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Summary of Geography doctoral dissertation: Analyzing structure and function of landscape for the orientation of rational use of the territory of Ma river basin (the part belong to Thanh Hoa province)

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Summary of Geography doctoral dissertation: Analyzing structure and function of landscape for the orientation of rational use of the territory of Ma river basin (the part belong to Thanh Hoa province)

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Clarifying structural features, functions and differentiation of landscape thereby determines the law of in Ma river basin, Thanh Hoa province; establishing a scientific basis for rational use of landscape units for agricultural and forestry development purposes, contributing to the orientation of rational use of the territory of the Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province.

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  1. 1 MINISTRY OF EDUCATION VIETNAM ACADEMY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY GRADUATE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ----------------------------- VU VAN DUAN Analyzing structure and function of landscape for the orientation of rational use of the territory of Ma river basin (the part belong to Thanh Hoa province) Major: Physical Geography Code: 9.44.02.17 SUMMARY OF GEOGRAPHY DOCTORAL DISSERTATION HA NOI - 2020
  2. 2 The dissertation has been completed at: Graduate University Science and Technology - Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology Science advisor 1: Dr.Phil. Pham The Vinh Science advisor 2: Assoc. Prof, Dr.Sc. Nguyen Van Cu Reviewer 1: ………………………………………………….. Reviewer 2: ………………………………………………….. Reviewer 3: ………………………………………………….. The thesis will be defended in Doctoral Committee, organized at: - Location: Graduate University Science and Technology -Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology - Time: The dissertation can be found at: - Library of Graduate University Science and Technology - National Library of Vietnam
  3. 1 INTRODUCTION 1. The urgency of the study Reasonable use of territory means effective use of natural and socio-economic resources, suitable to the inherent potential of the territory, ensuring socio-economic development and environmental protection in a sustainable manner. There have been many views and approaches to solve this problem, including the views and approaches of Geography. From the perspective of general physical geography, in order to establish the scientific basis for solving the above problem, we must first grasp the laws of territorial division by research and analysis of landscape structure and function on the territory. Study landscape structure including vertical structure, horizontal structure and dynamic structure. By analyzing landscape structure, it is possible to identify the natural and socio-economic potentials, thereby defining the functions of landscape units to propose solutions for rational use of territory. Although there have been many studies that analyze landscape structure and function on different territorial scales, the resear in this direction applied on the river basin are still relatively few in number. Therefore, many theoretical and methodological issues need to be resolved to draw from the researches. For example, is there any difference between the classification and zoning landscape system along river basin and the classification and zoning landscape system by administrative units, what is the difference of the viewpoint of rational use of territory by river basin, to add to the theory as well as methods of landscape research according to the theory of "closed geographical system". The Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province is a transnational basin, with about two thirds of the basin belongs to the Lao People's Democratic Republic. The Ma river basin part in Thanh Hoa province is located from 19o18’N to 20o40’N and from 104o22’E to 106o04’E, with the area of 1.061.000 ha, accounts for 1/3 of the total natural area of Ma river basis and above 95% of the natural area of Thanh Hoa province, bordering the Gulf of Tonkin with the length of about 102 km. In such a geographic location, the Ma river basin of Thanh Hoa province has a transitional climate between Northern and Central Vietnam. It is also a place of exchange of migratory flows of plants and animals in the world with native plants and animals. With specific natural conditions, the research territory has abundant natural resources that facilitate the development of various economic activity, especially in the field of agriculture and forestry. Although there is great potential, the actual production has not matched the potential, agricultural and forestry production activities still have many shortcomings. In addition, there have been problems such as floods, droughts, slides, landslides, degraded resources, etc. There are many reasons for this situation, but the main reason is that due to the lack of scientific data, the management, exploitation and use of natural resources for economic development in general, agriculture and forestry in particular still remain drawbacks and are not commensurate with the potential. Especially in planning sectors only pay attention to the interests of each sector but not to the overall benefits, leading to conflicts and waste in using resources. Not yet fully promoting comparative advantages of the research territory.
  4. 2 Therefore, in view of the analysis of landscape structure and function, it will reconcile the internal contradictions of the territory, also provides an overview of the potential of natural conditions and resources; from that, we can find the natural law and promote the strengths and potentials of the Ma river basin. From theoretical as well as practical issues, the researcher choose the topic “Analyzing structure and function of landscape for the orientation of rational use of the territory of Ma river basin (the part belong to Thanh Hoa province); hoping that it will contribute a small part in the scientific basis for the rational use of natural resources and environmental protection of the research territory. 2. Aim and research mission 2.1. Aim - Clarifying structural features, functions and differentiation of landscape thereby determines the law of in Ma river basin, Thanh Hoa province. - Establishing a scientific basis for rational use of landscape units for agricultural and forestry development purposes, contributing to the orientation of rational use of the territory of the Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province. 2.2. Mission - Overview of literature on the study of landscape structure and function and landscape research along river basins. Collecting, analyzing and systematizing document on the natural and socio-economic conditions of the research territory. - Studying the components of landscape formation and the relationship of the components to the formation of landscape units. - Establishing a landscape map, landscape zoning map, rational land use orientation map for agriculture and forestry development at the ratio of 1:100.000 for the whole basin, to reflect the territorial division rule. Analyzing the relationship between landscape structure and landscape function, thereby establishing a scientific basis for the development of economic sectors in the research territory. - Proposing orientations for rational use of the territory of Ma river basin, Thanh Hoa province. 3. Scope of the study 3.1. Spatial limitation The land area of Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province is 1,061,000 ha. 3.2. Scientific limitation - Approaching to theory of structural and functional landscape analysis according to river basins. - Limiting the scope of rational use of the territory of the Ma River basin in Thanh Hoa province for the development of agro-forestry economy (food crops group; fruit tree group; annual industrial crops group; forestry includes: production forests and protection forests). 4. Protected points - The diversity of structure and functions of landscape of the Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province is a combined result of the differentiation and interaction among the landscape forming components that created the system of landscape units with rich and diverse natural potential.
  5. 3 - The results of analyzing the landscape structure and functions as well as the current status of territorial exploitation and socio-economic development orientation to 2020 and a vision to 2030 are the scientific basic for proposing the development orientation of agriculture and forestry in Ma river basin, Thanh Hoa province. 5. The new points of the thesis - Building up a typical classification system and landscape map at the ratio of 1: 100,000 and analyzing the landscape structure and functions of Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province - Assessing landscape and development orientation of agriculture and forestry according to landscape and sub-region landscape of Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province. 6. Scientific and practical significance 6.1. Scientidic significance - The results of the study clarify the law of landscape differentiation and the diversity and division of landscape units in the monsoon tropical conditions of Vietnam in general, and natural division in Ma river basin in particular. - Contributing to complete the theoretical basis of structure and function landscape analysis according to river basins for the rational use of territory. 6.2. Practical significance - Proposing the rational use of the territory of Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province. 7. Document basis - Database of base maps and thematic maps: topographic maps, geological maps, maps of current status and planning of forests, maps of soil and status quo of land use. - Studies, projects, scientific reports on the investigation of natural conditions, natural resources and environment. Statistical yearbook of Thanh Hoa province for the period 2010-2016. - 01 research at the University level of the author related to thesis. - Recordings, observations, analyses, photographs and films by the author from field trips from 2014 to present. 8. Structure of the thesis The dissertation is presented in writing. In addition to the introduction and conclusion, references and appendix; the thesis content was presented into 3 chapters, with 141 typed pages in A4 size, 37 pictures (including charts, maps, diagrams), 54 tables of data, 12 published works of the researcher related to the dissertation and list of 84 references in Vietnamese and foreign languages.
  6. 4 CHAPTER 1 THEORETICAL BASES AND METHODOLOGY OF STUDYING LANDSCAPE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION FOR THE ORIENTATION OF RATIONAL USE OF MA RIVER BASIN, THANH HOA PROVINCE 1.1. Overview of related works 1.1.1. Studying landscape for rational use of territory in the world The end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century was considered as the foundation period for the formation of landscape concept with many studies of authors from various schools, from Russian and Eastern European schools to Western and North American landscape studies. In which, there is a landscape theory founded by Russian scientist L.S. Berg with the premise based on the theory of V.V. Docutraev. Each school has its own research features with many valuable scientific works, but they were all geared towards rational use of natural resources and territory. The study of landscape was developed in different directions. Applied landscape research for the purpose of territorial organization is a strong direction of Russian and Eastern European landscape researchers. Studying landscape in the direction of landscape structure and function has been carried out by Western European - North America geographers, contribute to the complement and perfection of concepts and principles of quantitative approaches. 1.1.2. Studying landscape for rational use of territory in Vietnam Studying landscape in Vietnam has been actually developed in the second half of the twentieth century. The pioneers were Nguyen Duc Chinh and Vu Tu Lap, who published "Vietnam physical Geography" (1963). In 1976, Vu Tu Lap continued to publish "Geographic landscape of North Vietnam". Landscape research and assessment for the purpose of sustainable development of the territory has become more and more interested. In which, typical researchers are: Le Ba Thao, Pham Hoang Hai, Pham Quang Anh, Nguyen Cao Huong, Pham The Vinh, Truong Quang Hai, Nguyen Van Vinh, Lai Vinh Cam, ... Thus, territorial planning is a general study of natural and human conditions to allocate space for economic development of each region and territory in line with its potentials and strengths. The scientific basis of territorial planning study is landscape research and assessment for each specific region with appropriate levels. 1.1.3. Studies in Ma River basin, Thanh Hoa province related to thesis The natural components of Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province have been mentioned in many physical geological studies in Vietnam such as “Vietnam physical Geography" (1963) of Nguyen Duc Chinh and Vu Tu Lap, Syllabus of Physical Geography of Vietnam 2 (area section) of Dang Duy Loi. Most recently, Pham Hoang Hai and nnk conducted the project (1990) “Establishing an ecological landscape map of Thanh Hoa province at the ratio of 1: 200,000 based on using remote sensing data“. In addition, there are researches of general natural and socio-economic conditions such as Thanh Hoa Monograph, volume 1 (2006), Thanh Hoa Geography (2002) of Assoc. Prof Le Van Truong. In short, each work comes from different approaches and practical requirements;
  7. 5 however, there is lack of outstanding and specialized studies about general geography and landscape in Ma river basin of Thanh Hoa province. 1.2. Theoretical basis of landscape research serve the orientation of rational use of territory 1.2.1. Landscape A.G. Ixatsenko again defined that “Landscape is a separate part in terms of generation of a part of a landscape, a landscape zone or any large zoning unit, characterized by the homogeneous correlation of the zonal and non-zonal laws, has a separate structure and a separate morphological structure ” 1.2.2. Landscape classification Regarding to the classification system of foreign authors, the author has consulted three classification systems of Soviet landscape researchers: - Landscape classification system of A.G.Ixatsenko (1961) includes 8 levels: type group  type  subtype  class  subclass  kind  subkind  species. - Landscape classification system of N.A.Gvozdeki (1961) includes 5 levels: class  type  subtype  group  kind. - Landscape classification system of Nhikolaiev (1966) includes 12 levels, applying for plain landscape research: system subsytem  class  subclass  group  type  subtype  species  subspecies  kind subkind. In Vietnam the classification system has been studied in detail as: - For instance, Northern Vietnam's natural division system consists of 5 levels: territory  province  district  sub – district  region, based on the azonal perspective of V.M.Fridlan (1961). - The authors Nguyen Duc Chinh and Vu Tu Lap (1962) divided Vietnam geography into six levels: zone  country  area  district  region  site. - The landscape classification system of Vu Tu Lap, which including 8 levels: system class  subclass  group  type  kind  species  sort. Since 1980, many researchers have studied the landscape of Vietnamese territory and have introduced different classification systems such as Pham Quang Anh, Nguyen Thanh Long, Nguyen Van Vinh, Pham Hoang Hai, Nguyen Ngọc Khanh, Nguyen Trong Tien, Pham The Vinh, etc. The study of these works shows that the authors usually use levels from system, subsystem, class, subclass, type, subtype, kind, species and some other low supplemental levels depending on the territory and purpose. The author have inherited the principle and construction method of indicators at each classification level of the above - mentioned researchers at several levels such as system, subsystem, according to the zonal and azonal distribution in the landscape classification system of Vietnam of Pham Hoang Hai and et al (1997). At levels: class, subclass, type, kind and species, the author selected the classification criteria based on the specific formation elements of the territory. 1.2.3. Landscape map A landscape map is a general map that fully and objectively reflects the characteristics of nature, relationships and reciprocal impacts among natural components.
  8. 6 1.2.4. Landscape diversity According to А.I. Bacca and V.О.Mokiev (1997): Landscape diversity is the representation of manifold information of an individual or a group on micro-terrain that external manifestation is the interaction of nature with the human and the impact of the natural elements themselves. Landscape researchers W.H.Romme and D.H.Knight (1982) defined landscape diversity is: the demonstration of the diversity of plant communities forming the vegetation cover of a land unit, ... landscape diversity is the result of two particular mosaic vegetation structures, ... and the structure of disturbance factors and restoration elements in biomes. Landscape diversity research should be based on a systematic approach viepoint, consider an area of any size as a clearly structured system and depend on natural geographic aggregates. 1.2.5. Landscape structure Kalexnik (1978) defined: Landscape structure is the organization of the constituent parts in space and the temporal adjustment (referred as the temporal and spatial structure of the geography). The concept of landscape structure contains a sense of spatial structure (including vertical structure and horizontal structure) and temporal structure. 1.2.6. Landscape function Landscape function “is a combination of the processes of exchange and transformation of matter and energy in a landscape” (A.G.Ixatsenko); “is the flow of energy, mineral nutrients and creatures among landscape elements, ... or the process of discrete piece interaction - the background” (Forman.R.T, Godron.M 1986). In the direction of value, the landscape function is defined as “the capacity of processes, natural elements to provide goods to meet the direct or indirect needs of human” (De Groot, 1992). Most landscape researchers agree that the landscape has two basic functional groups: natural function and socio-economic function. 1.2.7. Landscape assessment General concept of assessing ecological adaptation of landscapes: ecological adaptation assessment of landscape is understood as the implementation of the tactics and steps to implement the content of research to classify the general landscape according to the degree of their adaptation to one or more territorial uses. 1.2.8. Territorial organization Territorial organization “is the arrangement and coordination of objects in interdisciplinary and multi-territory relationships within a particular region to make reasonable use of natural potentials, labor, geographical location and technical facilities to bring about high efficiency and raise the living standard of the area”. Territorial organization for rational use of territory should ensure the following principles: satisfying the needs of natural ability and social needs; ensuring benefits to the community and achieving high efficiency; ensuring suitability with the level of human resources and scientific and technological level; building nuclear zones to create economic attractiveness.
  9. 7 1.2.9. Landscape partition principles Morphological principle; Relative homogeneity principle; Generality principle; Territorial integrity principle 1.3. Rational use of the territory on the basis of general river basin management 1.3.1. In the world The study of rational use of territory along river basins has been carried out in many countries in the world such as USA, UK, France, Australia, Japan,... 1.3.2. In Vietnam In 1959, the Government established the Red River Water Management Commission with the main task is to plan the integrated use of water resources and other related resources. Since 1978, Vietnam joined the Mekong River Provisional Commission and in 1995 joined Mekong International Commission. In 1992, Vietnam participated in the International Conference on Water and Environment in Dublin and discussed many issues related to integrated river basin management. In 1993, the Government implemented the compilation and approval of general plans for socio - economic development of the Mekong River Delta and the Red River Delta. So far, the research direction of general river basin management has been studied by Vietnamese scientists such as Nguyen Van Cu, Ngo Dinh Tuan, Nguyen Quang Trung, Nguyen Trong Sinh, Vu Van Tuan, etc, and agencies such as Department of Irrigation, Institute of Geography, Irrigation Association, Hanoi National University and Ho Chi Minh National University. 1.3.3. The territory of river basin River basin “is the geographic area in which the surface water, the underground water flows naturally into the river”. The boundary of a river basin is the watershed on the surface and underground. - Rational use of territory along river basin - Rational use of the territory of Ma river basin Ma river basin is a unified geographic entity in which natural elements such as geology, soil, terrain, climate and vegetation interact to each other by the material and energy cycle. This interaction forms an integral and unified entity in the whole river basin. This is a fundamental issue of the research methodology of exploitation and rational use of river basins in view of sustainable development. The thesis has chosen the method of analyzing the structure and function of the landscape in order to make rational use of the Ma river basin. This is the direction of researching general physical geography for optimal results, mobilizing natural potential and protecting the environment from the viewpoint of sustainable development. 1.4. Viewpoint, methodology and processes of the study 1.4.1. Study viewpoint The thesis applied the following viewpoints: general viewpoint, territorial viewpoint, systematic viewpoint, historical – hypermetropic viewpoint and sustainable development viewpoint. 1.4.2. Methodology The thesis used the following methodologies: collecting, processing and
  10. 8 generalizing data method; investigation and field-work method; researching and assessing landscape method; GIS and cartographic method; Analytic Hierarchy Process and professional method. 1.4.3. Study process Stage 1: Identifying objectives and methodological framework for accessing research content. Stage 2: consists of two major contents: landscape analysis and landscape assessment for practical purposes. Stage 3: Orientation for rational use of Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province. CHAPTER 2 LANDSCAPE FEATURES OF MA RIVER BASIN THANH HOA PROVINCE 2.1. Components, elements that forming landscape 2.1.1. Features of components, natural elements in landscape formation a. Geographical location Ma River basin of Thanh Hoa province is the territory of the North Central region, the transitional zone between the North and the Central with the geographical co-ordinate from 20040’N to 19018’N and from 106004’E to 104022’E. It borders Da river and Boi river basin (Son La, Hoa Binh, Ninh Binh) in the North; Hieu river and Yen River basin and Nghe An Province in the South; the South China Sea in the East; the Mekong river basin of Hua Phan Province of the Lao PDR is in the West. Geographic location is favorable for economic and socio-cultural development. This position has determined the characteristics and complex division of natural conditions and natural resources combined with the laws of typical tropical monsoon moist climate of the Ma river basin of Thanh Hoa province. b. Geological characteristics Ma river basin of Thanh Hoa province has undergone a long geological history. Endogenous processes: creating mountains, volcanoes, earthquakes, etc., causing uneven terrain and forming magma and metamorphic rocks. Exogenous processes: weathering rock, impact of water, wind, etc., altered terrain and create sedimentary rock. In addition, faults in the territory also have a significant impact on the changes of the geological environment of the territory. The long geological and tectonic process created a solid foundation for the formation of the landscape. The main fault line runs northwest-southeast, the depressions have decided the structure of the terrain and direction of material transportation, the basis of differentiation of the research territory. c. Topography and geomorphology The terrain is quite complex, much divided and lower towards the east-west direction. From the west to the east there are mountainous, midland, plain and coastal terrain. In the total area of 1.061.000 ha, mountainous and hilly terrain accounts for 73.3%; plain occupies 16% and 10.7% is coastal area. The geomorphological
  11. 9 characteristics of Ma river basin are quite diversified with 4 types of topography and 30 surfaces. In mountainous areas there is a natural disruption by the height that caused the formation of classes and subclasses of landscape, and geomorphology caused the formation of landscape categories in the Ma river basin landscape classification system in Thanh Hoa province. d. Climate characteristics The Ma river basin of Thanh Hoa province has a tropical monsoon climate with a hot summers, heavy rains and hot dry west-winds; a cold winter with low rainfall, frost and the northeast monsoon tends to decline from sea to land, from north to south. The total annual average radiation is approximately 152 Kcal/ cm2. The average annual sunshine hours range from 1,479 to 1,700 hours. The average annual air temperature is 22-23oC. The relative humidity of the air varies between 85-86%. The average rainfall is 1,700-2,000mm/year. Based on the analysis the climatic factors of the Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province and the results of the division of climatic classification criteria, over 1,061,000 ha of natural land in the whole territory, there are 16 types of climate with 77 plots. The differentiation of the climate of Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province is the cause of diverse division of the landscape. e. Hydrographical characteristics Water resource of the Ma River basin of Thanh Hoa province is abundant. The total annual rainfall is 19 billion m3. The average module of the rivers flows is 20,4 - 38 l/s/km2. The flow regime is distinctly divided into the flood season and the dry season, which closely follows the rhythm of the climate. In addition, Ma river system (including Ma river and Chu river) also has a dense river system such as Buoi river, Dat river, Cau Chay river, Lung river, etc. Flows have redistributed material and energy among different terrain layers and areas, transported and accreted sediments forming the basins, the surface of the river terraces in the Ma river basin and contributed to the differentiation of landscape classes. The formation and development of the landscape, especially the richness of vegetation, is directly related to the water potential. f. Soils characteristics The conditions and processes of land formation of Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province are varied and complex which formed a land cover with 10 main soil groups and 31 different soil types, covering an area of 991898.19 hectares. The terrain of Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province is diverse with many forms of terrain, in which sloping topography is dominant. Therefore, in the process of forming and developing landscape of the territory, the diversification of soil combined with vegetation cover has created the diversity of landscape types. g. Biological characteristics The natural vegetation commonly distributed in the basin is divided into belts: Tropical mountainous belt > 700 m on limestone; Tropical mountainous belt > 700 m on other rocks; Tropical belt > 700 m on limestone; Tropical belt > 700 m on other
  12. 10 rocks. The vegetation covers are mainly planted forest, wet rice, fruits, annual industrial crops and plants in residential areas. The Ma river basin of Thanh Hoa province has a rich and diverse range of forest fauna, including terrestrial and aquatic animals, native and migratory animals, natural animals and pets, etc. It is the combination of these natural and cultivated communities with soils that are indicator of landscapes types in the Ma river basin landscape classification system in Thanh Hoa province. h. Other natural resources of the territory Mineral resources are abundant and diversified, including: iron and iron alloys with iron ore, iron-manganese and mineral sand, ferrous and precious metals, 7 mines and lead-zinc ore points were discovered; chemical and fertilizers materials has serpentine, raw materials for producing porcelain, glass and construction materials with kaolin, fuel with peat, etc. 2.1.2. Characteristics of socio - economic factors in the landscape formation of the studied territory a. Population and labor force By 2016, the total population in the Ma river basin of Thanh Hoa province is about 3,712,600 people. The average natural population growth rate is 1.95%, in which about 30% of the population live in urban areas and the rest live in rural and mountainous areas. Crowded population has created an abundant source of labor for the Ma river basin. By 2016, the labor force of the Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province is about 2,251.03 thousand, accounting for 60.6% of the population. b. Structure and development status of economic sectors Economic growth: Gross Regional Domestic Product (GRDP) in 2016 at the 2010 prices is estimated to increase 9.05% over the same period, of which agriculture, forestry and fishery increased 2.52%; industry and construction increased 11.96%; service sector increased 8.83%; import tax, product tax minus subsidy increased 9,16%. c. Socio-economic factors in relation to landscape formation of Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province Human is increasingly impacting nature in a comprehensive and profound way, the exploitation of natural resources for socio-economic development directly or indirectly transformed the environment and natural components, also formed a number of human landscapes. 2.2. Indicator classification system of landscape in Ma river basin, Thanh Hoa province 2.2.1. Principles for the construction of landscape classification system Building a landscape classification system must be based on the following principles: historical perspective principles; general principles; relative uniform principle.
  13. 11 2.2.2. Characteristics of Landscape classification units Table 2.20. Landscape classification system of Ma river basin, Thanh Hoa province Classification Landscape classification No Typical sign level results The main radiation source Landscape determines the zone. Moisture-heat - The landscape system of 1 system regime determines the intensity of tropical humid monsoon the material and energy cycles. The correlation between terrain and - The landscape subsystem Landscape northeast and southwest monsoon 2 has rainy season in summer subsystem decides the redistribution of heat and autumn, cold winter and humidity. A general characteristic of climate determines the type of vegetation Landscape - The studied area has 13 3 cover and the adaptability of floral type landscape types communities due to fluctuations in heat-moisture balance. The morphological characteristics - Landscape class of of the terrain define the uniformity Landscape mountain 4 of two major processes in the class - Landscape class of hill material cycle: abrasion and - Landscape class of plain accretion. Characteristics of morphological - Landscape subclass of survey of terrain have divided the medium mountain interior layers of the landscape class. - Landscape subclass of low Demonstrating material balance mountain Landscape between topographic features, - Landscape subclass of 5 subclass climatic features and plant valleys and sunken areas communities features. - Landscape subclass of high hill - Landscape subclass of low hill - Landscape subclass of high plain - Landscape subclass of low plain Classified by geomorphological criteria of soil and geomorphological criteria of surface sediments. In terms of The studied area has 34 Landscape geomorphology, these are terrain 6 landscape kinds kind types that are divided according to morphological - original principles; the surface is composed by a type or a combination of soil types and sediment materials. The combination of plant The studied area has 348 Landscape communities (groups) with soil landscape species (in which, 7 species types (groups) through human there are two general types of impacts. water surface and resident) Thus, the landscape classification system of the Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province consists of 7 levels: system  subsystem  type  class  subclass 
  14. 12 kind  species. This is the basis for the establishment of the territorial landscape map with the ratio of 1: 100.000. 2.2.3. Map of Ma river basin landscape in Thanh Hoa province To establish a map of Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province at the ratio of 1: 100,000, the PhD students have used a combination of methods. On the basis of the available thematic maps at the same scale as geological map, geomorphological map, topographic map, climate map, soil map, vegetation map with the ratio of 1:100,000. Studying the attached diagrams, tables, etc, on Mapinfor and ArcMap software. + Landscape transection of Ma river basin, Thanh Hoa province To clarify the differentiation of the natural and structural characteristics of the researched territorial landscape, based on landscape maps and component maps, the author has established 3 landscape transections: A-B; C-D; E-F. 2.2.4. Landscape classification units - High - class landscape classification units: landscape system; landscape subsystem; landscape class - Low - class landscape classification units: landscape subclass; landscape type; landscape kind; landscape species. 2.2.5. Characteristics of landscape structure of Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province a. Landscape class - Landscape class of mountain includes medium mountain landscape subclass, low mountain landscape subclass and valleys and sunken areas landscape subclass, with 199 landscpae types and 900 local areas. The total area is 519.82,4 ha, accounting for 46,8% of the natural area of the territory. - Landscape class of hill is the transition from plain to mountainous areas, with the height from tens of meters to 200 m, has 221.170,6 ha, accounting for 19,9% of the natural area of Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province. - Landscape class of plain has 205.467,9 hectares, accounting for 18,5% of the natural area of Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province. The plain landscape class has 67 landscape types, beginning with landscapes class number 280 to number 346. b. Landscape subclass 1 Landscape subclass of medium mountain 236.449,0 ha 21,3% 2 Landscape subclass of low mountain 201.772,4 ha 18,1% 3 Landscape subclass of valleys and sunken areas 81.606,0 ha 7,3% 4 Landscape subclass of high hill 164.164,8 ha 14,7% 5 Landscape subclass of low hill 14.437,9 ha 1,3% 6 Landscape subclass of high plain 57.005,8 ha 5,2% 7 Landscape subclass of low plain 191.029,9 ha 17,2% c. Type, kind and species of landscape of Ma river basin, Thanh Hoa province The landscape type is characterized by a type of a certain dominance vegetation over a typical soil, developed on the same homogeneous terrain. The Ma river basin of Thanh Hoa province has 13 landscape types.
  15. 13 Based on the division of geomorphology-soil, geomorphology-sediment surface, the Ma river basin of Thanh Hoa province has 34 landscape kinds. The combination of soil and vegetation forms a landscape species. The Ma river basin of Thanh Hoa province has 348 landscape psecies. 2.2.6. Characteristics of mobile structure of the landscape of Ma river basin, Thanh Hoa province The seasonal rhythm of the Ma river basin landscape is closely related to the rhythm of the climate. The change in temperature and humidity is related to the apparent movement of the sun and the monsoon activity mechanism in Southeast Asia printed the rhythm of the landscape in the studied territory. 2.2.7. Analyzing landscape function of Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province a. The basis for classifying landscape function of the studied territory - Each landscape unit can undertake one or several functions; landscape units can undertake the same function; landscape function is dominated by landscape structures; landscapes differ in function and direction of use; landscapes are of different nature in function, but for the purpose of human impacts, they have the same direction of use. b. Analyzing landscape function of the studied territory The landscape of consists of the following functional groups: Productive function group; Social function group; Ecological function group. The landscape of the Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province has a variety of functions. 2.3. Landscape division for agriculture and forestry development in Ma river basin Based on the principles of landscape zoning (section 1.2.9 page 27) combined with the analysis of structural and functional landscape characteristics as well as the conditions that form landscape units. The study territory is divided into 3 landscape regions and 24 landscape sub-regions. CHAPTER 3 ORIENTATION OF RATIONAL USE OF THE TERRITORY OF MA RIVER BASIN, THANH HOA PROVINCE 3.1. Landscape assessment to serves the orientation of rational use of territory for agriculture and forestry development in Ma river basin Thanh Hóa province 3.1.1. Steps to assess the landscape Ma river basin Thanh Hóa province Based on the researches of geographers from Russia - Eastern Europe and Vietnam such as general assessment model for the territories of L.I. Mukhina (1970), A.M. Marinhich (1970), P.G. Sisenko, Pham Hoang Hai (1997), Nguyen Cao Huan (2005), the author generalized the content of the general assessment process. The assessment results show that the higher the point of the landscape, the more favorable the landscape for a production sector. 3.1.2. Principles and methods of landscape assessment The principle of landscape assessment is through the characteristics of the subject, corresponding to them is the component characteristics of the object to
  16. 14 determine the appropriateness of landscapes for each manufacturing industry and economic sector. 3.1.3. Selection of evaluation units - For agriculture are landscapes with the biological function previously analyzed. For the purpose of protection forest development, the landscape selected was landscapes with the dominant function of ecological function group, with the common slope of above 25º; for the purpose of developing production forests, the landscapes are functional in two groups of ecological and living mass functions, with the dominant slope from 8-15º; for the purpose of conserving, selected landscapes belong to ecological and social function groups. 3.2. Developing a system of landscape assessment indicators for the purpose of developing economic production sectors in the research territory 3.2.1. Principles for selection and classification of evaluation criteria The selected indicators must have a clear differentiation according to territorial units in the research ratio; the selected criteria must clearly affect the development object; the number of selected and graded indicators may be much or less different. 3.2.2. Adaptation evaluation for groups of food crops, annual industrial crops, and fruit trees - Food crops group: the research territory has a big population, so the issue of ensuring food for the resident is a top task; annual industrial crops group: this group of trees plays an important role in the lives of mountainous people, especially sugarcane; fruit trees group: the territory of Ma river basin of Thanh Hoa province has great potential for planting fruit trees. Table 3.1. Classification of adaptation level for 3 groups of agricultural crops Adaptation level Highly suitable Suitable Lowly Suitable Crops Element S1 (3 mark) S2 (2 mark) S3 (1 mark) Pb, Pk, Pg, Pf, Pj, B, Bq, S, Smi, Fs, Fl, Fa, Rv, Rr, Mm, M, Soil type Py, D Fv, Fq, Fp Mi, C Slope < 3o 3o - 8o 8o - 15o Thickness > 100 50 - 100 = 23 C 20oC - 23oC 18 - 20o Rainfall > 2.000 1.500 - 2.000 < 1.500 Number of cold month 2 3 >=4 Water source Take initiative Near water source Limited irrigation Soil type Fl, Fv, Fp, Pk, Pf, D B, Bq, Fk, Fs, Fq Fa, Rr, Pb, Pg, Pj, Py. Slope < 3o 3o - 8o 8o - 15o Annual Thickness > 100 50 - 100 < 50 industrial Composition of slightly rich soil; crops moderate rich soil Rich soil soil mechanics Miscellaneous sand group o Temperature >= 23 C 20oC - 23oC 18 - 20o Rainfall > 2.000 1.500 - 2.000 < 1.500
  17. 15 Number of cold month 2 3 >= 4 Water source Take initiative Near water source Limited irrigation Fa, Pk, Pf, Pb, Pg, Pj, Soil type Fs, Fl, Fv, Fq, Fp, D B, Bq, Fq, Fa, Rv, Rr Py, Slope < 3o 3 - 8o 8o - 20o Thickness > 100 50 - 100 < 50 Composition of slightly rich soil; Fruit trees moderate rich soil Rich soil soil mechanics Miscellaneous sand grou o Temperature >= 23 C 20oC - 23oC 18 - 20o Rainfall > 2.000 1.500 - 2.000 < 1.500 Number of cold month 2 3 >= 4 Water source Take initiative Near water source Limited irrigation - Determining mark of indicators: The results show that for crop groups: the type of soil with the highest mark. Calculation of CR for 3 crops group is < 0.1 so these marks are accepted. Table 3.6. Determination of the adaptation level of 3 crop groups Adaptation level Crop group Dmax Dmin D Highly suitable Suitable Lowly suitable Food crops 0,375 0,172 0,067 0,308 - 0,375 0,240 - 0,307 0,172 - 0,239 Annual industrial crops 0,375 0,202 0,057 0,318 - 0,375 0,260 - 0,317 0,202 - 0,259 Fruit trees 0,376 0,176 0,066 0,310 – 0,376 0,243 - 0,309 0,176 - 0,242 Classifying the adaptability of landscape types for each crop group Table 3.8. Classification results of the adaptability of the landscape to the food crops group Rate No Adaptation level Landscape type Area (ha) (%) 54, 57, 58, 80, 95, 100, 103, 120, 123, 124, 125, 126, 162, 173, 174, 175, 177, 180, 181, 183, 184, Highly suitable 189, 190, 192, 193, 196, 197, 213, 224, 231, 233, 1 (63 landscape 235, 236, 237, 238, 250, 259, 282, 286, 287, 289, 205.838,9 19,4 types) 293, 295, 296, 297, 298, 302, 303, 304, 306, 308, 309, 312, 322, 335, 336, 337, 339, 340, 341, 343, 344, 345. 15, 16, 47, 53, 56, 65, 67, 96, 107, 134, 137, 150, Suitable (40 163, 168, 179, 206, 220, 221, 222, 249, 271, 285, 2 67.830,5 6,4 landscape types) 288, 290, 291, 299, 301, 307, 310, 311, 315, 316, 317, 318, 325, 327, 328, 329, 331, 333. Lowly suitable ( 10, 50, 66, 69, 74, 84, 90, 132, 144, 148, 156, 161, 3 18 landscape 186, 205, 242, 245, 332, 338. 27.039,8 2,5 types) 4 Not suitable (228 landscape types) 760.290,7 71,7 Total 348 1.061.000 100,0 Table 3.10. Classification results of the adaptability of the landscape to the annual industrial crops group Rate No Adaptation level Landscape type Area (ha) (%)
  18. 16 Highly suitable 80, 100, 103, 120, 124, 162, 173, 174, 175, 189, 1 (22 landscape 200, 224, 250, 255, 259, 260, 263, 276, 314, 320, 41.617,2 3,9 types) 321. 15, 16, 47, 54, 56, 58, 65, 67, 95, 96, 107, 123, Suitable (31 2 125, 126, 134, 137, 150, 168, 177, 197, 236, 237, 40.994,04 3,8 landscape types) 252, 254, 256, 258, 261, 262, 265, 277, 281. Lowly suitable ( 66, 84, 90, 148, 179, 245, 275. 3 7 landscape 9.998,2 0,9 types) 4 Not suitable (288 landscape types) 968.390,6 91,3 Total 348 1.061.000 100,0 Table 3.12. Classification results of the adaptability of the landscape to the fruit tree group Adaptation Rate No Landscape type Area (ha) level %) 1 Highly suitable 54, 67, 96, 173, 162, 173, 174, 189, 197, 224, 237, (13 landscape 250, 259. 25.149,6 2,4 types) 2 Suitable 15, 56, 112, 134, 149, 169, 188, 202, 209, 210, (14 landscape 212, 236, 247, 268. 45.936,9 4,3 types) 3 Lowly suitable 94, 106, 114, 118, 160, 172, 191, 214, 217, 241, ( 11 landscape 274. 50.938,5 4,8 types) 4 Not suitable (310 landscape types) 938.974,9 88,5 Total 348 1.061.000 100,0 3.2.3. Evaluation of adaptability for protection and production forests For special use forests, the function is conservation. In the research area, there are 53 types of landscapes with 131,744.22 hectares, accounting for about 12.4% of the territory, consists of two national parks and four nature reserves. Special-use forest is a type of forest that uses landscape in a typical way and is strictly preserved; therefore, the dissertation only evaluates the type of landscape use for forestry through protection forests and production forests. * Selecting and classifying evaluation criteria for protection and production forests Table 3.13. Classification of adaptive criteria for forest types in the territory of Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province Adaptation levels Type of Element Highly suitable S1 Suitable S2 Lowly suitable S3 forest (3 mark) (2 mark) (1 mark) Location of Watershed and coastal Slope area, near the basin Valley protection location Medium mountain & Protection Terrain Hill, valley Hill low mountain, littoral Forest o o o Slope > 25 , < 3 15 - 25 8 -15o o Hk, Ha, Hs, Hq, Fk, Fs, B, Bq, Mm, M, Smi, Fl, Pk, Pg, Pf, Pj, Py, Soil type Fv, Fa, Fq Fp, Rr, Cc D, E, núi đá
  19. 17 Thickness > 100 m 50 - 100 m < 50 m Rainfall > 2.000 mm 1.500 - 2.000 mm < 1.500 mm Evergreen hermetic Artificial forest, Vegetation Grass-plot, shrubs forest mangroves forest Slope 8o - 15o 15 - 25 o > 25o Medium mountain & low Terrain Hill, valley Hill and littoral mountain Hk, Ha, Hs, Hq, Fk, Fs, B, Bq, Mm, M, Smi, Fl, Pk, Pg, Pf, Pj, Py, Production Soil type Fv, Fa, Fq Fp, Rr, D, E, Cc, núi đá forest Thickness > 100 m 50 – 100 m < 50 m Rainfall > 2.000 mm 1.500 - 2.000 mm < 1.500 mm Evergreen hermetic Artificial forest, Vegetation Grass-plot, shrubs forest mangroves forest * Determining mark of elements: The protection forest has the highest mark ( k = 0,224); with production forest, the terrain has the highest mark (k = 0,259). Calculation of CR for 2 types of forest is < 0.1 so these marks are accepted. Table 3.18. Range of mark and adaptive levels of two types of forest Adaptation levels No Type of forest Dmax Dmin D Highly suitable Suitable Lowly suitable 1 Protection forest 0,431 0,174 0,085 0,346 - 0,431 0,260 - 0,345 0,174 - 0,259 2 Production forest 0,447 0,166 0,093 0,354 - 0,447 0,260 - 0,353 0,166 - 0,259 Classifying the adaptability of landscape types for each type of forest. Table 3.20. Classification results of the adaptation level of the landscape to the protection forest Rate No Adaptation level Landscape type Area (ha) (%) Highly suitable 2, 9, 12, 14, 27, 39, 41, 42, 55, 56, 75, 77, 79, 82, 1 (30 landscape 85, 88, 91, 93, 99, 104, 108, 109, 119, 137, 209, 66.311,1 6,3 types) 214, 217, 266, 269, 274. 5, 6, 8, 11, 15, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 32, 33, 36, 43, 54, 76, 78, 81, 83, 86, 87, 89, 92, Suitable 96, 101, 102, 106, 117, 134, 139, 149, 160, 165, 2 (74 loại landscape 170, 173, 174, 176, 182, 185, 195, 197, 199, 219, 199.860,1 18,9 types) 220, 223, 224, 228, 232, 234, 236, 237, 239, 241, 248, 250, 253, 259, 264, 267, 270, 272, 273, 278, 279, 292, 323, 324, 326, 330, 346. Lowly suitable 166, 167, 171, 178, 187, 194, 198, 230, 251, 257, 3 ( 18 landscape 280, 284, 294, 305, 313, 319, 334, 342. 38.104,7 3,5 types) 4 Not suitable (226 landscape types) 756.724,1 71,3 Total 348 1.061.000 100,0 Table 3.22. Classification results of the adaptation level of the landscape to the production forest Rate No Adaptation level Landscape type Area (ha) (%) Highly suitable 59, 60, 64, 67, 72, 77, 114, 127, 130, 133, 135, 1 99.151,4 9,4 (27 landscape 136, 137, 140, 149, 160, 189, 200, 208, 209, 214,
  20. 18 types) 216, 217, 241, 242, 243, 274. 15, 54, 56, 62, 63, 73, 96, 98, 106, 129, 131, 134, Suitable (39 139, 141, 142, 145, 151, 152, 158, 159, 162, 170, 2 137.161,8 12,9 landscape types) 173, 174, 185, 197, 201, 204, 220, 224, 237, 240, 244, 246, 259, 266, 267, 270, 292. Lowly suitable 78, 165, 166, 167, 171, 187, 194, 195, 198, 199, 3 ( 25 landscape 225, 228, 230, 236, 250, 257, 272, 273, 278, 279, 61.378,05 5,8 types) 280, 284, 394, 305, 313. 4 Not suitable (257 landscape types) 763.308,7 71,9 Total 348 1.061.000 100,0 3.3. Current situation and socio-economic development planning of Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province 3.3.1. The reality quo of exploiting and using water resource a. Exploiting and using surface water Mainly used for agriculture, accounting for 97.4% the amount of water, water for urban and rural life accounts for 1.53%, water for industrial production, craft village and service is only 1.07%. b. Exploiting and using underground water Exploitation is mainly for catering and living in rural and urban areas, accounting for 95.95%; water for industrial production, craft villages, business and services is very limited, only about 4.05%. 3.3.2. Land use status (by purpose of use) The area of natural land is 1,061,000 ha in 2016, divided into the following groups: agricultural land group is 914,603 ha, accounting for 86.2% of the total area, non-agricultural land group is 114,410 ha, accounting for 10.78% of the total area, unused land group is 31,987 ha, accounting for 3.01% of the total area. 3.3.3. Reality quo of area and forest coverage of Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province a. The area of forest The total area of forest in Ma river basin from 2016 is 588.299 ha. Natural forest covers an area of 394.017 ha, artificial forest covers an area of 194.282 ha. b. Forest coverage The forest coverage of the territory increased rapidly, reaching 55.4% in 2016. 3.3.4. Reality quo of biological resources a. Flora: The forest resources has 588.299 ha, with reserves of about 16.64 million m3 of timber, annually it is possible to exploit 50.000 – 60.000 m3. Mainly is tropical broadleaf forest with a rich flora of species and families as textured wood, talauma, teakwood, etc. In the southwest, the forest is much destroyed. In this area, secondary forests or grasslands and shrubs are developed, there are many rattan, bamboo, neohouzeaua, ...
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