Clear & simple with medical English: Part 1

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  1. 2165_FM_i-xxiv.qxd 12/2/09 10:52 AM Page ii
  2. 2165_FM_i-xxiv.qxd 12/2/09 10:52 AM Page i Medical English Clear and Simple A Practice-Based Approach to English for ESL Healthcare Professionals
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  4. 2165_FM_i-xxiv.qxd 12/2/09 10:52 AM Page iii Medical English Clear and Simple A Practice-Based Approach to English for ESL Healthcare Professionals Melodie Hull, RPN, MSc, MEd (TESOL), BA, PID Nursing Faculty College of the Rockies Cranbrook, British Columbia, Canada Nursing Tutor, Distance Education, Transitions to Nursing and Health Program Thompson Rivers University Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada International Adviser to the Department of Languages International University of Business, Agriculture, and Technology Dhaka, Bangladesh Nurse-Educator and Consultant Clayton International Consulting Cranbrook, BC, Canada
  5. 2165_FM_i-xxiv.qxd 12/2/09 10:52 AM Page iv F.A. Davis Company 1915 Arch Street Philadelphia, PA 19103 Copyright © 2010 by F.A. Davis Company Copyright © 2010 by F.A. Davis Company. All rights reserved. This book is protected by copyright. No part of it may be repro- duced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, record- ing, or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher. Printed in the United States of America Last digit indicates print number: 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Acquisitions Editor: Jonathan Joyce Director of Content Development: Darlene D. Pedersen Senior Project Editor: Padraic J. Maroney Design and Illustrations Manager: Carolyn O’Brien As new scientific information becomes available through basic and clinical research, recommended treatments and drug therapies undergo changes. The author(s) and publisher have done everything possible to make this book accurate, up to date, and in accord with accepted standards at the time of publication. The author(s), editors, and publisher are not responsible for errors or omissions or for consequences from application of the book, and make no warranty, expressed or implied, in regard to the con- tents of the book. Any practice described in this book should be applied by the reader in accordance with professional standards of care used in regard to the unique circumstances that may apply in each situation. The reader is advised always to check prod- uct information (package inserts) for changes and new information regarding dose and contraindications before administering any drug. Caution is especially urged when using new or infrequently ordered drugs. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Hull, Melodie. Medical English clear and simple: a practice based approach to English for ESL healthcare professionals/Melodie Hull. p.; cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-8036-2165-7 (alk. paper) 1. Readers—Medicine. 2. English language—Conversation and phrase books (for medical personnel) 3. English language—Textbooks for foreign speakers. 4. Medical personnel, Foreign—United States. I. Title. [DNLM: 1. Terminology as Topic—Problems and Exercises. 2. Communication—Problems and Exercises. 3. Language—Problems and Exercises. W 18.2 H913m 2010] PE1127. M4H85 2010 428.6'402461—dc22 2009042818 Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of specific clients, is granted by F.A. Davis Company for users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) Transactional Reporting Service, pro- vided that the fee of $.25 per copy is paid directly to CCC, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923. For those organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. The fee code for users of the Transactional Reporting Service is: 8036-2165-7/10 0 + $.25.
  6. 2165_FM_i-xxiv.qxd 12/2/09 10:52 AM Page v This book is dedicated to two very important and influential people in my life: My very good friend, Patty Sangri, of the Universidad Tecnologica de Cancun, who gave me my first job in English for Specific Purposes and who opened this whole new world to me. My wonderful husband, Steven, whose unwavering love and faith in me, as well as his incredible patience and support, has made this book possible. THANK YOU
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  8. 2165_FM_i-xxiv.qxd 12/2/09 10:52 AM Page vii FOREWORD I met Melodie Hull, the author of this book, in 2006 when we all attended the International Sym- posium on English for Medical Purposes in Beijing, China. As one of the keynote speakers, she roused my attention when I read her research abstract. It offered a brief overview of literature on how the actual goals of the curriculum of English for Medical Purposes are defined. In the sym- posium, her speech was a great success and provided all the researchers, especially Chinese re- searchers, in the medical English field opportunity for critical thought regarding current curricu- lum design. In addition, her wit, her wealth of knowledge and experience, and her enthusiasm for the medical English field impressed all the attendees. In the following years, we have kept in touch with each other. I have gradually come to know many of her works, all of which are greatly applicable and in great demand. On behalf of all Chinese medical English researchers, I genuinely appreciate what Melodie has done and will do in this field. Medical English Clear and Simple is designed to help learners of medical English at an advanced level. The intended readers are medical and medical English students, medical professionals, and those involved in the medical field who have a strong desire to improve their medical English. This book guides readers through eight main sections, enabling them to explore and develop skills within certain systems or medical fields. Each unit enables readers to engage more actively with medical matter or content and encourages them to develop their own skills in medical English reading, listening, speaking, and writing. Throughout the book, topics are extended, interwoven, and deconstructed, with the readers’ understanding strengthened by tasks and follow-up questions. For the learners to take full advantage of the material, the book has included what the author be- lieves is most needed by them. Exercises and learning activities offer language-learning conditions that enrich their communicative competence and skills within the context of their careers. Written by an experienced researcher in the field, Medical English Clear and Simple is an essential resource for students and researchers of medical English. I, Xie Yu, sincerely wish that by reading and using this book, you will have a pleasant and instructive experience in improving your medical English. Xie Yu, MA English for Medical Purposes Lecture Capital Medical University Beijing, PRC Congratulations on the publication of this important book. Melodie Hull is a friend, colleague, and previous employee. While teaching nursing full time at a local university college, she worked as a staff nurse part time in one of my mental health care facilities. As I got to know her, I discovered her interest in teaching English for nursing and med- ical purposes. Her approach to the subject was (and is) quite unique. Her vision of the need for functional, career-specific English for health professionals is commendable and one which I share. This book does just that! I, like Melodie, appreciate the need for nurses or doctors to be in- volved in the creation and design of this type of material and coursework and have always sup- ported her in her endeavors to fill this need. We agree that English for Medical Purposes materi- als should be based in the context of the health professions at all times. Melodie is committed to best practices in health care and realizes that language skills and competencies play an enormous role in the delivery of safe, ethical, and professional care. Indeed, she believes this so strongly that beyond nursing, she has added a graduate degree in TESOL to her credentials to ensure her ma- terial is well-grounded in theory and practice. Medical English Clear and Simple is a comprehensive introduction to the language of the health professions. In my opinion, it is well suited to the needs of international medical graduates who wish to complete a residency in Canada, the USA, or to work in an English-speaking milieu eventually. It is also well suited for internationally educated nurses and nursing students whose vii
  9. 2165_FM_i-xxiv.qxd 12/2/09 10:52 AM Page viii first language is not English. The text offers essential terminology for working with colleagues and patients, but it does more than that: the communication focus is paramount for career suc- cess in an English-speaking country. This book accomplishes that. Ronald I. Wong BS, MD Family Physician, registered in Vancouver BC, Canada, and Kingston, Jamaica Graduate University of British Columbia Medical School Internship at King’s County Hospital, Brooklyn, New York Family Practice Residency, Good Samaritan Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio, and Ravenna General Hospital, Ravenna, Ohio, USA This is no ordinary text. Melodie Hull’s years of experience in international nursing, education, and theater arts provide an innovative approach to English-based medical terminology. The au- thor’s expertise in this area is evident in the selection of content and sequencing of tasks, but it is the love of learners and the desire to see them succeed that shines in the gentle, down-to-earth guidance included in the learning activities. By incorporating activities that address the various senses, the author taps into different learning styles and preferences, rather than relying solely on pronunciation and memorization. Her appreciation for the learner’s need to feel confident comes through in the design of activities that engage the adult in using new terms in a variety of contexts. Upon completion of this text, a learner can go to the workplace knowing he or she will effectively use medical terminology in verbal and nonverbal communications. This is the text that I wish I had written myself. Sharon L. Andersen, RN, BSN, MSN, MEd, EdD Clinical Nurse Specialist in Adult Mental Health Proprietor, Crone’s Nest Educational Consultants Retired Nursing Instructor, Kwantlen Polytechnic University and University of British Columbia, Canada Having used a previous book by Melodie Hull, I was honored to have been asked to write this foreword for the new textbook that she has written. This new work is a comprehensive book de- signed for non-native English-speaking students in health-care programs. Medical English Clear and Simple fulfills a need since it is health care oriented, but ESL/EFL accessible. As there are more and more non-native speakers of English medical professionals in the USA, the need for such a book has become critical. Medical English Clear and Simple assists students toward success in health- care programs by providing opportunities for reading, writing, speaking, and listening within their health-care career. It provides ample opportunities to apply what has been learned and helps students build their health-care related vocabulary. Medical English Clear and Simple is a useful resource as a communication teaching tool for in- structors in the health-care field and as a refresher or a professional development course for international health-care professionals. Melodie Hull has achieved her purpose of providing a valuable resource for health-care stu- dents or professionals who are of non-English speaking backgrounds. Medical English Clear and Simple is the answer to the needs of health-care or ESL/EFL instructors who are looking for a comprehensive book that will help their students improve their health-related language skills. Barbara Jonckheere Lecturer/Academic Senate Representative American Language Institute University College and Extension Services California State University, Long Beach In Medical English Clear and Simple, Melodie Hull has presented a practical step-by-step guide for learning career-specific English with a communication focus. The guide is a valuable resource, especially for students in health studies programs and health professionals who are of non-English speaking backgrounds. viii Foreword
  10. 2165_FM_i-xxiv.qxd 12/2/09 10:52 AM Page ix In reviewing the draft copy of the Annotated Table of Contents and the Introduction, as well as a discussion about the book with the author, I have come to appreciate the communicative focus of the text, integration of cultural concepts of health and wellness, and opportunity for crit- ical thinking through exercises provided in the book. The content is organized in eight units using a medical systems format that is familiar to inter- nationally educated health professionals. Having my basic nursing education (BScN) from India and 40 years of experience in nursing education as a teacher and an administrator in Canada has given me the understanding and appreciation of the value of meaningful and effective verbal and written communication skills for health professionals. The author’s approach to a workbook for- mat in the book provides opportunity for learning to communicate English within the context of the health-care system. I recommend this book to students in health studies programs who are of non-English speak- ing backgrounds and foreign-educated health professionals. Chinnama Baines, RN, BScN (CMC, Madras, India), MScN (UBC, Canada), PhD (GU, MO, USA) Nursing Education Consultant (Retired Dean of School of Nursing, UCC (Thompson Rivers University), Kamloops, BC, Canada Foreword ix
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  12. 2165_FM_i-xxiv.qxd 12/2/09 10:52 AM Page xi REVIEWERS Reneé T. Burwell, ASN, BSN, MSEd, EdD Aprille Haynie, MSN, RN Coordinator of Health Science Programs Evaluation Committee Chairperson, Advanced Charlotte Technical Center Medical-Surgical Nursing and Nursing Port Charlotte, Florida Leadership Course Coordinator Huron School of Nursing Susan C. Engle, RN, MSN East Cleveland, Ohio Medical-Surgical Nursing Instructor Napa Valley College Marlene Rogers Hancock, RN, MSN Napa, California Instructor Lane Community College Nancy J. Gay, RN, BSN Eugene, Oregon Instructor, Nurse Aide Training Program Pickens Technical College Anita L. Huse, RN, MSN, EdD Aurora, Colorado Nurse Educator and Owner Huse Healthcare Educational Consultants Deborah S. Gilbert, MBA, EdS, RHIM Londonderry, New Hampshire Associate Professor of Office Administration (Medical Assisting and Medical Transcription) Jule B. Monnens, RN, MSN Dalton State College Program Director, Nursing Dalton, Georgia Community College of Denver Denver, Colorado Jacqueline Guhde, MSN, RN, CNS Assistant Professor of Clinical Nursing Sharon Moore, RN, BSN, Graduate The University of Akron College of Nursing Certificate in Nursing Education,Certified Akron, Ohio Medical-Surgical Registered Nurse Practical Nursing Program Coordinator Deborah B. Hadley, RN, MSN, CNOR Forsyth Technical Community College Nursing Instructor Winston-Salem, North Carolina Alcorn State University Natchez, Mississippi Tara L. Narcross, PhD Coordinator, Language Institute and Basic Sharyn Haran, Med English Department Instructor, Business and Office Occupations Columbus State Community College (Business and Allied Health; Medical Office Columbus, Ohio Clerk Program) South Seattle Community College Cindy Neely, MSN, RN Seattle, Washington Nursing Campus Clinical Laboratory Coordi- nator and Professor of Nursing Sharon Harris-Pelliccia, Registered Physician Oklahoma City Community College Assistant, Board Certified, BS Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Department Chair, Medical Studies Mildred Elley Diane O’Hara, BSN, MS, EdD Latham, New York Healthcare Services Specialist Erie 2–Chataqua-Cattaragus BOCES School of Joanne Hartzell, Certified Professional Practical Nursing Coder, BS Derby, New York Director Practical Nursing Lanier Technical College-Forsyth Cumming, Georgia xi
  13. 2165_FM_i-xxiv.qxd 12/2/09 10:52 AM Page xii Martha Olson, RN, BSN, MS Karen Moore Schaefer, PhD, RN Nursing Instructor and Assistant Professor Interim Chair Designee/Associate Chair Iowa Lakes Community College Temple University Department of Nursing Emmetsburg, Iowa Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Christine Ouellette, RN, MS, GNP, BC Delores Lori Stephens, MN, RN, CLNC Adjunct Faculty Nursing Faculty Quincy College Skagit Valley College Quincy, Massachusetts Mount Vernon, Washington Denise Pelletier, RN, MSN Thelma Allen Stich, PhD, RN Nursing Instructor President and Owner Montachusett Regional Vocational Student Nurse Coach LLC Technical School Staten Island, New York Fitchburg, Massachusetts Esperanza Villanueva-Joyce, BSN, MSN, EdD, RN Carla E. Randall, RN, PhD Associate Dean for Academics Assistant Professor of Nursing The University of Texas at El Paso University of Southern Maine El Paso, Texas Lewiston, Maine Judith Webb, MS, Adult NP-BC, Palliative Dana Reeves, MSN Care NP-BC Assistant Professor, BSN Program Clinical Instructor, Nursing University of Arkansas–Fort Smith SUNY Institute of Technology Fort Smith, Arizona Utica, New York Debra L. Renna, MSN, CCRN Carol S. Yoder, MSN, RN Clinical Assistant Professor, Nursing ESL Advisor, Nursing and Allied Health Florida International University Norwalk Community College North Miami, Florida Norwalk, Connecticut xii Reviewers
  14. 2165_FM_i-xxiv.qxd 12/2/09 10:52 AM Page xiii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS It is with pleasure that I take a moment here to acknowledge people who have been significant influences on my work. First, I want to honor Dr. Sharon Andersen, my friend, colleague, and mentor who taught me so much about writing nursing degrees, curricula, and courses. I can’t thank her enough. She is truly my hero. A very special thanks to Jonathan Joyce, Acquisitions Editor at F.A. Davis who first approached me about my work with English for nurses and med- ical professionals. His openness to a new paradigm for teaching career-specific language and his understanding of the need for this book have been instrumental in the development of the final product. He saw my vision and ran with it. I am forever grateful. Also at F.A. Davis, I want to say thank you to Padraic Maroney, Senior Project Manager, whose valuable guidance and great sense of humor made completion of the manuscript a pleasure. And thank you to Barbara Tchabovsky, Development Editor, for all her work, including those grammar and accuracy checks for both English and Medicine. Thank you also for her patience and ability to make sense of my writing and ideas. Incredible work!    Melodie Hull, Author xiii
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  16. 2165_FM_i-xxiv.qxd 12/2/09 10:52 AM Page xv CONTENTS 1 Introduction to American and Canadian Health Care and Cultural Concepts of Health and Wellness 1 Concepts of Health and Wellness 1 Perspectives on Health Care in the New Millennium 1 Health Is a State of Optimal Well-Being 7 Professional Caring 10 Professional Caring 10 Holistic Care 13 Health-Care Professionals: Members of the Health-Care Team 16 Professional Caring: History Taking and the Illness Experience 20 The Drugstore 24 Drugstores and Pharmacists 24 Filling a Prescription 28 Writing a Medication Order 33 Calling the Doctor’s Office 35 Phone Call to a Doctor’s Office 35 2 The Musculoskeletal System 53 Anatomy and Physiology 53 Organization of the Body 53 The Musculoskeletal System 57 Body Movement, Posture, Gait, Ambulation, and Position 63 Bones and More 63 Joints 68 Treatments, Interventions, and Assistance 74 Use of Emergency Rooms 74 A Visit to the Walk-In Clinic 79 3 The Cardiovascular System 93 Anatomy and Physiology 93 North American Health Concepts 93 The Cardiovascular System or Circulatory System? 96 Assessing Function and Failure of the Cardiovascular/ Circulatory System 99 Physiology of the Pulse 99 Blood Pressure 104 xv
  17. 2165_FM_i-xxiv.qxd 12/2/09 10:52 AM Page xvi Congestive Heart Failure 107 Angina and Myocardial Infarction 113 Treatment, Interventions, and Assistance 115 Calling 911 for Help 116 Angina 120 Head-to-Toe Assessment 125 Admission to the Emergency Department 127 4 The Respiratory System 141 Anatomy and Physiology 141 The Purpose of the Respiratory System 141 Anatomy and Physiology of the Lung 144 Common Disorders and Diseases of the Respiratory System 147 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 148 Acute Bronchitis and Asthma 152 More About the Lungs and Respiratory System 155 Lung Cancer and Demographics 158 Treatments, Interventions, and Assistance 161 Respiratory Symptoms 161 Making a Simple Diagnosis 165 Lack of Oxygen 168 5 The Gastrointestinal System 185 Anatomy and Physiology 185 The Gastrointestinal System 185 Nutrients 193 The Process of Elimination 195 Common Complaints of the Gastrointestinal/Digestive System 198 Assessment and Pathology of the GI Tract 198 Constipation 203 Treatments, Interventions, and Assistance: Food Safety and Stomach and Bowel Upset 206 Case Studies 206 Pharmacology for Treatment of Disorders of the Gastrointestinal System 210 Food Safety and Food Poisoning 213 6 The Neurological System 231 Anatomy and Physiology 231 The Nervous System 231 Divisions of the Neurological System 237 The Brain 241 xvi Contents
  18. 2165_FM_i-xxiv.qxd 12/2/09 10:52 AM Page xvii Common Complaints and Disorders of the Neurological System 245 Potential Causes of Neurological Dysfunction 246 Pain and Headaches 250 Epilepsy 254 Treatments, Interventions, and Assistance 258 Head Injuries 258 Cerebrovascular Accident 263 Diagnostic Tool: Pain Scales 267 7 Wounds, Viral and Bacterial Infections 283 Pathophysiology 283 Wounds 284 Some Disease-Causing Microorganisms: Viruses and Bacteria 289 Common Disorders and Diseases 293 Decubitus Ulcers 293 Common Viral Diseases 299 A Common Bacterial Infection: Tuberculosis 305 Treatments, Interventions, and Assistance 310 Chain of Infection and Infection Control 310 Wound Healing 315 8 Pharmacology and Medication Administration 337 Pharmacology, Pharmacodynamics, and Pharmacokinetics 337 All Things Pharmacological 337 Side Effects or Adverse Effects? 345 Abstract 351 Safety and Accuracy in Medication Administration 355 Medication Administration: Safe Practice Strategies 355 Protection from Medication Errors: Preventative Action 362 Interpretation of Medication Orders Depends on Interpretation of Career-Specific Abbreviations 367 Treatments, Interventions, and Assistance 373 Treatments Involving Medications 373 Interventions with Medications 376 Assistance with Medication Administration 379 Contents xvii
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