Figure Drawing - Figure Anatomy

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Understanding human anatomy will help you achieve greater expressive ability in figure drawing. By understanding the many different aspects of the human form, you can better grasp how the figure works as a whole. For example, if you feel along the bone on the lower part of your jaw, you will notice that there is a small indentation about halfway between the chin and the back of the jaw. This indentation is to allow a blood vessel to pass under the jaw. The indentation helps to protect the vessel. The significance of this little indentation is that it affects the...

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Nội dung Text: Figure Drawing - Figure Anatomy

  1. C H A P T E R 3
  2. ✎ Figure Anatomy U nderstanding human anatomy will help you achieve greater expressive ability in figure drawing. By understanding the many dif- ferent aspects of the human form, you can better grasp how the fig- ure works as a whole. For example, if you feel along the bone on the lower part of your jaw, you will notice that there is a small indentation about halfway between the chin and the back of the jaw. This indentation is to allow a blood vessel to pass under the jaw. The indentation helps to protect the ves- sel. The significance of this little indentation is that it affects the curvature of the jaw. The jawbone is actually concave here, rather than convex. A slender person who has little fat around the jaw will show this distinct feature of the jaw more clearly than a heavy person will. Knowing this little aspect of the figure can help the artist who wishes to express a thin person. In a way, the study of anatomy increases your figure drawing arsenal. By studying the underlying structure, you can develop a greater feel for the sur- face, expanding creative possibilities. In essence, the human form is made up of soft and hard tissue held together by tendons and ligaments. The bones form the underlying structure of the body and in some cases act as protection for delicate internal organs. Around and over the bones are muscles that are used to drive movement. The whole system is controlled by an extensive nervous system. The human form is capable of extreme movement and flexibility. The muscles that power body movement expand and contract, causing surface changes to appear. Take a look at your arm. Hold it out in front of you with the palm down. Now twist your arm so the palm is facing up. Notice how the muscle beneath the skin move as the arm rotates. As the arm rotates, some muscles in the forearm will expand and twist, while others will contract to cause the 33
  3. Figure Drawing with Virtual Models movement. Now bend your arm The human skeleton contains more bone on the lower part up at the elbow. The muscles of than 200 individual bones. of the head. It is hinged the upper arm will bunch to pull Although it might not be essential to the rest of the skull the arm up. These muscles are for you to learn the names of all up near the ears. It is the biceps, so named because 200 bones, you should become important to note there are two muscles. familiar with some of the major where the bone is bones listed here. hinged because that Drawing from life, an artist is controls the bone often confronted with a number ✎ Skull. The skull is the movement. bony framework upon of organic surfaces. It is helpful if which the head is built. ✎ Clavicle. The clavicle is the artist understands not only located on the upper It is composed of eight why the surface changes in front of the chest near cranial and 14 facial movement, but also what the the neck. It is a very bones. The cranial underlying structure is doing pronounced bone near bones are the dome- during those changes. This will shaped bones that the surface, connecting help the artist to recognize the the arms to the chest. cover the top of your subtle aspects of the figure that There are two clavicle head. They are very might go unnoticed if the artist bones—one on each near the surface. If you didn’t have the proper instruc- side of the body. The press on the top of tion in anatomy. clavicle’s flexible move- your head, you can feel ment allows for the the hard surface of the variety of movement in bone just below the The Skeleton skin. The shape of the the shoulder. cranium pretty much ✎ Scapula. The scapula is In Chapter 2 you created a simpli- determines the shape a plate-like triangular fied skeletal structure to use as a of the head. The facial bone located on the base for drawing the figure. We bones make up the right and left side of called it drawing from the inside bones of the front of the upper back. It is out. Now you will have the oppor- the head and con- sometimes called the tunity to better understand the tribute greatly to how a shoulder blade. It has actual skeletal structure of the person looks. quite a range of move- human body. Figure 3.1 shows the ment under the skin male skeleton. This skeleton comes ✎ Mandible. The and is more pro- mandible, sometimes with Figure Artist’s bigger cousin, nounced in a slender referred to as the jaw- Poser, and is available as additional person. It will also pro- bone, is actually one of content for Figure Artist. trude more in a person the facial bones of the with poor posture. skull. It is the moveable 34
  4. Figure Anatomy Figure 3.1 The skeleton forms the structure upon which the body is built. 35
  5. Figure Drawing with Virtual Models ✎ Ribcage. The ribs are the structure that holds spinal column, and it actually a group of the upper body erect. also protects many of bones that surround There are 33 separate the delicate organs of the chest cavity and irregularly shaped the lower body. The serve as protection for bones called vertebrae pelvis on a female is the delicate organs in the spinal column. wider, and the central housed in that area. All The top bone of the opening is larger than together, the ribs form spinal column is called on a male. This differ- a somewhat egg- the Atlas, and the next ence helps the female shaped structure that is is called the Axis. The to support a baby dur- open at the bottom and shape of the Atlas ing pregnancy. The more closed at the top. allows the head to nod wider opening allows The ribcage also acts yes, and the shape of for the baby to be born as an anchor for many the Axis allows the because the baby must of the muscles of the head to shake no. The pass through the upper back and chest. vertebrae at the top of mother’s pelvis. ✎ Sternum. The sternum the spinal column are ✎ Sacrum. The sacrum is is located in the center smaller than those near a V-shaped bone that is of the chest and con- the bottom. They con- actually several verte- nects the ribs of the left nect the ribcage in the brae fused together as and right sides by way back and support most a person reaches adult- of cartilage, which of the major muscles of hood. This bone gives the chest the flex- the back. They can be attaches the spinal col- ibility to expand and seen as a row of ridges umn to the pelvis shrink with breathing. when a person bends bones. The sternum has a dis- forward. ✎ Femur. The femur is tinctive dagger shape ✎ Pelvis. The pelvis is the large bone that and is sometimes located in the lower runs from the hip to the referred to as the body and forms your knee. It would be the breastbone. hips. There are actually largest bone in the ✎ Spine. The spine is a two pelvic bones—one body except that there column of bones that on either side of the are two of them, and extends from the skull body. They are joined since they are usually to the pelvis. The spine together in the back by the same size, they is a very flexible com- the sacrum and in the both share that honor. bination of bones and front by a muscle The femurs are the cartilage that encloses called the pubic sym- largest, longest, and and protects the spinal physis. The pelvis strongest bones in the cord. The spine is also serves to support the body. They support the body by anchoring the massive thigh muscles 36
  6. Figure Anatomy and are mostly sur- ✎ Foot bones. There are ulnar nerve causes a rounded by those mus- 26 bones in each foot tingling sensation, cles so that the bone is from the ankle to the leading the humerus to not very close to the joints of the toes. The sometimes be called surface, except near largest bone is the cal- the funny bone. the knee and around caneus or heel bone. ✎ Ulna. The ulna is the the hip. The tarsal bones form longer of the two ✎ Patella. The patella is the ankle and are com- lower-arm bones and is the small bone that fits posed of seven sepa- more firmly connected over the knee and is rate bones. They are to the humerus near sometimes called the near the surface and the back of the elbow. kneecap. It protects the protrude outward on The ulna is near the knee joint and strength- either side of the leg, surface, and if you run ens the tendons of that forming the knobs we your hand from the area. It is very near the call ankles. The inside back of the elbow to surface and is quite dis- knob is slightly higher your wrist, you can feel tinctive in the leg. than the outside knob. the hard surface of this The bones of the foot bone. ✎ Tibia. The tibia is the are closer to the sur- bone that connects the face on the top of the ✎ Radius. The radius is knee to the foot and is foot and toes than on also connected to the the larger of the two the bottom, which is humerus, but not as lower-leg bones. It is covered by thick firmly as the ulna. It is sometimes referred to padding. also more responsible as the shinbone. It is for the movement of near the surface on the ✎ Humerus. The humerus the wrist. front of the leg, and its is the largest and strongest of the arm ✎ Hand bones. There are curve is very evident 27 bones in the hand when you are viewing bones and runs from the shoulder to the and fingers, running the leg from the front. from the wrist to the elbow. It connects to ✎ Fibula. The fibula is the the scapula at the tips of the fingers. The smaller of the two shoulder and the ulna underside of the hand lower-leg bones and is and radius at the is covered with primarily used for mus- elbow. It is covered by padding and muscle cle support in that area. muscles and only nears tissue, and the bones It is located on the out- the surface at the are not as close to the side of the body and is elbow, where it pro- surface as they are on mostly covered with tects the ulnar nerve. the back of the hand, muscle, so it is less evi- Sometimes when the where they can be very dent than the tibia. elbow is struck the distinctive. 37
  7. Figure Drawing with Virtual Models Try to learn how these bones look Figure 3.3 shows the female skele- look at how the bones are built and function even if you don’t ton. You can see from the skeleton and the muscles, you will see that remember all their names. If you that there are many differences the male is more massive. The can make sketches of each individ- between the male and female bones are thicker, and the muscle ual bone, such as the humerus in skeletons even though they are groups are bulkier. On the female Figure 3.2, you will gain a better made up of the same number and the bones are smaller and more understanding of how the bones types of bones. slender. The muscles are less bulky, affect the shape of the body. almost strap-like, except for the In the female, the pelvis is more area around the hip and thigh, If you look closely at the skeleton, open and proportionally larger where the female tends to be more you will notice that there are no than in the male skeleton. The bulky than the male does. straight bones. Every bone is male ribcage is proportionally curved. In fact, every bone is made larger, giving the male skeleton A good example of how the two up of many curves. If you draw the wider shoulders and narrower skeletons differ is in the elbow bones of the body as straight, you hips. They also give the female fig- joint. The male elbow is a fairly will end up with a stiff, robotic- ure wider hips, a higher waistline, direct joint, whereas the female looking drawing. Your drawings and lower buttocks than the male. joint tends to have the lower arm will look better if you understand flare out. Take a look at your own the direction of the curves of the In general, the female skeleton is arm. Hold it out with the palm fac- bones and emphasize those curves smaller and more delicate than the ing up. If you are male, the arm in your figures. male skeleton. The male skeleton is should remain fairly direct. If you build for power and lifting. If you are female you will notice that the Figure 3.2 Sketch individual bones of the skeleton. 38
  8. Figure Anatomy Figure 3.3 The female skeleton is different than the male skeleton. 39
  9. Figure Drawing with Virtual Models arm curves at the joint, and the lower arm is attached at an angle. hips. Some women are taught to accentuate this angle in charm The Muscles There is actually a good reason for school or training for fashion mod- There are more than 600 muscles this difference between the male eling by walking with their feet in the body, and they fall into three and female forms. The male arm is placed in a line directly in front of groups—skeletal, smooth, and car- built for power and lifting heavy each other. Walking in this fashion diac. The smooth and cardiac mus- objects, therefore it needs a more tends to accentuate the curves of cles deal primarily with internal direct joint. The female arm is bet- the hip and thigh. organs and are not evident in sur- ter suited to holding and carrying. face anatomy. Skeletal muscles, on A female can carry an infant longer In general, the female skeleton is the other hand, make up a large without fatigue than a male can, relatively smaller in most of the portion of tissue that is next to the based on the curvature of the arm. joints, especially around the wrist skin on an ideal figure, and they and ankles. The hand and feet of play a large part in how the human An interesting side note to the dif- the female figure are smaller and body looks and moves. Figure 3.4 ferences in the arms between males more delicate, and the feet are shows the male figure with many and females is that the slight curve more arched. The neck is more of the important muscle groups in the female arm tends to give the slender, and the facial features are shown. female form a greater sense of usually smaller and more delicate. grace. This greater sense of grace is Many of the skeletal muscles of the very evident in dance. If you notice It is important that the artist real- body are close to the surface and the arm movements of accom- izes the many differences between have dramatic influence on how a plished dancers, the female can the male and female skeletons. human form looks. There are also achieve a greater feeling of grace Although there are many similari- many muscles that are deeper in than the more directly jointed ties, the more you study the differ- the body and have little direct male. This subtle difference can ences, the more you will realize visual impact on it. Memorizing all have a huge impact on your figure that the male and female skeletons of the muscles might help the artist drawings if you are aware of it. are very different. Learning the dif- understand the body, but under- ferences in addition to learning the standing the main muscles of the Another aspect of the female form component parts of the skeleton body is essential to good figure that tends to give it a greater feel- will help you to better express the drawing. ing of grace and beauty is the angle male and female figures in your of the legs. The female leg tends to drawings. be more oblique than the male because of her relatively wider 40
  10. Figure Anatomy Figure 3.4 Many muscles are near the surface. 41
  11. Figure Drawing with Virtual Models The following is a list of the more ✎ Deltoid. The deltoid muscles are the pri- important muscles and what they muscle is one of the mary muscles for mov- do. most prominent mus- ing the arm forward. If cles in the body. It you hold your arms ✎ Sternomastoid. forms the outer part of straight out in front of Sternomastoids are the the shoulders. It is you and press your large muscles on the attached to the clavicle hands together, you sides of the neck. They in the front and the can feel the strain on are attached to the scapula in the back, your chest, and you skull on the top and the and also the humerus can even see the pec- clavicle on the bottom. in the arm. The deltoid toral muscles bunch. These proponent mus- muscle is a powerful cles help to give the ✎ Serratus anterior. The muscle that is used to serratus anterior is a neck its distinctive raise a person’s arm. If group of muscles along shape. you hold your hand the outer ribcage that ✎ Trapezius. The trapez- over the deltoid and lift attach to the inside of ius muscles extend your arm in the air, you the scapula. They help from the shoulder to can feel the muscle to rotate the scapula, the spinal column and contracting. and thus the arms, from the bottom of the ✎ Pectoral. The pectoral downward. They have skull to about halfway muscles are the large, a distinctive rib-like down the back. They prominent muscles appearance in a lean are triangular muscles covering the upper person and are often used for raising and ribcage. They form two mistaken for the rib lowering the shoulders bulky masses that are bones themselves. and also pulling the most prominent in the scapula closer together. ✎ External oblique. The male figure. In the external oblique mus- In addition, the trapez- female figure, they are cles form the fleshy ius muscles contribute somewhat covered by muscles running from to the movement of the the breasts. A common the lower ribcage to the neck and head. They mistake of beginning upper pelvis on the are mostly prominent figure artists is to focus sides of the torso. They as the large muscles on on the breasts on a are the muscles the back of the shoul- female figure and not responsible for bend- der leading from the recognize the underly- ing the torso from side shoulder to the neck. ing muscles beneath to side. When highly developed them. The pectoral in the male figure, the muscles will have a pronounced bulge. 42
  12. Figure Anatomy ✎ Abdominal. The important muscle that ✎ Tibialis. The tibialis is abdominal muscles are gives the thigh its dis- on the front of the the muscles on the tinctive curvature. It is lower leg and is much front of the body that responsible for helping smaller than the calf attach the ribcage to in the rotation of the muscle on the back. It the front of the pelvis. upper leg. is used to pull the heel They are lumpy mus- ✎ Quadricep. The quadri- down and the foot up. cles that are most cep is made up of four ✎ Bicep. As the name prominent in a lean, major muscles on the suggests, the bicep is muscular figure. There front of the thigh. The actually two muscles are six muscles at the vastus medialis is on that are used to pull the top of the abdomen, the inside of the leg lower arm up. This is three on each side, and bulges just above the muscle that is often which form what body- the knee. The vastus most associated with a builders often call a six- intermedialis is near strong, muscular per- pack. Don’t make the the center of the leg. son. Bodybuilders will mistake of drawing The vastus lateralis is often flex this muscle more muscles in the on the outside of the to show their arm abdomen than are leg and forms the out- development. It is one actually there. ward bulge of the thigh of the most prominent ✎ Iliac crest. The iliac as seen from the front and recognized mus- crest is not a muscle, view. The rectus cles on the body. but rather the bony femoris is the largest of ✎ Tricep. The tricep is area of the pelvis the four muscles and three muscles on the where it is close to the covers much of the back of the arm that surface. The crest pro- central part of the front pull the lower arm trudes on a thin or eld- of the thigh. counter to the bicep. erly person and is a ✎ Gastrocnemius. The They form the massy dimple on a heavy gastrocnemius, also bulge on the upper part person. known as the calf mus- of the back of the arm ✎ Sartorius. The sartorius cle, is the large fleshy below the deltoid. muscle is a long strap- muscle on the back of like muscle that the lower leg. It is mus- extends from the outer cle we use when we pelvis to the inside of stand on our toes. It the leg, attaching to the pulls the heel up and upper tibia. It is an the foot down. 43
  13. Figure Drawing with Virtual Models ✎ Brachioradialis. The and are used to pull the same way as the glu- brachioradialis is just scapula together and teus medius muscles in one of the many mus- the arms back. You use that they pull the leg cles of the forearms. It your latissimus dorsi back in relation to the is prominent in that it muscles when you do a pelvis. If you hold your forms a bulge on the rowing motion. They hand over the muscle outer part of the arm attach to the spinal col- while standing up, you running from between umn and form the dou- can feel the muscle the tricep and bicep ble ridge of the back on flex. These muscles are and around to the either side of the spine. very pronounced and wrist. It is one of ✎ Lumbodorsal fascia. distinctive on the the longer forearm The lumbodorsal fascia human figure. muscles. are the massive mus- ✎ Biceps femoris. Like the ✎ Flexor carpi radialis. cles located in the bicep in your arm, On the opposite side of lower back area. They there is also a bicep in the forearm from the continue the double your leg called the brachioradialis is the ridge of the spine down biceps femoris muscle. flexor carpi radialis. to near the pelvis. They These muscles work to This muscle forms the are the muscles used bend the leg at the distinctive bulge on the for bending the torso knee similar to the underside of the arm. back and lifting. bicep in the arm. They ✎ Gluteus medius. The attach to the lower Figure 3.5 shows some of the pelvis and the upper bulging muscles of the major muscle groups from the fibula and by ligaments buttocks are formed on back. to the tibia. the top by the gluteus Some muscle groups that are better medius. These muscles ✎ Achilles tendon. The seen in the back view of the figure are involved in lifting Achilles tendon is not a are as follows: because they pull the muscle, but rather a pelvis back in relation tendon. It attaches the ✎ Latissimus dorsi. The to the thigh. They are gastrocnemius, or calf latissimus dorsi is the also used to pull the muscle, to the heel. largest muscle in the leg back when walking The Achilles tendon is body and gives the or running. the most pronounced back the familiar V ✎ Gluteus maximus. The tendon in the body and shape. They are some- lower, bulkier part of serves a very important times referred to as lats the buttocks is made of function. Without them, for short. They extend the gluteus maximus it would be impossible from the shoulder to muscles. These power- to stand or walk. the small of the back ful muscles work in the 44
  14. Figure Anatomy Figure 3.5 Muscles as seen from the back 45
  15. Figure Drawing with Virtual Models Figure 3.6 shows the female figure From the back the female figure It is insufficient to study the mus- with her muscles labeled. has a distinctive hourglass shape. cles by themselves. The figure artist The more slender the person, the must also understand how the As you can see from the labels, all more pronounced the hourglass muscles work together to move the of the muscles of the male figure shape of the figure. Because this body. Some muscles flex to move are also present in the female fig- shape is considered beautiful by the body one way, and others flex ure. However, the size and bulk of many, women often go to great to move the body another. You the female muscles are very differ- lengths to maintain a slender fig- need to understand which muscles ent from the male’s. In almost ure. do what. every case, except for the hip and thigh, the male muscles are more I hope that this explanation of the Another element of the human massive and defined. muscles is helpful in your study of form is that there is a great deal of anatomy. As you become more difference in the figure depending The female figure naturally has a familiar with muscles, you will on how much fat the person is car- little more fatty tissue than the learn how they react to each other rying on their body. Fat tends to male figure. This fatty tissue tends to create motion. You should study obscure the muscles and bony to smooth out some of the muscle how the muscle looks when it is areas of the body because it often definition, causing the female form relaxed and how it looks when it is forms a layer between the skin and to look smoother than the male flexed. the muscles. Placement of fat dif- figure. fers greatly in individuals as well. Some muscles rotate, such as in Some people will carry fat high, The female breast is one of the the lower arms and legs. These forming large bellies, while others most distinguishing aspects of the muscles can look very different will carry it low, forming large female figure. The breasts are made depending on the extent of the hips. up of fatty material and are not rotation. Take, for example, the muscles. Because of this, the forearm. Look at your forearm breasts tend to change shape as the relaxed. Now rotate the arm to figure moves to different positions. the left without turning the upper arm. See how the muscles change? Figure 3.7 shows the female figure Now try rotating the arm to the from the back. right. Look at the differences in the muscles. 46
  16. Figure Anatomy Figure 3.6 The female figure has the same muscles as the male figure. 47
  17. Figure Drawing with Virtual Models Figure 3.7 The female figure has a distinctive hourglass shape from the back. 48
  18. Figure Anatomy Using Figure Because the human body is very complex, anatomy is not a simple Artist subject, and it takes some time to learn all of the different aspects of Figure Artist contains virtual figure the human form. Don’t feel that models that are as anatomically you need to learn it all at once. It is correct as possible for the type of better learned through practice. models that they are. When they Study an aspect of anatomy for a move, they closely approximate the while, and then practice drawing movement of an actual person’s it. Drawing is the best way for an anatomy. Although they are not artist to learn the human form. perfect and there are situations in which the model does not follow In this chapter you covered many the figure completely, the models important aspects of human do serve as useful tools for study- anatomy. This book is not intended ing human anatomy. Figure Artist to be an anatomy book, so the should not replace the study of information here should just get bones and tissue from live models, you started on your way to under- but it can be a great tool for learn- standing this fascinating aspect of ing and understanding the different figure drawing. In the next chapter, bones and muscles of the body. we will cover some of the more dif- ficult aspects of drawing the figure, If you are interested in deeper such as drawing hands, feet, and study of the human form, I suggest facial features. that in conjunction with Figure Artist, you pick up some good books on artistic anatomy and use the knowledge you gain from these sources in some live drawing ses- sions where you can see the real figure. 49



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