vdy sd natron trong cdc ddng vi la : + Trong Xl : 14. + Trong X2: 2 9 - 14= 15. + Trong X3: 3 0 - 1 4 = 16. 1.30. a) Ggi X la kfhilu nguyen td va la khdi lugng mol nguyen tft cua X. Trong ca hai mudi, X diu cd hod tri 1. Sd mol X trong ca hai mudi bdng nhau. Phuang trinh hod hgc : NaX + AgN03 -^ AgXi + NaN03 . . 8,19 ^ 20,09 ^'^^ • 23 + X 108 + X Giai ra ta dugc X = 35,5. Nguyen tft khd'i cua X bang 35,5. X la clo. b) Ggi sd khdi cfta ddng vi be cfta clo la A. Ta cd : 0,75 X A + 0,25 X (A + 2) = 35,5. Giai ra, ta cd A = 35. Ddng vi ldn cua clo cd sd khd'i bdng 35 + 2 = 37. 79
  9. 1.31. Ggi % sd nguyen tft ddng vi be cua iridi la x thi % sd nguydn tft cua ddng vi ldn la (100 - x). Ta cd : 191x + 193(100 - x) = 192,22 X 100 Giai ra dugc x = 39. Nhu vdy, trong iridi tu nhidn ed khoang 39% sd nguydn tft Id ddng vi 191 vd 61% sd nguyen tft la ddng vi 193. Ti Id sd mol cung bdng ti le sd nguyen tft nen phdn trdm sd mol eua 2 ddng vi cung cd gid tri nhu trdn. 1.32. D. 1.33. Cd 12 loai phan tft khf cacbonic vdi phdn tft khdi tuang ftng (ghi trong ngode)la: '^002^^ (44), '^002'^ (46), '^002'^ (48) ; *^C02^^ (45),'^C02^'' (47), '^C02^^ (49) ; '^CO'^O'^ (45), '^CO'^o'^ (46), '^CO'^o'^ (47) ; '^CO'^O'^ (46), '^CO'^O'^ (47), '^CO'^o'^ (48). 1.34. Xet 1 mol phdn tft HCIO4 cd khd'i lugng bdng 100,5 g. Trong dd cd 1 mol nguydn tft clo chfta 0,7577 mol clo ddng vi 35 vd 0,2423 mol clo ddng vi 37. Khd'i lugng clo ddng vi 37 trong 1 mol HCIO4 la : 0,2423 mol X 37 g/mol = 8,9651 g. + Phdn tram khd'i lugng clo ddng vi 37 trong HCIO4 bdng : 8,9651 X 100= 8,92 (%). 100,5 Bai 4 SL; CHUYEN DQNG COA ELECTRON TRONG NGUYEN TQ. OBITAN NGUYEN T Q 1.35. + Theo md hinh hanh tinh nguyen tft, trong nguyen tft, eac electron chuyin ddng ca trdn quy dao trdn vd quy dao bdu due gidng eac hanh tinh quay quanh Mat Trdi. + Theo md hinh hien dai, trong nguyen tft cac electron chuyin ddng rdt nhanh (vdi tdc do gdn bdng tdc dd cfta anh sang) ndn khdng thi ndi din quy dao ma chi coi chuyin ddng cfta electron nhu mdt dam mdy mang dien tfch dm. 80
  10. 1.36. Cdc chdm tren hinh ve 1.7 (SGK) khdng phai Id hinh anh cua mdt electron ma ehi Id hinh anh bilu diln mdt vi trf eua electron d mdt thdi dilm gia dinh nao dd. Vung khdng gian cd nhilu chdm thi xdc sud't cd mat eua electron d dd cang cao. Tdp hgp cac dilm trong vung khdng gian cd phdn ldn xac sud't ed mat electron dugc coi la dam mdy tfch didn dm cfta electron. 1.37. Nguyen tft H cd thi tdn tai d cac trang thai nang lugng khdc nhau. Ci trang thdi ea ban (trang thai cd ndng lugng thdp nhd't), chuyin ddng cfta electron dugc md ta bdng obitan hinh cdu cd ban kfnh gdn bdng 0,053 nm (ggi la obitan Is). Khi nguyen tft H chuyin ddn trang thai cd nang lugng cao han, chuyin ddng cua electron dugc md ta bdng obitan hinh cdu vdi bdn kinh ldn hOn va dugc ggi la obitan 2s. Nlu nguyen tft H cd ndng lugng cao han nfta thi chuyin ddng cua electron se dugc md ta bang mdt trong 3 obitan 2p hinh sd 8 ndi... 1.38. Cdc obitan s diu cd dang hinh cdu vdi kha ndng tim thd'y electron theo mgi hudng nhu nhau. Cae obitan p cd dang hinh sd 8 ndi. Cd 3 obitan p dinh hudng theo 3 hudng vudng gdc vdi nhau va theo hudng cfta 3 true toa dd Decac. Obitan dinh hudng theo true x dixgc kf hieu la obitan p^. Obitan p cd dinh hudng theo true y duge kf hieu la obitan Py va eon lai la obitan p^ dinh hudng theo true z. 1.39. 6 trang thdi co ban, electron duy nhd't eua nguyen tft H d tren obitan Is. Electron nay bi hut vl phfa hat nhdn cd dien tfch 1+. Bdn kfnh obitan cua nguyen tft H bdng 0,0529 nm. Nguyen tft heli cd Z = 2 va cd 2 electron ciing d tren obitan Is nhung ban kfnh nguyen tft (hay ban kfnh cfta obitan Is cfta heh) giam cdn 0,0128 nm. Nguyen nhdn la luc hut cua hat nhdn nguyen tft H ddi vdi electron yiu han lgc hut cfta hat nhdn He. Electron trong nguyen tft H cd thi tdn tai d khoang each ldn hon so vdi trong nguyen tft He. Obitan nguyen tft H ldn han obitan nguyen tft He. 1.40*. Obitan nguyen tft la khu vuc khdng gian xung quanh hat nhdn ma tai dd xdc sud't cd mat (xdc sud't tim thd'y) electron khoang 90%. Electron cd thi tdn tai d ngoai khu vuc khdng gian quy udc d tren vdi xac sudt cd mat vao khoang 100% - 90% = 10%. Nhu vdy, vl nguyen tdc obitan khdng ed gidi han. 6.BT HdAHOC10.NC-A 81
  11. Bai 5 LUYEN TAP VE : T H A N H PHAN CAU TAO NGUYEN TCT. KHOI LUONG cCiA NGUYEN TQ. OBITAN NGUYEN T Q 1.41. A. 1.42. A. 1.43. D. 1.44. a) Ti le sd natron/sd proton cua : A_ 7 232 — 90 + Nguyen td thon cd Z = 90 : - ^Z ^ = = 1,578 9u 2 3 1 - 91 + Nguyen td protactini cd Z = 91 : ——777——= 1,538 91 2 3 8 - 92 + Nguyen td urani cd Z = 92 : — =1,587 b) Cac nguyen td nay diu khdng bin va tu phdn huy thdnh cac nguyen tl khac cd sd hieu nguyen tft be hon. 1.45. a) Hat nhan nguyen tft flo cd 9 proton va 10 natron, khd'i lugng hat nhdn nguyen tft flo (dua vao bang 1.1 trong SGK) bdng : 9 X 1,6726.10"^^ + 10 X 1,6748.10"^^ = 3,1801.10"^^ (kg). b) The tfch cua hat nhan nguyen tCf flo = -71(0,5.10"'V)^ = 5,23.10"'^^ m^ The tfch cua nguyen tft flo = -71(0,5.10"'°m)^= 5,23.10~^'ml Ti le thi tfch cua nguyen tft va hat nhdn nguyen tft flo bdng lo'^. c) Khdi lugng rieng cua hat nhdn nguyen tft flo bdng : o 1 on 1 1 n -^ '^j7-= 6,08.10'^ (kg/m^) hay 6,08.lO'' trieu td'n/cm^ (rd't ldn). 5,23.10"^^ • 1.46. Nguyen tft khd'i trung binh cua silic bdng : 92,23 4,67 3,10 ^ ^ 100 ^ ^ ^ 100 29 + ^ ^ - 3 0 - 2 8 , 1 0 9 . 82 6.BTH6AHOCIO.NC-B
  12. Bai 6 LdP VA PHAN LCIP ELECTRON 1.47. + Trong ldp electron thft n se cd n phdn ldp electron. Thf du : Ldp thft nhd't ed 1 phdn ldp electron, ldp thft hai cd 2 phdn ldp electron, ldp thft ba cd 3 phdn ldp electron. + Cdc kf hidu chi phdn ldp la : s, p, d... 1.48. Cac obitan trong mdt phdn ldp cd ndng lugng bdng nhau. Cac obitan thudng cd hinh dang tuong tg nhau nhung khac nhau vl dinh hudng trong khdng gian. Phdn ldp p cd 3 obitan 2p cd nang lugng bdng nhau va cung cd dang hinh sd 8 ndi. Obitan 2p^ hudng theo true x, obitan 2py hudng dgc theo true y cdn obitan 2p^ hudng dgc theo true z. Phdn ldp d cd 5 obitan d cd dang tuang tg nhau kilu canh hoa 4 canh. Cac obitan nay cd dinh hudng khac nhau trong khdng gian. 1.49. Ldp M - ldp thft ba, cd 3 phdn ldp, dd la cac phdn ldp : 3s, 3p va 3d. + Phdn ldp 3 s cd mdt obitan. + Phdn ldp 3p cd ba obitan. + Phdn ldp 3d cd ndm obitan. Nhu vdy, ldp M cd 9 obitan. 1.50. + Sd obitan trong mdt phdn ldp la mdt sd le : 1, 3, 5, ... tuong ftng vdi phdn ldp thft nhd't, thft hai, thft ba,... + Phdn ldp p la phdn ldp thft hai nen cd 3 obitan : p^, Py va p^. + Phdn ldp d la phdn ldp thft 3 nen cd 5 obitan. 1.51. Electron 2p' la electron ddu tien d phdn ldp thft 2 (phdn ldp p), thudc ldp thft 2 (n = 2). Phdn ldp p gdm 3 obitan cd nang lugng bdng nhau nen electron cd thi tdn tai d 1 trong ba obitan 2p nhung cd thi khdng thi bilt la 2Px' 2py hay 2p^. Dam mdy cd dang hinh sd 8 ndi. 83
  13. Bai 7 TRONG NGUYEN TCT N A N G L U O N G COA C A C E L E C T R O N CAU HINH ELECTRON NGUYEN T Q 1.52. 1 a)2s^ I 1 b)2p2 nil 1 c)3p^ 1.53. Nguyen tft N cd Z = 7, ldp vd nguyen tft cd 7 electron dugc phdn bd vao cac obitan theo thft tu tang ddn cdc mftc ndng lugng (theo nguyen li viing bin) : Is, 2s va 2p. - Electron ddu tien dugc xdp vdo obitan Is. Electron thft hai cd thijghep ddi hay xep vao phdn ldp 2p. Do nang lugng ghep ddi be han so vdi chenh lech ndng lugng gifia ldp 1 va ldp 2 nen electron thft hai se xdp vao 2 •» obitan Is, luc dd hai electron dugc cap ddi. Ta cd kf hieu Is chi hai electron da cap ddi tren 1 obitan Is. - Electron thft 3 khdng dugc xdp vdo cung obitan Is vdi hai electron sdn cd (nguyen If Pau-li) ma xdp vao phdn ldp 2s. Ta cd kf hieu 2s^ cho bilt rang cd 1 electron tren obitan nay. Electron thft 4 se xdp vao obitan 2s do ry nang lugng cua phdn ldp 2s be han so vdi 2p. Ta cd kf hieu 2s chi ra rdng khdng cd electron ddc thdn ndo tren obitan nay. - Electron thft 5, 6 va 7 se xdp vao phdn ldp 2p vdi 3 obitan gid'ng nhau hodn toan. Ba electron dugc phdn bd vdo 3 obitan 2p ndn mdi obitan cd 1 electron (quy tac Hun). Cdu hinh electron nguydn tft cfta nguyen td nita la : 11 11 ! f ! Is^ 2s^ 2p^ 1.54. Viec xep cac electron vao cac d lugng tft la thao tdc dl xem xet sg phdn bd electron trong nguyen tft nhieu electron. 84
  14. Viec sdp xdp cac electron vao obitan theo mftc nang lugng thi hien quy ludt tg nhien (nguydn If viing bin hay cdn ggi la nguyen If cue tiiu nang lugng). Viec sdp xep cdc electron vao eac obitan theo mftc nang lugng hoan toan tuang duang vdi viec sdp xdp cdc electron vao cac d lugng tft. Khi cdc obitan (hay d lugng tft) d cung phdn ldp cd > 1 obitan, dua vao su phan bd electron theo d lugng tft dl kit luan ve sd electron hod tri, sd electron ddc thdn... va dl kit luan vl tfnh chd't hoa hgc cua nguyen to. 1.55. Cdu hinh electron la sg phdn bd cac electron theo tftng ldp va phdn ldp. Is 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f 5s 5p... Thft tu sdp xdp electron la thft tu tang dan ndng lugng obitan trong nguyen tft : Is 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p... Thf du : thft tu sdp xdp cac electron theo mftc nang lugng cua nguyen tft sdt : ls^2s^2p^3s^3p^4s^3d^ Trong khi dd cd'u hinh electron nguyen tft cua nguyen td sat dugc vilt la : ls^2s^2p^3s^3p^3d^4s2 1.56. HS tu vie't va dd'i chidu vdi bang cdu hinh electron nguyen tft cua cac nguyen td (bang 1.2) trong SGK. 1.57. a) HTl [TT]; Nguyen td beri. ^)\n\ m I I I ; Nguyen td nito. oM n lllllllll im I I I I I I I; Nguyen td photpho. d)[l 11 mil 11 I ; Nguyen td nhdm.
  15. 1.58. a) D b) D. 1.59. Can eft vao sd ldp va phdn ldp electron, cac nguyen If vd quy tdc sdp xip electron vao vd nguyen tft, ta thd'y rang cae nguydn td cd cdu hinh electron thay ddi tudn hoan tren cdc phdn ldp s vd p theo ehilu tang cua Z. Cdc electron dugc xep vao phdn ldp s (2 electron) rdi di'n phdn ldp p (6 electron) rdi lai lap lai. 1.60. a) A b)B. 1.61. a) ls^2sWaZ = 3 b) Is 2s 2p va Z = 7 c) ls^2s^2p^vaZ= 10 d) Is^ 2s^ 2p^ 3s^ va Z = 12 d) Is 2s 2p 3s 3p v a Z = 13 e) Is 2s 2p 3s 3p v a Z = 1 6 f) Is^ 2s^ 2p^ 3s^ 3 p S a Z = 17. Bai 8 LUY^N T A P CHLTONG 1 0 0 f^ ") 1.62. + Cdu hinh electron nguyen tft cfta nguydn td magie (Z = 12): Is 2s 2p 3s hay 11 11 11 11 11 11 Is^ 2s^ 2p'^ 3s vdi 2 electron (phdn ldp 3s ) d ldp ngoai cung, magie la mdt kim loai. Cd hinh electron nguyen tft cua nguyen td photpho (Z = 15): Is^ 2s^ 2p^ 3s^ 3p^ + Cdu hay lllllllll M ITTTTT 11 11 Is^ 2s^ 2p^ 3s^ 3p^ vdi 5 electron d ldp ngoai cung nen photpho la mdt phi kim. 1.63. B. 86
  16. 1.64. C. 1.65. Cation R"^dugc tao thanh do nguyen tft R mdt di 1 electron d ldp vd ngoai cung. Nhu vdy, nguyen tft R cd them 1 electron so vdi sd electron 2p^ cua R . Theo quy tdc sdp xep electron vao cac d lugng tft thi d tie'p sau 2p la d 3s. Nhu vdy, nguyen tft R cd cd cau hinh electron va phan bd electron theo obitan la : m [TTITTTTTI Q ] Is^ 2s^ 2p^ 3s^ 1.66. + Nguyen tft cd Z = 9 vdi ca'u hinh electron : Is^ 2s^ 2p^ cd 7 electron d ldp ngoai cung. Nguyen td nay la phi kim. + Nguyen tft cd Z = 11 vdi cdu hinh electron : Is^ 2s^ 2p^ 3s^ cd 1 electron duy nhdt d ldp ngoai cung. Nguyen td nay la mgt kim loai. + Nguyen tft cd Z = 16 vdi cdu hinh electron : Is^ 2s^ 2p^ 3s^ 3p^ cd 6 electron d ldp ngoai ciing. Nguyen td nay la mdt phi kim. + Nguyen tft cd Z = 20 vdi cdu hinh electron : Is^ 2s^ 2p^ 3s^ 3p^ 4s^ cd 2 electron d ldp ngoai cung. Nguyen td nay la kim loai. 1.67*. Phdn tft M2X trung hoa dien dugc tao thanh do su kit hgp 2 nguyen tft M va'l nguyen tft X. Ggi sd proton trong hat nhdn va sd electron cia nguyen tft M la Pj va Zj, sd proton trong hat nhdn va sd electron ciia nguyen tft X la P2 va Z2. Cac nguyen tft trung hoa dien nen ta cd P] = Z, ; P2 = Z2. Ni va N2 tuong ftng la sd natron trong hat nhdn cua cac nguyen tft M va X. Sd proton, electron va natron khdng bi thay ddi khi xay ra phan ftng hoa hgc kit hgp hai nguyen tft M vdi 1 nguyen tft X. Sft dung cac dilu kien ddu bai ra ta cd he cac phuong trinh bdc 1 sau : + Trong phdn tft MjX cd tdng sd hat (p, n, e) la 140 hat: 2(2Pi+Ni) + 2P2 + N2 =140 (1) + Trong phdn tft M2X sd hat mang dien nhilu hon sd hat khdng mang dien la 44 hat: 4Pi + 2P2 - Ni - N2 = 44 (2) + Sd khd'i cua nguyen tft M ldn hon sd khdi cua nguyen tft X la 23 : (P, + Ni) - (P2 + N2) = 23 (3) 87
  17. + Tdng sd hat (p, n, e) trong nguydn tft M nhilu han trong nguydn tft X la 34 hat: 2Pi + Ni = 2P2 + N2 + 34 (4) Giai he phuofng trinh 4 dn sd, thu dugc : Nguyen td M cd Zi = Pi = 19 Nguyen td X cd Z2 = P2 = 8 Cdu hinh electron nguyen tft cfta cac nguyen td nhu sau + Nguyen tft M la kali vdi cd'u hinh electron : 11 11 mill 11 1111 1 m Is^ 2s^ 2p^ 3s' 3P^ 4s' + Nguyen tft X la oxi vdi cdu hinh electron : 11 I I Is^ 2s^ 2p" Cdng thftc phdn tft cua MjX la K2O. 1.68*. a) Ggi Pj, P2 la sd proton cd trong nguyen tft M va X tuang ftng bdng sd electron cfta hai nguyen tft nay. Ni vd N2 tuang ftng la sd natron trong hat nhdn cua cac nguyen tft M va X. Sft dung cac dilu kien ddu bai ra ta ed he cac phuang trinh bdc 1 sau : + Trong phdn tft MX2 cd M chidm 46,67% vl khd'i lugng : + Trong hat nhdn M sd natron ldn han sd proton 4 hat Ni = Pi + 4 (2) + Trong hat nhdn X cd N2 = P2 (3) + Trong phdn tft MX2 cd tdng sd proton bdng 58 : Pi + 2P2 = 58 (4) Giai he phuang trinh 4 dn sd, thu dugc Pi = 26, Ni = 30 P2 = N2 = 16 Ta cd : A^ = 26 + 30 = 56 (M la Fe) Ax = 16 + 16 = 32 (X la S). b) Cdng thftc phdn tft cua A la FeS2 (pirit sdt). 88
  18. Chuang2 BANG TUAN HOAN CAC NGUYEN TO HOA HOC /?• VA DINH LUAT TUAN HOAN Bai 9 BANG TUAN H O A N C A C NGUYEN TO HOA HOC 2.1. Mdt d nguyen td trong bang tudn hoan gdm cd cac thdng sd va kf hieu sau : Sd hieu nguyen tft, kf hieu nguyen td, ten nguyen td, nguyen tft khd'i (nguyen tft khd'i trung binh cfta nguyen td tren ldp vd Trdi Ddt), do dm dien, cd'u hinh electron. Ngoai ra cdn cd thi cd khdi lugng rieng, nhiet dd sdi, nhiet dd ndng chay, ... Sau ddy la hai thi du vl d nguyen td : S6 hi#u nguySn tur Sd hiSu nguydn tur Nguydn tur khdi Nguydn tuf kh6i K( hl^u Ki hl$u hod hpc hod hoc Bdamdjln cUu hinh electron Cku h'mh electron 2.2. Mdt sd vi trf trong bang tudn hoan trong dd nguyen td dftng trudc cd nguyen tft khd'i trung binh ldn hon nguyen td dftng sau : - Hai nguyen td agon va kali. Nguyen tft khd'i trung binh cua agon bdng 39,948 ldn han 39,098 la nguyen tft khdi trung binh cua kali. Nguyen td K d d sd 19 trong khi dd Ar d sd 18. - Hai nguyen td : Coban d d sd 27 cd nguyen tft khdi trung binh bdng 58,93 ldn hon nguyen tft khd'i trung binh bdng 58,71 cua nguyen td niken d d sd 28. - Nguyen td telu d d sd 52 cd nguyen tft khd'i trung binh bdng 127,6 ldn han 126,9 la nguyen tft khd'i trung binh cua iot d d sd 53. 2.3. Cd thi dinh nghia chu ki la day cac nguyen td ma nguyen tft cua chung cd cung sd ldp electron, dugc xdp theo chiiu tang ddn cua sd electron d vd nguyen tft. 89
  19. So vdi dinh nghia chu ki la mdt day cac nguyen td hod hgc md nguyen tft cua chung cd cung sd ldp electron, dugc sdp xdp theo chiiu didn tich hat nhdn tang dan khdng cd gi khac. Nguydn nhan la do sd dan vi didn tich hat nhan cua nguyen tft bdng sd electron d ldp vd. Vi vay cd thi dinh nghia theo ca hai each. 2.4. Bang tudn hoan chi cd 7 chu ki. Sd nguyen td trong mdi chu ki khdng gidng nhau. Chu ki 1 cd hai nguyen td. Chu ki 2 va 3 cd 8 nguyen td. Ba chu ki nay dugc ggi la cdc chu ki nhd. Cac chu ki 4, 5 cd 18 nguyen td. Chu ki 6 cd 32 nguyen td va chu ki 7 du chua day du nhung se cd 32 nguyen td. Cac chu ki 4, 5, 6, 7 dugc ggi la cdc chu ki ldn. Tdt ca cac chu ki diu kit thuc d mdt nguyen td khf hidm : Chu ki 1 2 3 4 5 6 Khf hiem Heli Neon Agon Kripton Xenon Radon 2.5. Mdi chu ki gdm cac nguyen td cd cung sd ldp electron trong nguyen ttt nen sd thft tu cua chu ki chfnh la sd ldp electron. Chu ki 3 bdt ddu bdng natri (kim loai kilm) va kit thuc bdng khi hidm agon. Sd thft tu eua chu ki bdng 3. Cdc nguyen td cua chu ki 3 cd 3 ldp electron la ldp K, ldp L va ldp M. Ldp K chi cd 2 electron dugc kf hieu la Is . Ldp L cd 8 electron 0 f\ gdm 2 phdn ldp da ddy du la 2s 2p . Ldp thft 3 - ldp M gdm 3 phan ldp : 0 z: 3s 3p va 3d. Vdi cd'u hinh electron 3s 3p cua khf hiem agon, chu ki 3 da ket thftc mac du cdn lai phdn ldp 3d chua cd electron ndo. Chu ki 3 chi co 8 nguyen td ftng vdi sd electron tren ldp thft 3 thay ddi tft 1 ddn 8 hay cdu hinh electron thay ddi tft 3s 3p (d nguyen td natri) ddn 3s 3p (d nguyen to agon). 2.6. Cac nguyen td dugc phan thanh cac khd'i. Khd'i cdc nguyen td s gdm cdc nguyen td nhdm IA (cdn dugc ggi la nhdm kim loai kilm) vd cac nguyen td nhdm IIA (cdn dugc ggi la nhdm kim loai kilm thd). Khd'i cac nguyen td p gdm cac nguyen td cua 6 nhdm, tft nhdm IIIA din nhdm VIIIA (trft He). Cdc nhdm cdn cd ten ggi khdc chang han cdc nguyen td nhdm VIIA dugc ggi la cdc halogen. Khd'i cac nguyen td d gdm cdc nguyen td tft nhdm IB ddn nhdm VIIIB. Khd'i cdc nguyen td f gdm 14 nguyen td thudc hg Lantan vd 14 nguyen td thudc hg Actini. Khd'i nguyen td f dugc xdp rieng thdnh 2 hang ngang d cud'i bang. Hai khd'i nguyen td d vd f cdn dugc ggi la cac nhdm kim loai chuyen tidp. 90
  20. 2.7. Cdn eft vao nguyen tdc xac dinh vi tri cia nguyen td trong bang tudn hoan, ta cd : Nguyen td X d d sd 11 (tdng sd electron =11), chu ki 3 vi cd 3 ldp electron, nhdm A vi electron cud'i cung dugc phdn bd vao phdn ldp 3 s do cd'u hinh electron nguyen tft vilt day du la Is^ 2s^ 2p^ 3s' va d nhdm IA vi sd electron ldp ngoai cung bdng 1. Nguyen td Y cd cd'u hinh electron nguyen tft day du la Is^ 2s^ 2p^ 3s^ 3p^ nen d d sd 17, chu ki 3, nhdm VIIA. Nguyen td Z cd cdu hinh electron nguyen tft ddy du la Is^ 2s^ 2p^ 3s^ 3p^ 4s^ nen d d sd 20, chu ki 4, nhdm IIA. Bai 10 :AU Hlh SUBIEN 001 TUAN H O A N CAU H I N H ELECTRON NGUYEN T(S CUA CAC NGUYEN TO HOA HOC 2.8. Cac nguyen td nhdm A la cac nguyen td cd ca trong cac chu ki nhd va chu ki ldn. Trong nguyen tft cua cdc nguyen td nhdm A, cac electron hod tri tdn tai tren cdc phdn ldp s va p cua cung mdt ldp. Trong mdt chu ki, cac nguyen td thudc nhdm A cd sd electron hod tri thay ddi tft 1 den 8 va diu thudc ldp ngoai cung. Cac nguyen td thugc nhdm B chi cd d cac chu ki ldn. Cac nguyen td thudc nhdm B cd cac electron hod tri tdn tai tren phdn ldp s cua ldp ngoai cung ddng thdi vdi cac electron cua phdn ldp d hodc f thudc ldp ben trong. Nhu vdy, d ldp ngoai cung chi cd tft 1 de'n 2 electron (trft nguyen tft paladi khdng cd electron nao tren phdn ldp s ngoai cung). 2.9. Cdc nguyen td nhdm A va cae nguyen td nhdm B cd cung sd thft tu nhdm chi cd mdt ddc dilm chung la cd thi thi hien hod tri cao nhdt bdng nhau va bdng chfnh so thft tg cua nhdm. Thf du nguyen td cacbon d nhdm IVA va titan d nhdm IVB. Cacbon cd hod tri cao nhd't bdng 4 trong CO2. Trong khi dd titan cung cd hoa tri cao nhdt la 4 trong Ti02. Cd'u hinh electron nguyen tft cua C va Ti khdng gidng nhau. Tfnh chd't vdt li vd hod hgc cua C va Ti khdng cd mdt su tuang tg nao. 91

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