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Kiến thức về sơ đồ và chuỗi phản ứng Hóa học vô cơ : Phần 2 (Bản năm 2013)

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Kiến thức về sơ đồ và chuỗi phản ứng Hóa học vô cơ : Phần 2 (Bản năm 2013)

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Nối tiếp nội dung phần 1 tài liệu Sơ đồ và chuỗi phản ứng Hóa học vô cơ, phần 2 cung cấp cho người đọc các kiến thức tóm tắt và bài tập về kim loại kiềm - Kim loại kiềm thổ, nhôm - Các hợp chất của nhôm, crom - Sắt - Đồng. Mời các bạn cùng tham khảo.

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Nội dung Text: Kiến thức về sơ đồ và chuỗi phản ứng Hóa học vô cơ : Phần 2 (Bản năm 2013)

  1. § 3 . H0P C H A T C O A C A C B O N ij^ Bieu che !> Tinh chat hoa hpc cua cacbon monooxit (CO) +) Trong cong nghiep: +) C O g o i 1^ o x i t k h o n g t a o muo'i ( h a y o x i t trcf) . • N u n g d d v o i d 1000°C: +) TAc d u n g vdfi o x i (chat khuf m a n h ) . CaC03—l°2oic_^CaO + COgt • D o t chdy h o ^ tohn t h a n coc: 2 C 0 + 0 2 ^ 2CO2 ichdy vai nggn liia mdu lam nhat vd toa nhiet). +) KhuT di/gc o x i t k i m l o a i (sau AI2O3): C + O2 — ^ COat +) Trong phdng thi nghiem.. Fe203 • \ ) Fe304 > FeO > Fe t I t CaCOs + 2HC1 ^ CaCl2 -t- C 0 2 t + H2O +) P h a n iJng d i n h l u g n g C O : 5 C 0 + I2O5 -> I2 + 5 C 0 2 t D u n g d u n g d i c h N a H C O g de giff l a i k h i H C l b i keo t h e o vk d u n g H2SO4 +) P h a n ijfng d i n h t i n h C O dac de l a m k h o k h i CO2. C O + H2O + PbCl2 ^ P b i + 2HC1 + C 0 2 t IJ> Muoi cacbonat +) T h a m g i a p h a n urng k e t h o p : 1) Tinh tan trong nUdc CO + CI2 > COCI2 (photgen: rdt doc) T a t ca cdc m u o i cacbonat ( t r u n g hoa) deu k h o n g t a n , trCr Na2C03, 3C0 + Cr —t!ii20!c_^ C r ( C 0 ) 3 : {cacbonil crom) KaCOg (NH4)2C03 l a t a n . 4 C 0 + N i — N i ( C 0 ) 4 : {cacbonil niken) T a t ca cac mu6'i h i d r o c a c b o n a t deu t a n . CO + Fe clo > F e ( C 0 ) 5 : {cacbonil sat) 2) Tdc dung vai axit CO + N a O H > HCOONa. N a H C O g + H C l - > N a C l + CO2 t + H2O h Dieu che HCO; + H * H2O + C O a t ^ +) Trong cojig nghiep Na2C03 + 2HC1 ^ 2 N a C l + C O g t + H2O • C h o hcri H2O qua t h a n n u n g n o n g do CO]- + 2 H ^ ^ C 0 2 t + H2O. C + H2O h a i . - c o t + Hat 3) Tdc dung vai dung dich kiem. • D g n CO2 qua t h a n n u n g do: CO2 + C — ^ 2C0t +) Trong phdng thi nghiem Ca(HC03)2 + C a ( 0 H ) 3 ^ 2CaC034 + 2H2O H C O O H —"'^[^^'^^ ) c o t + H2O Ca(HC03)2 + 2 N a O H C a C 0 3 4 + Na2C03 + H2O 4) Phan ling nhiet phan. i> Tinh chat hoa hoc cua cacbon dioxit vd axit cacbonic +) T a n t r o n g niidc t a o t h a n h d u n g d i c h a x i t cacbonic MgCOg — ^ " - ^ M g O + C 0 2 t CO2 + H2O ^ H2CO3 Ca(HC03)2 — ^ C a C O a l + C 0 2 t + H2O +) T d c d u n g v(jfi k i m l o a i b o a t d o n g m a n h cf n h i S t do cao: 2NaHC03 '° > Na2C03 + C O a t + HaO. CO2 + 2 M g — ^ - > 2 M g O + C § 4 . S I L I C V A H0P CHAT C G A SILIC Chu y: khong diing khi CO2 de dap tat dam chdy cila nhom hoac magie. ^ "^inh chat hoa hoc cua silic - CO2 l a o x i t a x i t n e n t a c d u n g dUcfc v d i bazc v a o x i t bazof. a) Tinh kh± CO2 + B a O - » B a C 0 3 • Tac dung v d i p h i k i m . CO2 + 2NaOH Na2C03 + H2O 2Fa + S i ^ SiF4 (silic t e t r a f l o r u a ) CO2 + CaCOg + H2O Ca(HC03)2 2CI2 + S i — ) SiCl4 (silic t e t r a c l o r u a ) - K h i CO2 k h o k e t h o p v
  2. Neu d nhiet do rait cao. JBAI T A P CO L d l GIAI Si + C —^l£55L_^ SiC gai I Hoan t h a n h cac phan ufng theo so? do chuyen hoa sau: 3Si + 2N2 — ^ ^ ^ 2 ^ Si3N4 ^ C £LcO,HNa,C03^BaC03 - ^ C O , • Tac dung vdri hap chat. CO2 Si + 2NaOH + H2O ^ N'a2Si03 + 2H2t ^^^C0-^C0AcaC03^Ca(HC03)l^C02 3Si + 4HNO3 + 18HF -» SHaSiFe + 4 N 0 t + 8H2O. L&i gidi CAc axit khac khong hoa tan Si. b) Tinh oxi hoa: 2Mg + Si MgaSi (magie silixua) (1) CO2 + 2 M g > 2MgO + C Dieu che (2) C t-02 > C02t - Trong phong t h i nghiem: SiOa + 2Mg -> Si + 2MgO (3) CO2 + 2NaOHdu ^ N a 2 C 0 3 + H2O (4) NaaCOg + Ba(0H)2 ->BaC03^ + 2 N a O H - Trong cong nghiep: (5) BaC03 — ^ BaO + CO2T SiOa + 2C > Si + 2C0 t (6) C02 + C >2C0 3Si02 + 2CaC2 — ^ 3 S i + 2CaO + 4C0 t (7) 2 C 0 + O2 chayagan7ooT ^ 2CO2 + 135kcal SiCU + 2Zn Si + 2ZnCl2 (8) CO2 + CaO CaCOsi SiH4 —-—->• Si + 2H2t (9) CaC03 + CO2 + H z O - ^ Ca(HC03)2 Sil4 — ' - - ^ Si (tinh khiet) + 2l2t (10) C a ( H C 0 3 ) 2 ^ ^ CaCOai + CO2T + H2O Hc/p chat silic Bai 2. ThiTc h i e n chu6i phan ufng sau: 1) Silic dioxit (SiOz) (J) .CaCa2i.QH2.^C02 Silic dioxit la oxit axit, tan dan trcng kiem dac, nhiAig tan d i trong kiem n6ng chay tao silicat. C H , i i i c | i c o i | c O , f C.C0/Bca(HC0,), SiOa + 2NaOH ^ Na2Si03 + H2O SiOa + Na2C03 -> Na2Si03 + C02t A l 4 C 3 ^ C H , - ^ CO, • Si02 i^^an trong axit flohidiric LM gidi Si02 + 4HF ^ SiF4t + 2H2O (1) CH4 ' > C + 2H2 Chu y: Phan ufng n^y dung de khac chOf h i n h tren thuy t i n h . (hay CH4 < > C + 2H2) 2) Axit silixic va muoi silicat (hay CH4 + 2CI2 > C + 4HC1) a) Axit silixic: (H2Si03) la axit ket i;ua keo, khi dun n6ng de mat n\idc. (2) Ca + 2C >CaC2 H2Si03 — ^ Si02 + H2O. (3) CaCa + 2H2O ->Ca(0H)2 + C2H2T A x i t silixic la axit rat yeu, yeu hcfn ca axit cacbonic Na2Si03 + CO2 + H2O H2Si03 + Na2C03 (4) C2H2 + IO2 > 2CO2 + H2O b) Muoi silicat (5) C + CO2- > 2C0 - Mu6l siUcat cua loa: kiem tan duac trong ni/dc. (hay C + CuO > Cu + CO) - Dung dich dac cua. Na^SiOs va K2Si03 goi la thuy t i n h long, dtfcfc dung de che tao keo dan thuy t i n h va sCr. (hay C + CaO > CaC2 + CO) [0 & chuoi phan ilng H6a hoc V6 ca •
  3. (6) 2 C O + 02kh6„gkhf -h.-iyagan7oo"c ^ gCOg + 135kcal Bai 5- ThUc h i e n chuSi p h a n ufng sau: (7) CO2 + C )2CO Si^^MgaSi SiH4-^Si02-^^Si (8) CO2 + CaO CaCOs^ Led gidi (9) CaCOg — ^ CaO + COgt (1) Si + 2 M g -^Mg2Si (10) CaCOg + CO2 + H 2 0 - > Ca(HC03)2 (2) Mg2Si + 4HC1 ->2MgCl2 + SiH4 (11) C a ( H C 0 3 ) 2 - ^ ^ CaCOa^ + COgt + HgO (3) SiH4 + 2O2 SiOa + 2H2O (12) 4A1 + S C - ^ A U C s (4) Si02 + 2 M g - > 2MgO + Si (13) AI4C3 + 1 2 H 2 0 - > 4 A l ( O H ) 4 i + 3CH4t Bai 6. V i e t cac p h a n iJng theo scf do chuyen hoa sau: (14) CH4 + 2O2 ^""^""""'"-^ CO2 + 2H2O CaCOa—^C02 CaCOgCa(HC03)2 — ^ CO2 Bai 3. Hoan t h a n h cac p h a n ilng theo scf do bien hoa sau: >C0 >C02 L&i gidi Si02J2)siH4^Ca2Si^ (1) CaCOa — ^ CaO + C 0 2 t (2) CO2 + CaO CaCOai HoSiO 3 (3) CaCOa + CO2 + H 2 0 ^ Ca(HC03)2 (4) Ca(HC03)2 C a C 0 3 i + COgt + H2O (1) Si + 2F2 (5) C02 + C >2C0 (2) Si + O2 — ^ SiOa (6) 2 C 0 + O2 ch.^yag^"7oo"c ^ 2CO2 + 135kcal (3) SiOa + 4 H F SiF4 Bai 7. Hoan t h a n h cac p h a n ufng theo scf do sau: (4) Si + 2 N a O H + H2O NagSiOg + 2H2T CaCOa CaO CaCa^^ Ca(0H)2^^ K O H - ^ (6) Si + 2CI2 SiCl4 K H C 0 3 ^ ^ KoCOa-^ CO2 (7) Si + 2Ca ) CazSi L&i gidi (8) CaaSi + 4HC1 - > 2CaCl2 + SiH4 (1) CaCOa "'""^ > CaO + C 0 2 t (9) SiH4 + O2 - > S i 0 2 + 2H2O (2) CaO + C > CaCa + CO (10) 3Si + 2N2 )Si3N4 (3) CaC2 + 2H2O ^ C a ( 0 H ) 2 + C2H2t Bai 4. Hoan t h a n h cac p h a n ufng theo scf do sau: (4) Ca(0H)2 + K2CO3 - ^ C a C 0 3 i + 2 K 0 H C 0 2 - ^ C CO-^^ COa-^BaCOa -i^Ba(HC03)2 (6) (5) K O H + C 0 2 ^ K H C 0 3 >C02 (6) 2 K H C 0 3 ^ ^ K2CO3 + C 0 2 t + H2O Lai gidi (7) K2CO3 + 2HC1->2KC1 + CO2T + H2O (1) CO2 + 2 M g > 2MgO + C 8. Thifc h i e n chu5i p h a n ufng sau: (2) C02 + C >2C0 QH.^Oe ^> ^ ^ J ^ c ^ c O (3) 2 C 0 + O2 khong kh> -h.1yc,gan7(X)"C ^ 2CO2 + 135kcal (4) (4) CO2 + BaO BaCOs^ ^ — CO2 (5) BaCOg + CO2 + H a O - ^ Ba(HC03)2 ..s (5) Ba(HC03)2 BaCO,^ !lo = C^ l ^ U r e (NPl2)2C0 (6) B a ( H C 0 3 ) 2 — ^ B a C 0 3 i + C 0 2 t + H2O ^NH2 60 S a do & chuOi phan ufng Hoa hoc V6 cd
  4. Lcfi gidi (9) NH4HCO3 + KCl > KHCO3 + NH4CI (1) CgHiaOe + 6O2 eCOgt + 6H2O (10) KHCO3 + KOH - — ^ K2CO3 + 2H2O (hay CeHisOe ^j;^!^ ) 2CO2T + 2C2H5OH) (hay 2 K H C O 3 — ^ K2CO3 + COat + H2O) (2) C02 + 2Mg — ^ 2 M g O + C (11) 2NaOH + CO2 > K2CO3 + H2O (3) 3C + CaO ' ' f " , , > CaC2 + COt (12) K2CO3 + Ca(0H)2 > CaCOsi + 2 K 0 H t > 2000 C (13) 2 K 0 H + 2NaHC03 > K2CO3 + Na2C03 + 2H2O (hay 2AI2O3 + 9C ) AI4C3 + 6 C 0 t ) (14) 2NH3 + H2SO4 — > (NH4)2S04 (hay C + H2O > CO + H2) (15) (NH4)2S04 + Ba(0H)2 — ^ BaS044 + 2NH3t + 2H2O (4) 2C0 + O2 — 2 C 0 2 t (16) (NH4)2S04 + 2 N a O H > Na2S04 + 2NH3t + 2H2O (5) CO2 + Ba(0H)2 > BaCOgi + H2O (17) Na2S04 + Ba(0H)2 > 2NaOH + BaS04i (6) BaC03 + CO2 + H2O > Ba(HC03)2 (7) Ba(HC03)2 BaC03i + COst + H2O (18) 3NaOH + FeCl3 — > F e ( 0 H ) 3 i + 3NaCl ^0NH4 (19) 3K2CO3 + 2FeCl3 + 3H2O > 2Fe(OH)3i + 6KC1 + 3CO2T (8) CO2 + 2NH3 • O- C (20) KOH + CO2 > KHCO3 Bai 10. Viet cac phan ufng theo so' do sau: ONH4 NH2 + H2O (9) 0=C;^ , n^fCMr. ^ o=C^ Si l U s i o , - ^ Si- i ^ N a 2 S i 0 3 ^ H 2 S i 0 3 - ^ S i 0 2 ^ S i F 4 ' NH2 ^ (8) Bai 9. Hoan thanh cac phan ufng theo so' do chuyen hoa sau: (7) Na20.Ca0.6Si02 NH4Cl-^BaCl2-^BaC03-^Ba(HC03)2—CO2 Led gidi (2) 1(3) (HJ (1) Si + O2 -> Si02 N2 - ^ N H , - ^ NH4HC03^-^ KHC03^-^ K2CO3 i ^ K O H 900"C (2) Si02 + 2Mg •> 2MgO + Si (14)1|(15) (19)| (13^ hay SiOs du + C > Si + 2 C 0 t (NI-l4)2S04^Na2S04^NaOH^Fe(OH)3 KHCO3 (3) Si + 2NaOH + H2O Na2Si03 + 2H2T Lin gidi (4) NaaSiOg + 2HCI > NaCI + H2Si03^ (1) N2 + 3H2 < >- 2NH3 + Q (hay NaaSiOg + CO2 + H2O > H2Si03^ + Na2C03 ) (2) NH3 + HCI >NH4C1 (5) H2Si03 Si02 + H2O (3) NH4CI + NaOH > NaCl + NH3t + H2O (6) SiOa + 2F2 > SiF4 + 02t (4) 2NH4CI + Ba(0H)2 > BaCh + 2NUst + 2H2O (hay Si02 + 4HF > SiF^ + H2O ) (5) BaCl2 + NaaCOg > BaCOg^ + 2NaCl (6) BaC03 + CO2 + H2O > Ba(HC03)2 (7) Si02 + 2NaOH > Na2Si03 + H2O (7) Ba(HC03)2 — ^ B a C 0 3 ^ + CO2T + H2O (8) 6Si02 + CaC03 + NagCOg Na,O.Ca0.6SiO, + 2C02t T I n ' i y t i n h IhiTdng (8) NH3 + CO2 + H2O ^ NH4HCO3
  5. Natri hidrocacbonat va natri cacbonat CHl/CfNG U +) N a t r i h i d r o c a c b o n a t - N a H C O a K I M LOAI K I E M - K I M LOAI K I E M THO - B i p h a n huy bo'i nhiet: A. T O M T A T L I T H U Y E T 2NaHC03 — N a z C O g + H2O + CO2 T . §1. K I M L O A I K I E M - T i n h iLfo'ng t i n h : T i n h chat hoa hoc • NaHCOa la muoi cua axit yeu, tac dung dtfo'c vd'i nhieu axit +) Tdc dung v&i phi kim NaHCOa + H C l -> N a C l + H2Q + COgt 2Na + O2 -> Na202 : peoxit HCO3" + H^ ^ H2O + C 0 2 t N a t r i tac dung vo'i oxi t r o n g khong k h i kho of n h i e t do phong, tao ra • NaHCOs la muoi axit, tac dung dUgrc vd'i dung dich bazry. NaaO: NaHCOg + N a O H Na2C03 + H2O 4 N a + O2 -> 2Na20 : n a t r i oxit 2Na + CI2 -> 2NaCi : n a t r i clorua HCO3 + 0 H ~ col + H2O •¥) Tdc dung v&i axit Nhan xet: Muoi NaHCOs c6 tinh ludng tinh. Dang tong qudt: 2 M + 2H^ -> 2M^ + HgT +) N a t r i c a c b o n a t - NaaCOg •{•) Tdc dung v&i nit&c Na2C03 la muoi ciia axit yeu, tac dung dLfgfc vdi nhieu axit: Dang tong qudt: 2 M + H2O 2 M 0 H (dd) + H a t NagCOg + 2HC1 ^ 2NaCl + H2O + CO2T Chu y: Bi bdo qudn kim loai kiem ngitdi ta ngdm chim trong ddu hoa. CO^-+ 2 H " - > H2O + COzt Dieu che Dieu che k i m loai k i e m bang each khuf ion cua chung: - Ion col' nlian proton, c6 tinh chat cua mot baza. Muoi Na-^CO^ cd tinh baza. • • M" + e->M §3. KIM L O A I K l i M THO Chii y: Khong c6 chat ndo khd dugc ion kim loai kiem. Phuang phdp duy ''^ T i n h c h a t h o a h o c nhdt dieu chi kim log.i kiem la dim phdn nong chdy hap chat halogenua ho&c oxit, hodc hidroxit cua kim log,i kiem. +) Tdc dung v&i phi kim -> tao oxit bazcf hoac muoi. §2. MOT SO H0P C H A T Q G A N TRONG CGA K I M L O A I K I E M 2M + O2 — ^ > 2M0 N a t r i h i d r o x i t - N a O H M + CI2 — ^ MCI2 +; Tinh chat +) Tdc dung v&i axit • Tac dung vd'i axit, oxit a x i t tao t h a n h muo'i nifdc. M + 2W -> M^" + H a t N a O H + H C l ^ N a C l + HgO +) Tdc dung v&i niC&c 2 N a O H + CO2 — N a z C O g + H2O M + 2H2O -> M(0H)2 + H 2 t (M Id Ca, Ba, Sr) N a O H + CO2 — N a H C O g ^hu y: Be khong tdc dung vai H2O du a nhiet do coo. • Tdc dung v6'i mot so dung dich muoi, tao r a bazcf k h o n g t a n . D i e u che' Cu^" (dd) + 2 0 H - (dd) ^ Cu(0H)2i Dien p h a n muoi halogenua nong chay cua chung. +) Dieu che: D i e n p h a n dung dich N a C l bao hoa, c6 m a n g ngan x6p. CaCla > Ca + Clgt 2 N a C l + 2H2O > 2 N a 0 H + H ^ t + Clat 5^ ^ MgCl2 ) M g + Clat ^ ° & c h u o i phan ling H b a h p c V o c a 65
  6. § 4 . MOT S O H0P C H A T Q O A N T R Q N G C(JA KIM LOAI KlfeM THO 0. BAI TAP CO LCJl GIAI MOt so hgfp c h a t c u a c a n x i gai I. Hoan t h a n h scf do p h a n ufng sau: +) C a n x i h i d r o x i t - Ca(OH)2 j^aOHi^^NaaS NaaO-^NajCO^ NaaO^-^Na2S04 • Dung dich canxi h i d r o x i t (nUdrc v o i trong) la m o t bazcf m a n h . 0) . ^ y i \[ / Ca(0H)2 -> Ca^* (dd) + 2 0 H - ( d d ) (12) (25) (7) (8) . Na' • Dung dich canxi hidroxit c6 nhCCng t i n h chat chung cua mot bazcf tan. N a C l ^ ' N l H - ^ N a O H - ^ NJ Canxi cacbonat - CaCOa • C i i n x i cacbonat tac dung v6i nhieu axit hufu cor va v6 cof. , Loi gidi CaCOg + 2HC1 -> CaCla + H2O + COat (1) 2Na + S - CaCOa + 2CH3COOH ^ Ca(CH3COO)2 + H2O + COgt (2) 2Na + H2 —>2NaH • Canxi cacbonat t a n dan t r o n g niTdfc c6 chufa k h i cacbon dioxit. (3) 2Na + CI2 2NaCl CaCOs + H2O + CO2 Ca(HC03)2 (4) 2NaCl > 2Na + CI2T 'i> C a n x i s u n f a t - C a S 0 4 (5) 4 N a O H """^ > 4Na + Ogt + 2H2O CaS04.2H20 la thach cao song, ben d n h i e t dp thiTcfng. CaS04.H20 hoac CaSO4.0,5H2O la thach cao nung. (6) Na2S + 2 H 2 0 - ^ 2NaOH + H2ST Dieu che : CaS04.2H20 > CaS04.H20 + H2O (7) 2 N a C l + 2H2O , /P'", - > 2NaOH + Clzt + Hgt CaS04 1^ thach cao k h a n k h o n g t a n va k h o n g tac dung v6'i nUo'c. (8) N a O H + H C l > N a C l + H2O Dieu che: n u n g thach cao song of n h i e t do cao hcfn, (9) 4Na + O2 > 2Na20 'i> Nude Cling Id nuac c6 chiia nhiiu cation Ca^* va Mg^'*'. Nuac chiia it (10) 2Na + 2H2O - ^ 2 N a O H + H2t hodc khong chiiCa cdc ion tren dugc ggi Id nUdc mem. (11) N a H + H2O N a O H + Hat % C a c b i ^ n p h a p l a m m e m ni^ofc cvtng +> Phiicfng phap ket tua (12) Na20 + H2O ->2NaOH • De l a m m e m ntfotc c6 t i n h cufng t a m th&i can dun soi niidc hoSc (13) NaaO + C% > Na2C03 dung ntfofc v o i t r o n g hay dung dich Na2C03 (vCfa du). (14) 2NaOHdu + CO2 > NazCOs + H2O • De l ^ m m e m n\S6c c6 t i n h cufng v I n h cufu c6 the dung dung dich (15) N a O H + CO2 > NaHCOa NagCOg hoac dung dich Na3P04. (16) NaHCOg + N a O H > NazCOg + H2O +) PhUctng phap trao doi ion PhiTcfng phap nay dua t r e n k h a nang trao doi i o n cua m o t so (17) Na2C03 + CO2 + H2O > 2NaHC03 chat cao p h a n tuf t h i e n n h i e n va n h a n tao n h u cdc h a t zeolit (18) NaHCOg + H C l > N a C ! ^- COgt + H2O hoSc nhua trao doi i o n . (19) NaaCOs + 2HC1 > 2NaCl + CO2T + H2O
  7. dpdd (20) N a C l + H2O klidng c6 mang ngAii xdp ITaClO + H o t Led gidi (21) N a C l O + 2HC1 - N a C l + Clzt + H2O (1) NaaCOa + 2HC1 2NaCl + COat + H2O il|)d NaClO + H2T (hay NaClO + NagSOg — > Na2S04 + NaCl) (3) 2 N a C l ) 2Na + Clat (23) Na2S04 + BaCla - - > B a S 0 4 i + 2 N a C l (4) 2 N a C l + 2H2O ^ » 2 N a O H + Cl2t + H2T CO nian^ ii^an xop (24) N a C l + AgNOg - NaNOg + A g C U (5) NagCOs + Ca(0H)2 > CaCOgi -t 2 N a O H (25) Na2S04 + Ba(N03)2 - > B a S 0 4 i + 2NaN03 (6) 4 N a O H 4Na + 0 2 ! + 2H2O (26) NaNOs 2NaN02 + Ogt 1 Bai 2. Hoan t h a n h sof do phan ufng sau: (7) N a + H2O NaOH + - H , ! 2 (2) (3) (5), (Z) •KCIO •KCl-^O KCIO (6) (8) 2Na + Br2 — 2NaBr + H2t (9) 2 N a B r > 2Na + Br2 KOH KQ (8) (10) Br2 + 2 N a I > 2 N a B r + I2 (10) (9) '(14) K2S- KclO^KC103^KCi04^ KNO3 Bai 4. Hoan t h a n h chu6i phan ufng sau: Lofi giai . (1) 2 K + H2 - > 2KH NaCl NaCl (2) K H +H2O KOH + Hst (3) K O H + H C l - > K C l + H2O (4) 2KC1 "P"^ > K + Clat Led gidi 70"C (5) 3CI2 + 6K0Hdac > 5KC1 + KCIO3 + 3H2O Xi : Na X2 : NaaO X 3 : NaOH X4 NaaCOg (6) 4KCIO3 K C l + 3KCIO4 Yi : CI2 Y2 : H C l Y 3 : CuClg Y4 MgCl2 (7) K C l + H2O ..,...,!^^1.,„ c6 niang ng.ln xop ) KCIO + H2T (1) 2 N a C l - > 2Na + Clat Xi Y i (8) 2 K + S -> K2S (9) K2S + 2H2O > 2 K 0 H + HaSt (2) 4 N a + O2 >2Na20 Xi X2 (10) 2K0Hd.„gdich + CI2 '"""^^"^ > K C l + K C I O + H2O (3) NaaO + H2O -— > 2NaOH (11) 3KC10 > KCIO3 + 2KC1 X2 X3 (12) 4KCIO3 - ^ 3 K C 1 0 4 + K C l (4) 2 N a O H + CO2 — N a 2 C 0 3 + H2O (13) KCIO4 — ^ K C l + 202t X3 X4 (14) K C l + AgNOg > KNO3 + A g C U (5) CI2 + H 2 — ^ 2HC1 Bai 3. Hoan t h a n h sor do phan ufng sau: Yx Y2 Na2C03 NaCl-^NaClO —> CuCla + H2O (6) 2HC1 + CuO (3) Y2 Y3 (8) (7) CuCl2 + M g • •NaBi (9) •Br (10). -> MgClz + C u l Y4 S a do & c h u S i p h a n ufng H o a h o c V 6 cO do & c h u o i p h a n i h i g H o a h o c V 6 cot
  8. (8) 2Na + C I 2 > 2NaCl 6. H o a n t h a n h chu6i phSn ufng sau: Xi Yi (3) (5) NaaO- (1) ->NaOH )Na ± NaCl ±NaOH (9) Na20 + 2 H C l >2NaCl + H 2 O (4) (6) X2 Y2 (9) Na2C03 NaHCO (10) 2 N a O H + C U C I 2 > 2 N a C l + Cu(0H)2^ (10) X 3 Y 3 Led gidi (11) Na2C03 + MgCla > MgCOgi + 2NaCl (1) N a 2 0 + H 2 O > 2NaOH X4 Y4 (2) 4 N a O H _ ' i E f i ^ 4 N a + 0 2 ! + 2H2O lai S. Bo tuc chu6i p h a n ufng va viet cAc phiromg t r i n h p h a n ufng (m6i (3) 2 N a + CI2 > 2NaCl m u i t e n l a m o t p h a n ufng). Cho biet B l a k h i dung n a p cho cac b i n h chiJa lufa. A l a khoang san ph5' bien thiTofng dung san xuat (4) 2 N a C l 'P"^ > 2 N a + C l 2 t voi song. dpdd (5) 2 N a C l + 2H2O 2 N a O H + CI2T + H o t A - ' c6 nihng ng.ln x6'p (6) N a O H + H C l - - > N a C l + H2O (7) 2NaOHd^ + CO2 > NaaCOg + H2O (8) Na2C03 + Ca(0H)2 > CaCOgI + 2 N a O H (9) NazCOg + CO2 + H2O ^ 2NaHC03 HCl (10) NaHCOs + N a O H > Na2C03 + H2O Lai giai Bai 7. H o a n t h a n h chuoi p h a n ufng sau: A:CaC03 B : CO2 C : NaHCOg (16) (15) DrNaaCOa E : Ca(0H)2 F : CaClg NaNO, CaCOa — ^ CaO + COat A B . " N a - ^ Na2S NaN03 - ( ^ N a 2 S 0 4 ^^(8) CO2 + N a O H > NaHCOg B C NaClO C02 + 2NaOH > NaaCOg + H 2 O Led gidi B D (1) 2 N a + S — ^ NaaS NaaCOg + HCl(R6tt£rtw > NaHCOg + N a C l , D . C (2) Na2S + Cu(N03)2 > 2NaN03 + C u S i NaHCOg + Naoii > NaaCOg + H 2 O (3) KNO3 + ( N H 4 ) 2 S 0 4 ^ ^ K2SO4 + 2N2O + 4 H 2 O C D (giai thich: 2 K N O 3 + (NH4)zS04 > K2SO4 + 2NH4NO3 2 N a H C 0 g + Ca(0H)2 NagCOg + CaCOgi + 2 H 2 O Co nhiet do nen: N H 4 N O 3 — ^ 2N2O + 4 H 2 O ) C E A (4) Na2S04 + Ba(0H)2 > 2NaOH + BaS04i NaaCOg + CaCl2 > CaCOgi + 2 N a C l (5) 2 N a O H + H2SO4 > Na2S04 + 2H2O D F A (6) Na2S04 + B a C l 2 > 2NaCl + B a S 0 4 i So do & chuoi phan dug H6a hoc V6 ccJ
  9. (7) 2N8C1 + Ag2S04 ioang -—> Na.SO^ + 2 A g C U (1) 2Na + 2H20 >2NaOH + Hgt (8) 2 N a C l + 2 H , 0 —^-^ 2 N a O H + Clgt + H a t CO m a n g n g i i i i xop (2) 4 N a O H "^"^ > 4Na + Ogt + 2H2O (3) 2Na + CI2 > 2NaCl (9) N a O H + H C l > NaCl + HgO (4) 2 N a C l —^E!£_> 2Na + Clgt (10) 4 K 0 n > 4 K + 0 2 t + 2H2O dpdd (5) 2 N a C l + 2H2O > 2 N a O H + Clot + H o t (11) 2Na + 2H2O > 2NaOH + Hgt CO m . i p g n g i i n xop (12) 2 N a C l > 2Na + Cist . (6) N a O H + H C l - N a C l + H2O (13) 2Na + C l 2 ^ ^ 2NaCl (7) 2NaOHdu„gdich + CI2 > N a C l + N a C l O + H2O (14^ N a C l + H2O , .. > NaClO + H g t (8) N a C l + H2O — dpcid . , , NaClO + H2t k h o n g C O i n a i i g ngSn xop (15) N a O H + HNO3 > NaNOg + H2O k h o n g C O m n n g ngftn xop (9) N a C l O + 2HC1 > N a C l + Cist + H2O (16) N a N O g ^ ^ NaNOa + ^ O g t (10) 2 N a C l + H2S04dac 250"C > 2HC1 + Na2S04 (hay N a C l + H2S04dac •> 2HC1 + N a H S 0 4 ) Bai 8. H o a n t h a n h sd do p h a n ufng sau: i 10. H o a n t h ^ n h scf do p h a n ufng sau: ' ± 0 2 ^ y ± J l 2 0 V +(NH4)2S04,^ t - l M ^ V ^\ Na20. .(8) Ldi gidi (6) NaCl NaOH 4=^ Na2C03 NaHCOj (1) 4Na + O2 > 2Na20 (10) (12) X Na (2) Na20 + H2O > 2NaOH Loi gidi X Xi (1) 2Na + CI2 -> 2 N a C i (3) 2 N a O H + (NH4)2S04 — ^ Na2S04 + 2 N H 3 t + 2H2O (2) 2 N a C l - ^ " ^ 2Na + C l z t Xi X2 (3) 2Na + 2H2O > 2NaOH + Hgt (4) N H 3 + H N O 3 > NH4NO3 (4) 4 N a O H > 4Na + 0 2 t + 2H2O X2 X3 (5) 2 N a C l 4 - 2 H 2 0 dpdd 2NaOH + Clgt + H a t (5) NH4N03 > N2O + 2H2O (6) 2NaOHdungdich + CI2 > N a C l + N a C l O + H2O X3 Xj X 5 (7) NaaO + 2HC1 > 2 N a C l + H2O Bai 9. H o a n t h a n h scf do p h a n ufng sau: (8) NaaO + HgO > 2NaOH NaOH (9) 2 N a O H + CO2 > NagCOa + H2O Na(^'(5) (6) N , , c i O - ^ N a C l - i i ^ HCI (10) NaaCOs + Ca(0H)2 > CaC03i + 2 N a O H (11) NasCOg + HClfehotcr tfr) > NaUCOa + N a C l NaCl NagCOg + H2O
  10. CHUt^NG U( § 2 . M Q T S O H0P C H A T Q O A N T R Q N G CUA NHOM ' ij^ N h o m oxit - AI2O3 NHOM - CAC HOfP CHAT CUA NHOM +) N h o m oxit l a chat r a n , mau trSng, k h o n g t a n t r o n g niTdfc A. T O M T A T LI T H U Y E T khong tac dung vdri niidrc, nong chay d t r e n 2050°C. §1. NHOM +) AI2O3 l a hgrp chat liTSng t i n h : >i> T i n h c h a t h o a h o c ^ • AI2O3 tdc dung vdi dung dich axit: +) Tdc dying v&i phi kim tao t h a n h oxit hoac muoi. 2A1 + 3CI2 - > 2 A I C I 3 Wm AI2O3 + 6 H C 1 ^ 2 A I C I 3 + 3H2O B A I 2 O 3 + 6H^ -^2A1^^ + 3H20 4A1 + 3O2 - > AI2O3 Chu y: Nhom ben trong khong khi d nhiet do thiiang do c6 mang oxit AI2O3 rdt • AI2O3 tdc dung vdi dung dich kiem: tnong va ben bdo ve. A I 2 O 3 + 2 N a O H + 3H2O ^ 2Na[Al(OH)4] +) Tdc d^ng v&i axit A I 2 O 3 + 2 0 H " + 3H2O 2[A1(0H)J- ) • N h o m khuf d i dang ion H * t r o n g dung dich H C l va H 2 S O 4 logng t h a n h k h i H2. % Nhom hidroxit - A1(0H)3 2A1 + 6HC1 ^ 2 A I C I 3 + 3H2T +) N h o m h i d r o x i t la chat r a n , mau t r a n g , k e t tua d dang keo. • N h o m tac dung vdri dung dich HNO3 bang, HNO3 dsc, n6ng va II2SO4 d^- + ; D i l u c h e A1(0H)3: Al + 4HNO3 (,o«ng, - > A1(N03)3 + NOT + 2 H 2 O A I C I 3 + 3NH3 + 3H2O - > A J ( 0 H ) 3 i + 3 N H 4 C I 2A1 + 6H2SO4 (d4c, nang) - > Al2(S04)3 + SSOgt + 6H2O Al^^ + 3NH3 + 3H2O -> A 1 ( 0 H ) 3 ^ + 3 N H ; Chu y: Nhdm bi thu dgng vdi axit HNO3 dqc. ngu^i va axit H2SO4 ngu^i +) Tdc dung v&i oxit kim lo^i + ) A 1 ( 0 H ) 3 l a h i d r o x i t lifdng t i n h : O n h i e t do cao, A l khuf diidc nhieu ion k i m loai t r o n g hap chat oxit. • Tdc dung vdi dung dich axit: 2A1 + Fe203 — ^ ^ A l z O a + 2Fe A' 0 H ) 3 + 3HC1 ^ AICI3 + 3H2O J Chu ^: Phdn ting tren goi la. phdn ting nhi^t nhom. Al(0H)3 + 3H" ^ Al^* + 3H2O +) T'dc dung v&i nii&c • Tdc dung vdi dung dich baza: Neu pha bo 16p oxit t r e n be m a t n h o m (hoSc tao t h a n h h6n hong A l - H g ) , t h i n h o m se tac dung v6i ntfdc d n h i e t do thUcfng: A1(0H)3 + N a O H - > 2 N a [ A l ( O H ) 4 ] 2A1 + 6H2O ^ 2 A l ( O H ) 3 l + BHat A1(0H)3 + OH- -> [A1(0H)J- ^ I Chu y: Nhom khong tdc dung vdi ntidc, du d nhi&t dd cao Id vt trin bi m0.t cua Chii y: Nhdm hidroxii thi hien tinh baza trgi han tinh axit. Do cd nhom diigc pha kin mot Idp AI2O3 rdt mdng, min va ben, khdng cho khi vd nude thdm qua. tinh axit n&n nhdm hidroxit con cd t^n la aluminic. Axit +) Tdc dung v&i dung dich kiem aluminic la axit rdt yeu, yeu han axit cacbonic. 2A1 + 2 N a O H + 6H2O - » 2 N a [ A l ( O H ) 4 ] + SHat ^ *^ N h o m s u n f a t - Al2(S04)3 % San xuat nhom ' +) M u o i n h o m sunfat k h a n t a n t r o n g niidc toa n h i e t . Dien phdn nhom oxit nong chdy. +) M u o i sunfat kep cua n h o m va k a l i ngam niTdc goi la phen chua. i 2AI2O3 4A1 + SOat Cong thufc: K2S04.Al2(S04)3.24H20, viet gon: KA1(S04)2.12H20. ^ CHA y: Phdi l&m squ:h qu^ng boxit (loai Fe^Os, SiO^ trade khi diin phdn. So do & c h u o i p h d n l i n g H 6 a h o c V6 CO 75 74 S(J d o & c h u o i p h a n ufne H 6 a h o c V6 cO
  11. B. BAI TAP CO LCJl GIAI (18) A l ( O H ) 3 + K O H > KAIO2 + 2H2O Bai I . Hoan t h a n h so do phan ufng sau: (19) 2Al(OH)3 + 3H2SO4 >Al2(S04)3 + 3H2O AI4C3 (20) 2A1(N03)3 AI2O3 + 6NO2T + - Ozt (21) AICI3 + 3AgN03 A1(N03)3 + 3 A g C l i (22) KAIO2 + 4HCld,r -> AICI3 + K C l + 2H2O (23) AICI3 + 4 K 0 H - > KAIO2 + 3KC1 + 2H2O (24) 2 K A I O 2 + 4H2SO, > Al2(S04)3 + K2SO4 + 4H2O (25) 2AI2O.. J'Z,-. Na,AlR, > 4A1 + 302t AI2O3 , (26) A l + 6HNO3 dac nfing > A1(N03)3 + 3NO2T + 3H2O Al2(S04)3 (27) 3Mg + 2AICI3 > 3MgCl2 + 2 A U 3 Led giai (28) A l + K O H + H2O ^ KAIO2 + - H 2 t 2 (1) 4A1 + 3C - AI4C 4^3 (29) AI2O3 + 2 K 0 H 2KAIO2 + H2O (2) 2A1 + 6HC1 >2A1C13 + SHst (30) 4A1 + 3O2 2AI2O3 (3) A l + N a O H + HgO ^NaAlOg + --H2T (31) AI2O3 + 3H2SO4 > Al2(S04)3 + 3H2O 2 800"C Bai 2, H o a n t h a n h so' do phan ufng sau: (4) 2A1 + N2 -> 2A1N (5) 2A1 + 3S ^^AlaSa (6) AI4C3 + 12HC1 ^ 4AICI3 + 3CH4t (7) NaAlOa + 4HClda > AICI3 + N a C l + 2H2O (17) (8) AICI3 + 4NaOHdu > NaAlOg + 3 N a C l + 2H2O (9) AI4C3 + I 2 H 2 O > 4Al(OH)3i + 4CH4t (10) AICI3 + 3NH3 + 3H2O > A K O I D s l + 3NH4CI (10) A I C I 3 — A 1 ( N 0 3 ) 3 — ^ NaA102 hay AICI3 + 3 N a O H ^crada >A1(0H)3^ + 3NaCl Led giai hay 2AICI3 + 3Na2C03 + 3H2O ^ 2 A l ( O H ) 3 l + 6NaCl + SCOgT (11) NaAlOa + CO2 + 2H2O > A l ( 0 H ) 3 i + NaHC03 (1) 2A1 + Fe203 — -> AI2O3 + 2Fe (hay NaAlOs + H C U a du + H2O > A1(0H)3^ + NaCl) (2) 4A1 + 3O2 2AI2O3 (12) A I N + 3H2O > A1(0H)3^ + N H a t (3) AI2O3 + 3H2SO4 > Al2(S04)3 + 3H2O (13) AI2S3 + 6H2O > 2A1(0H)3^ + 3H2St (4) Al2(S04)3 + 6 N a O H vcradu > 2 A l ( O H ) 3 l + 3Na2S04 (5) AI2O3 + 6HC1 > 2AICI3 + 3H2O (14) 2AI2O3 + 9C > AI4C3 + 6 C 0 t (6) A1(0H)3 + 3HC1 - > AICI3 + 3H2O (15) 2Al(OH)o — ^ AI2O3 + 3H2O (7) 2A1(0H)3 AI2O3 + 3H2O (16) A1(0H)3 + 3HNO3 — > A1(N03)3 + 3H2O (8) 2AI2O3 J:Z,^^ > 4A1 + 3 0 2 t (17) A1(0H)3 + 3HC1 - AICI3 + 3H2O
  12. (9) 4 A 1 + 3 0 2 -> 2AI2O3 (10) A I C I 3 + 3NH3 + S H z O — ^ A l ( O H ) o i + 3NH4CI (10) A l + N a O H + H o O -^NaAlOa + - H g t (hay 2 A I C I 3 + S N a a C O g + SHzO >2Al(OH)3^ + 6 N a C l + 3 C O 2 ) (hay A I C I 3 + S N a O H v C a du > A l ( 0 H ) 3 i + 3NaCl ) (11) 2A1 + 3CI2 -^2A1C13 (11) A1(0H)3 + 3HC1 > AICI3 + 3 H 2 O (hay 2A1 + 6HC1 > 2AICI3 + SHgt) (12) 2A1(0H)3 AI2O3 + 3 H 2 O (hay 2A1 + SCuCls >2A1C13 + 3 C u i ) (13) A1(0H)3 + N a O H > NaA102 + 2 H 2 O (12) A l + 4 H N 0 3 i o a n g > A 1 ( N 0 3 ) 3 + NOT + 2 H 2 O (14) NaAlOa + C O 2 + 2 H 2 O )• A l ( 0 H ) 3 i + N a H C 0 3 (13) AICI3 + 3AgN03 > A1(N03)3 + 3 A g C U Bai 4. V i e t cac p h a n ufng theo so' do sau: (14) 2A1(N03)3 -> AI2O3 + GNOgt + - Oat ' Nhom — n h o m oxit — n h o m clorua — n h o m 2 (15) A1(N03)3 + 4NaOHdu > NaAlOa + SNaNOg + 2 H 2 O hidroxit — n a t r i aluminat — n h o m h i d r o x i t —^-^^ (16) AI2O3 + 2 N a O H > 2NaA102 + H2O nhom nitrat — n h o m oxit — n a t r i aluminat — (17) NaAlOa + C O 2 + 2 H 2 O > A l ( 0 H ) 3 i + NaHCOg n h o m clorua — > nhom nitrat — " " > nhom hidroxit (hay NaAlOa + HClvCa ac. + H 2 O > Al(0H)3i + NaCl ) > nhom oxit >nh6m Bai 3. H o a n t h a n h cac phan ufng t r o n g scr do sau: Led gidi (1) (1) 4A1 + 3 O 2 2AI2O3 ALC (2) A I 2 O 3 + 6HC1 > 2AICI3 + 3 H 2 O ( 3 ) AICI3 + 3 N H 3 + 3H2O > Al(0H)3i + 3 N H 4 C I Al.S (2) L Al _(5) A1(0H)3 (hay 2AICI3 + 3Na2C03 + 3 H 2 O > 2Al(OH)3i + 6NaCl + 3CO2) (hay AICI3 + 3 N a O H v c a d u — ^ A1(0H)3^ + 3 N a C l ) (3) AIN. (4) A1(0H)3 + N a O H > NaA102 + 2 H 2 O NaAlOj Lai gidi (5) NaA102 + C O 2 + 2 H 2 O - — > A1(0H)3^ + N a H C 0 3 (1) 4A1 + 3C 800"C > AI4C3 (hay NaAlOa + H C U du + H 2 O > A1(0H)3^ + N a C l ) (2) 2A1 + 3S AI2S3 (6) A1(0H)3 + 3 H N O 3 > A1(N03)3 + 3 H 2 O 800"C (3) 2A1 + N2 > 2A1N (7) 2A1(N03)3 A I 2 O 3 + 6N02t + |o2t (4) 2A1 + 3CI2 2AICI3 (8) A I 2 O 3 + 2 N a O H > 2NaA102 + H2O (5) 4A1 + 3O2 ^ 2AI2O3 dpnc (9) NaA102 + 4 H C l d u ' > AICI3 + NaCl + 2 H 2 O (6) 2 A I 2 O 3 Na,AlF„ 4A1 + 3 O 2 T (10) A I C I 3 + 3AgN03 > A1(N03)3 + S A g C U (7; A l + N a O H + H 2 O NaAlOa + - H g t (Jl)Al(N03)3 + 3NaOHvtoda > Al(OH)34 + 3 N a N 0 3 2 (12) 2A1(0H)3 — ^ A1203 + 3 H 2 O (8) A I 2 O 3 + 6HC1 > 2AICI3 + 3H2O (13) 2 A I 2 O 3 4A1 + SOat (9) A I 2 O 3 + 2 N a O H > 2NaAlQ2 + H2O
  13. Bai 5. ViS't cac phan ufng theo scf d6 sau: Bai 7. H o ^ n t h i i n h sO do phan ufng sau: (1) Nhom •> sunfua nhom • (2) •> nhom h i d r o x i t (3) (5) b a r i a l u m i n a t - -•^^^ nhom h i d r o x i t — > n h o m oxit — (1) (2) bari aluminat n h o m sunfat — ^ n h o m clorua A I 3+ Al(OH)3 Al203 5 = ^ A l ( N 0 3 ) 3 (10) nhom nitrat - •> n a t r i a l u m i n a t (H) > n a t r i hidrocacbonat (6) (7). (12) > n a t r i clorua — > natri •AIO9 L&igidi Lofi gidi (1) 2A1 + 3S — ^ AI2S3 (1) A P + 30H-v£rada --^ A l ( 0 H ) 3 i (2) A I 2 S 3 + 6H2O > 2 A l ( O H ) 3 i + SHaSt (2) 2A1(0H)3 — ^ AI2O3 + 3 H 2 O (3) 2A1(0H)3 + B a ( 0 H ) 2 > Ba(A102)2 + 4H2O (3) AI2O3 + 6HNO3 > 2A1(N03)3 + 3 H 2 O (4) Ba(A102)2 + 2HCUada + 2H2O > 2A1(0H)3^ + BaCl2 (5) 2A1(0H)3 — ^ AI2O3 + 3H2O (4) 2A1(N03)3 — ^ AI2O3 + GNOat + | Ogt (6) AI2O3 + B a ( 0 H ) 2 - -> Ba(A102)2 + H2O (5) A1(N03)3 + 3K0Hvcradu >Al(0H)3i + 3KNO3 (7) BaA102 + 4H2SO4 - -> Al2(S04)3 + B a S 0 4 l + 4H2O (6) A1(0H)3 + 0 H - ' > AIO2 + 2H2O (8) Al2(S04)3 + 3BaCl2 2AICI3 + 3 B a S 0 4 i (9) A I C I 3 + 3AgN03 — -> A1(N03)3 + 3 A g C l l (7) AI2O3 + 2 0 H - > 2 A I O 2 + H2O (10) A1(N03)3 + 4 N a O H >NaA102 + 3NaN03 + 2H2O (8) A I O 2 + 4 H " > A l ^ " + 2H2O (11) NaAlOa + C O 2 + 2H2O > A l ( 0 H ) 3 i + NaHCOg Bai 8. V i e t cac p h a n ufng theo scf do sau: (12) N a H C 0 3 + H C l > NaCl + CO2T + H 2 O ^. . . + d d K A 1 0 2 (41 ^ A l C l 3 - ^ AKNOj) dung dich A ^—. • (13) 2 N a C l - ^ - > 2Na + CU ^ • (1) (7)y Bai 6. H o a n t h a n h so do bien hoa sau: dd KAlOo (10) (14) dung dich B ^Al(OH)3-^Al203 (11) (2) \\(8) .(8) AI2S3 ( a Al-(13)_^NaA10^ dung dich C +ddKA10. Al (6) 1 ^ • (3) ' (8)^ Lai gidi ^Al.Oj (1) 2 K A I O 2 + C O , + 3H2O 2A1(0H)34 + K2CO3 LM gidi dung dich A (1) 2A1 + 3S > AI2S3 (2) K A I O 2 + H C l , , , , . + H , Q > Al(OH)34 + K C l (2) A I 2 S 3 + 6H2O > 2Al(OH)3i + 3H2ST dungdjchB (3) 2A1(0H)3 + Ba(0H)2 > Ba(A102)2 + 4H2O (3) K A I O 2 + C H 3 C O O H + H;0 > Al(0H)3i + C H 3 C O O K (4) Ba(A102)2 + 4H2SO4 > B a S 0 4 i + Al2(S04)3 + 4H2O dung djch C (5) Al2(S04)3 + 6 N a O H vtoda >2A1(0H)3^ + 3Na2S04 (4) A1(0H)3 + 3HC1 > AICI3 + 3H2O (6) 2A1(0H)3 + 3H2SO4 > Al2(S04)3 + 6H2O (5) 2A1(0H)3 ^ — > AI2O3 + 3 H 2 O (7) 2A1(0H)3 AI2O3 + 3H2O (6) A1(0H)3 + N a O H )• NaAlOg + 2H2O (8) 2AI2O3 j;:;;;. > 4 A I + 302T (7) AlaO.q + 6HC1 — ^ 2AICI3 + 3H2O
  14. (8) 2 A I 2 O 3 — 4 A 1 + aOst (9) 4A1 + 3O2 — ^ 2AI2O3 w LiH giai (1) A l + OH" + H2O > AIO2 + | H 2 t (10) 2A1 + 3CI2 2AICI3 dung dic/i X (11) 2AICI3 + 3 M g > 3MgCl2 + 2 A U (12) AICI3 + 3AgN03 > A1(N03)3 + 3 A g C U (2) AIO2 + CO2 + 2FI2O > A1(0H)3^ + HCO3 (13) 2A1 + 2NaOH + 2H2O > 2NaA102 + 3H2t (12) A1(N03)3 + 4NaOHdu > NaAlOg + 3NaN03 + 2H2O (3) AIO2 + 4 H * > Ar"+2H20 Bai 9. Hoan thanh phan ufng theo so" do sau: dung dich Yi (4) A1(0H)3 + OH" — ^ AIO2 + 2H2O m dung dich X P-Bai II. Viet cac phan ufng theo sd do sau: Cho M la mot k i m loai. Viet phifo'ng t r i n h phan ufng theo day bien hoa sau Biet Xi, X2, X 3 , X 4 la 4 ho"p chat sau (khong theo thuf tiT): AI2O3, AICI3, Ba(A102)2, A1(N03)3. g_Di£nphan_^]yj LM giai nong chiy Theo scf do phan ufng tren ta xac dinh dirac : Xi : A I C I 3 X2 : A1(N03)3 X 3 : AI2O3 X 4 : Ba(A102) (1) 2A1 + 6HC1 >2A1C13 + 3H2T (Be thi tuyen sink BH, kiwi A - 2003) (2) A l + 4HNO3 loang > A1(N03)3 + N O t + 2H2O Lid gidi Theo sd do, kim loai M phai la A l . Cac phUdng t r i n h phan ufng : (3) 4A1 + 3O2 2AI2O3 (1) 2A1 + 6HC1 >2AlCl3 + 3H2t (4) 2Al203-4^ 4 A l + 302t (M) (B) (5) 2A1 + Ba(0H)2 + 2H2O >Ba(A102)2 + SHgt (6) Ba(A102)2 + 4HC1 > AICI3 + BaClg + 2H2O (2) A l + NaOH + H2O > NaAlOa + - H2T (7) 2AICI3 + 4Ba(OH)2 > Ba(A102)2 + 3BaCl2+ 4H2O 2 (M) (Z) (8) AICI3 + 3AgN03 > A1(N03)3 + 3 A g C U (3) AICI3 + 31 H3 + 3H2O -> A l ( 0 H ) 3 i + 3NH4CI (9) AI2O3 + Ba(0H)2 > Ba(A102)2 + H2O (B) (X) (Z) (D) (10) AI2O3 + 6HNO3 > 2A1(N03)3 + 3H2O (4) NaAlOa + CO2 + 2H2O > A l ( 0 H ) 3 i + NaHCOg (11) 4A1(N03)3 2AI2O3 + 12N02t + 302t 3ai 10. Hoan thanh chuoi bien hoa sau: (C) (Y) (Z) (D) (5) 2A1(0H)3 — ^ AI2O3 + 3H2O A l - ^ ^ dungdichX >Y; - ^ X (D) (E) (6) 2AI2O3 > 4A1 + 302t
  15. si> Hcfp cha't c r o m ( I I I ) CHl/CfNG m +) Crom (III) oxit - Cr203: la oxit luong t i n h . CROM - SAT - DONG +; Crom (III) hidroxit - Cr(OH)3 A, TOM T A T LI T H U Y E T • Dieu che: §1. CROM • ^ CrCl3 + 3 N a O H ^ C r ( 0 H ) 3 i + SNaCl ^ Tinh chat hoa hoc • C r ( 0 H ) 3 Ik h i d r o x i t lifSng t i n h : +) Tdc dung v&i phi kim C r ( 0 H ) 3 + 3HC1 -> CrCls + 3H2O 4Cr + 3O2 — ^ 2Cr203 C r ( 0 H ) 3 + N a O H ^ N a [ C r ( 0 H ) 4 ] hay NaCr02.2P520 2 C r + 3CI2 2CrCl3 natri cromit 2 C r + 3S — ^ CvSz +) Tac dying v&i niidc +^ Muoi crom (III): c6 t i n h oxi hoa va t i n h khijr. C r o m b e n h o n v d i nufdc v a k h o n g k h i do c6 m a n g oxit r a t mong, 2Cr'^ + Zn ^ 2Cr'" + Zn'" b i n bao v e . NgiJdi t a m a crom l e n s a t de bao ve s a t v a dung crom de che' thep k h o n g gi. 2Cr^^ + 3Br2 + IGOH" 2 C r O f + GBr" + 8H2O +> T a c dung vcd axit Htfp c h a t c r o m ( V I ) C r + 2HC1 ^ CrCl2 + Hat +; Crom (VI) oxit - CrOa C r + H2SO4 CrS04 + H2T Chu y: - Phdn tcng xdy ra khi khong c6 khong khi. • C r o m ( V I ) oxit (Cr03) la chfi't r ^ n mau do t h t m . - Crom khong tdc dung vdi axit HNO3 ddc, ngugi vd H2SO4 ddc, • Cr03 la m o t oxit a x i t , tac dung v d i nxidc tao r a a x i t : nguoi do bi thu ddng hoa. § 2 . M O T SO H0P C H A T C U A C R O M Cr03 + H2O —> H2CrC4 : axit cromic Hofp c h a t c r o m ( I I ) 2Cr03 + H2O -> H2Cr207 : axit dicromic +) Crom (II) oxit -CrO • CrOs CO t i n h oxi hoa m a n h . • C r O 1^ oxit baztf, t a c dung vdi axit. 2Cr03 + 2NH3 CrzOa + N 2 t + 3H2O CrO + 2HC1 CrCla + H2O • C r O CO t i n h khijf, de b i oxi h o a t h a n h CrgOg. +) Muoi cromat vd dicromat +; Crom (II) hidroxit - Cr(0H)2 • M u o i cromat c6 mau vang cua ion cromat CrOf'. • Dieu che: • M u o i dicromat c6 mau da cam cua i o n dicromat CraOy" . CrCl2 + 2 N a O H -> C r ( 0 H ) 2 i + 2 N a C l • Cac muoi cromat va dicromat c6 t i n h oxi hoa m a n h . • Cr(0H)2 CO t i n h khuf: 4Cr(0H)2 + O2 + 2 H 2 O 4 C r ( 0 H ) 3 K2 Cr^Oj + 6FeB0i + 7H2SO4 - » 3 ^ 6 2 ( 8 0 4 ) 3 + C r 2 ( 8 0 4 ) 3 + K 2 8 O 4 + 7 H 2 O • C r ( 0 H ) 2 l a mot bazcf: • T r o n g d i m g dich t a c6 can b^ng: Cr(0H)2. + 2HC1 CrCl2 + 2H2O +) Muoi crom(II): c6 t i n h khuf m a n h . CrgOf- + H o O 2Cr02- + 2 H " 2CrCl2 + CI2-> 2CrCl3 |Sa d6 & chuoi phdn itag H 6 a hoc V6 ca 85 -
  16. §3. S A T ^ Htfp c h a t s i t ( I I I ) . T i n h chat hoa hoc +) T i n h c h a t h o a h o c c i i a hoTp c h a t s a t ( I I I ) +) Tdc dung v&i phi kim • Hap chdt sdt (III) c6 tinh oxi hoa Fe + S FeS Fe + 2FeCl3 -> SFeCla 3Fe + 2O2 — F e 3 0 4 Cu + 2FeCl3 -> CuCla + FeCla ; 2Fe + 3CI2 '° > 2FeCl3 vdng ndu dd mdu xanh +) Tdc dung v&i axit 2FeCl3 + 2 K I -> 2FeCl2 + 2KC1 + I2 • Vai dung dich HCl, H2SO4 lodng • Oxit vd hidroxit sdt (III) c6 tinh baza: tac dung \6i a x i t tao Fe + H2SO4 FeS04 + H2T muoi sat ( I I I ) . • Vai dung dich HNO3 vd H2SO4 ddc, nong +) D i e u c h e mpt so hgfp c h a t s a t ( I I I ) Fe + HNO3 loang -> Fe(N03)3 + N O t + 2H2O • P h a n huy F e ( 0 H ) 3 6' n h i e t do cao. 2Fe + 6H2SO4 dac — ^ Fe2(S04)3 + SSOgT + 6H2O Chu y: Fe bi thu (long vai axit HNO3 ddc, ngugi vd H2SO4 d4c, ngugi. 2Fe(OH)3 — ^ Fe203 + SHgO +) Tdc dung v&i dung dich muoi • Cho dung dich k i e m tac dung vdi dung dich muoi sat ( I I I ) . Fe + CUSO4 -> FeS04 + Cu^ FeClg + 3 N a O H - > F e ( 0 H ) 3 i + SNaCl +) Tdc dung v&i nit&c • F e ( 0 H ) 3 k h o n g t a n t r o n g ni/o'c nhiftig de t a n t r o n g dung dich 3Fe + 4H2O Fe304 + 4H2T axit. Fe + H2O . > FeO + H g t 2Fe(OH)3 + 3H2SO4 Fe2(S04)3 + 6H2O § 4 . MOT SO H 0 P C H A T C(JA S A T • Sat ( I I I ) oxit la oxit bazof n e n d i t a n t r o n g cac dung dich axit ^ Htfp c h a t s a t ( I I ) manh. +) T i n h c h a t h o a h o c c i i a hgfp c h a t s a t ( I I ) . FeaOg + 6HC1 2FeCl3 + SHgO • Hap chdt sat (II) c6 tinh khit § 5 . D O N G V A MOT S O H O P C H A T C O A D 6 N G 3FeO + I O H N O 3 loang 3Fe(N03)3 + NOT + 5H2O 4Fe(OH)2 + O2 + 2H2O 4 F e ( O H ) 3 l (ndu do) "^DONG 2FeCl2 + CI2 -> 2FeCi3 1) T i n h c h a t h o a h o c c u a d o n g 10FeSO4 + 2 K M n 0 4 + 8H2SO4 ^ 5Fe2(S04)3 + K2SO4 + 2MnS04 + 8H2O +; Tdc dung v&i phi kim (dung dich mau tim hong) (dung dich mdu vdng) 2Cu + O2 2CuO • Oxit vd hidroxit sdt (II) c6 tinh baza: tdc dung v6i a x i t H C l , (5 n h i e t do cao h d n (800 - 1000°C) m o t p h a n CuO d Idp ben H2SO4 loang tao muoi sat ( I I ) . t r o n g oxi hoa Cu t h a n h CU2O mau do: +) D i e u c h e m p t so hcfp c h a t sit ( I I ) . Fe(0H)2 FeO + H2O CuO + Cu — ^ CU2O Fe203 + CO — M 2 ^ ) . 2FeO + CO2T Dong CO t h e tac dung vdi CI2, Bra, S, ... of n h i e t do thifdng hoac Fe^^ + 2 0 H - ^ Fe(0H)2i (trang xanh) dun nong. Fe + 2HC1 - > FeCl2 + H 2 t Cu + CI2 -> CuClg FeO + H2SO4 FeS04 + H2O Cu + S CuS 86 , S a do & chuoi phan tog Hoa hoc V6 ca
  17. -+) Tac djfing v&i axit BAI TAP C O LOJ GIAT 1. Hoan t h a n h scf do phan ufng sau: 2Cu + 4HC1 + 0 2 ^ 2CuCl2 + 2H2O D6ng b i oxi hoa d§ dang t r o n g H2SO4 dac nong va H N O 3 : -eS t====:?FeCl2 Cu + 2H2SO4 dac — ^ CUSO4. + SOat + 2H2O FeClo -FeO Fe2(S04)3^Fe20: Cu + 4 H N O 3 dac ^ Cu(N03)2 + 2 N 0 2 t + 2H2O (4) (13) (16) (24)\(25),, y27) 3Cu + 8HNO3 loang 3Cu(N03)2 + 2 N 0 t + 4H2O (28) +) Tdc dung v&i dung dich muoi Fe(OH)3i^Fe(N03)3^^Fe304^l4ci2S^Fe\oAFe(N03)2^ Cu + 2AgN03 -> Cu(N03)2 + 2 A g i (36) • . (34) MOT SO H d P C H A T C(JA DONG Led gidi 1) Dong (II) oxit - C u O (1) Fe + S - -> F e S +) CuO l a chat r a n mau den. (2) Fe + H 2 O > FeO + Iht +) CuO dufOc dieu che' bang each n h i e t p h a n cac hdp chat (3) FeO + CO — ^ Fe + C 0 2 t Cu(0H.)2, Cu(N03)2, CuC03.Cu(OH)2, ... (hay F e b + H2 Fe + HgOt) 2Cu(N03)2--^ 2Cu0+4 N02t+Oat (4) FeO + 2HC1 - » FeCla + H 2 O (5) FeS + 2HC1 FeCla + HaSt CuC03.Cu(OH)2 2CuO + CO2 T+ H 2 O (6) FeCl2 + NaaS FeSi + 2NaCl +) CuO CO t i n h oxi hoa: (7) 2Fe + - O2 + nHaO -»Fe203.nH20 CuO + CO Cu + CO2T 2 3 C u O + 2NH3 — ^ N a t + 3 C u + 3H2O (hay 4Fe + SOzvtodu — ^ 2Fe203) 2) Dong (II) hidroxit - Cu(OH)2 (8) Fe203 + 3 C 0 — ^ 2Fe + 3 C 0 2 t +) Cu(0H)2 l a chat r a n mau x a n h . (9) 2FeS + - O2 - FegOg + 2 S 0 2 t +) Dieu che Cu(0H)2 t\i dung dich muoi dong ( I I ) va dung dich 2 —> 2FeCl3 + 3H2O bazcf. (10) FeaOa + 6HC1 -> 3 F e C l 2 (11) 2FeCl3 + Fe - +) Cu(0H)2 CO t i n h bazo, k h o n g t a n t r o n g nifdc nhiAig t a n d§ —> 2 F e C l 2 + CUCI2 ) ( hay 2FeCl3 + Cu dang t r o n g dung dich axit. (12) 2FeCl3 + 3Ag2S04 bang > Fe2(S04)3 + 6 A g C l i +) Cu(0H)2 t a n de dang t r o n g dung dich NH3 tao r a dung dich (13) Fe2(S04)3 + SBaCia - — > 2FeCl3 + 3BaS044 c6 mau x a n h l a m t h i m goi la niTo'c Svayde (14) Fe2(S04)3 FeaOg + 3 S 0 2 t + - O g t Cu(0H)2 + 4NH3 ^ [Cu(NH3)4](0H)2 3) Dong (II) sunfat - C U S O 4 (15) FesOg + 3H2SO4 > Fe2(S04)3 + 3 H 2 O (16) 2FeCl2 + N a C l O + 4 N a O H + H 2 O > 2 F e ( O H ) 3 i + 5NaCl CUSO4 d dang k h a n la chat r a n mau trSng. K h i hap t h u midc (17) 3Mgdu + 2Fe(N03)3 > 3Mg(N03)2 + 2 F e i tao t h a n h muoi h i d r a t CUSO4.5H2O la t i n h the mau x a n h t r o n g (18) Fe + 4HNO3 > Fe(N03)3 + N O t + 2H2O suot. Do vay, CUSO4 dUOc dung de phat h i e n dau vet cua niTdc t r o n g cac chat long. (19) Fe304 + 4 C 0 — ^ 3Fe + 4 C 0 2 t d6 & chuoi phan ting H 6 a hoc V 6 ccf 89 8 So d6 & chuoi phan ufng H 6 a hoc V6 C(J
  18. (20) 3Fe + 2O2 — ^ Fe304 Led gidi (1) 2Fe + 3CI2 - 2FeCl3 ( hay 3Fe + 4H2O > FesO, + 4lht) (2) 2FeCl3 + Fe 3FeCl2 (21) 2Fe304 + 3Fe203 (3) 2FeCl2 + CI2 > 2FeCl3 -> 2Fe304 + CQzt (4) FeCls + 3 N a 0 H > Fe(OH)34- + 3 N a C l (22) SFeaOa + C O - (5) 2Fe(OH)3 + 3H2SO4 > Fe2(S04)3 + 6H2O (23) 2FeCl2 + CI2 - 2FeCl3 (6) Fe + 2HC1 > FeCh + l^'^ (25) 3FeS04 + - CI2 > Fe2(S04)3 + F e C l g (7) FeCla + 2 N a O H > Fe(0H)2i + 2NaCl 1 (8) Fe(0H)2 + H2SO4 bang > FeS04 + 2H2O (hay 2FeS04 + + H2SO4 -> Fe2(S04)3 + H2O) (9) Fe2(S04)3 + Fe — > 3FeS04 (26) Fe2(S04)3 + F e > SFeSOi (10) 6FeS04 + 3CI2 > 2Fe2(S04)3 + 2FeCl3 (27) 6Fe(N03)2 + 9H2SO4 damdac 3Fe2(S04)3 + 2 N 0 (hay 2FeS04 + 2H2SO4 dscneng ^Fe^i^d^ + S 0 2 t + 2H2O) + IOHNO3 + 4H2O (hay 10FeSO4 + 2 K M n 0 4 + 8H2SO4 > 1 _ . ^ FezOg + 4 N 0 2 t + - Ost 5Fe2(S04)3 + 2MnS04 + K2SO4 + 8H2O) (28) 2Fe(NOo)2 (hay 2FeS04 + ^ O2 + H2SO4 > Fe2(S04)3 + H2O) (29) Fe(0H)3 + 3HNO3 - -> Fe(N03)3 + 3H2O (30) Fe(N03)3 + SNaOH Fe(0H)3i + 3NaN03 (hay 6FeS04 + K2Cr207 + 7H2SO4 > (31) 3Fe304 + 28HNO3 > 9Fe(N03)3 + N O t + I 4 H 2 O Fe2(S04)3 + Cr2(S04)3 + K2SO4 + 7H2O) (32) Fe304 + 8HC1 + Fe > AFeCh + 4 H 2 O (11) Fe + 4HN03ioang > Fe(N03)3 + N O t + 2H2O (Giai t h l c h : Fe304 + 8HC1 > 2FeCl3 + FeCla + 4H2O (12) FeCl2 + 2AgN03 >Fe(N03)2 + 2 A g C l i Sau do FeCl3 + Fe > 2FeCl2) (13) 2Fe(N0s> + Fe > 3Fe(N03)2 (33) FeClo + Ag2S04 > FeSO^ + 2 A g C U (14) FeS04 + ^Ja(N0o)2 ->Fe(N03)2 + B a S 0 4 i (34) FeS04 -,• BaClz > FeCU + B a S 0 4 i (15) Fe(N03)2 + AgNOg -> Fe(N03)3+Ag; (35) FeS04 + Ba(N03)2 > Fe(N03)2 + B a S 0 4 i (16) 2 F e + 6H2SO4 dacndng > Fe2(S04)3 + 3S02t + 6H2O (36) 2Fe(OH)3 — ^ Fe203 + 3H2O ' (17) Fe2(S04)3 + 3Ba(N03)2 > 2Fe(N03)3 + 3 B a S 0 4 i Bai 2. ThiTc h i e n chu6i bien hoa sau: (18) Fe2(S04)3 + 6NaOH > 2Fe(OH)3^ + 3Na2S04 (4) (5) (19) F8(N03)3 + 3 K 0 H > F e ( 0 H ) 3 i + 3KNO3 , FeCl3 Fe(0H)3 Fe2 (804)3. (9) (10) (20) 2 F e ( O H ) 3 — ^ Fe203 + 3H2O (8) Fe(0H)2 FeS04 (21) 2Fe(N03)3 FegOa + 6 N 0 2 t + - OgT Fe ' I ^ (12) (14) (24) 2 (23)N (22) Fe203 + 2A1 -> AI2O3 + 2Fe F e ( N 0 3 ) 3 ^ F e U 0 3 ) 2 i ^ ^ (16, (23) Fe + H2S04ioang > FeS04 + H 2 t \ (.7)11 F e 2 ( S 0 4 ) 3 - ^ Fe(6H)3 J2^ FIO,-^^ Fe (24) 2Fe + 6H2SO4 dacndng >Fe2(S04)3 + 3S02t + 6H2O
  19. Bai 3. Vi§'t c d c p h a n ufng t h e o c h u S i bi§'n h 6 a s a u : Fe2(S04)3 (13) t(9) ( 1 ) 3Fe + 2O2 Fe304 (7) (10) OH F e ( N 0 3 ) 3 : y ^ F e 2 0 3 ^ F e C V ; r z ^ FeCl ( h a y 3Fe + 4H2O > Fe304 + 4H2T) (8) (16) (17) (18) (2) Fe304 + 4H2SO4 loang > FeS04 + Fe2(S04)3 + 4H2O (5)^ .(15) Fe.C- Fe(OH)3 2Fe(OH)3^ + 3Na2S04 Lai giai (4) 2Fe(OH)3 — ^ Fe203 + 3H2O (1) 2A1 + FeaOs - A I 2 O 3 + 2Fe (5) 2A1 + Fe203 AI2O3 + 2Fe (2) F e + S — ^ FeS (6) Fe + 4HN03ioang > F e ( N 0 3 ) 3 + N O t + 2H2O • (7) Fe(N03)3 + SNaOH > Fe(0H)3^ + 3NaN03 (3) 3FeS + I2HNO3 > Fe(N03)3 + Fe2(S04)3 + 9 N 0 t + 6H2O (8) F e ( 0 H ) 3 + 3HC1 > F e C l 3 + 3H2O (4) Fe + 4HN03ioang > Fe(N03)3 + NOT + 2H2O (9) 2FeCl3 + Fe - — > 3FeCl2 (5) 3Fe + C FegC (hay: 2FeCl3 + Cu > 2FeCl2 + CuCl2 (6) Fe3C + 22HNO3 -> 3Fe(N03)3 + ISNOat + COgt + I I H 2 O 2FeCl3 + H2S — ^ 2FeCl2 + S i + 2HC1 ) (7) 2 F e ( N 0 3 ) 3 - (10) 2FeCl2 + CI2 — ^ 2FeCl3 2 ( 1 1 ) 3Zndu+2FeCl3 > 3ZnCl2 + 2 F e i (8) FeaOg + 6HNO3 -> 2Fe(N03)3 + 3H2O Giai thich : (9) FeaOs + 3H2SO4 Fe2(S04)3 + 3H2O Z n + 2FeCl3 > ZnCh + 2FeCl2 (10) Fe203 + 6HC1 - -> 2FeCl3 + 3H2O Do Z n con du : Z n + FeCl2 > ZnClg + Fe (11) 2FeCl3 + F e > ZFeCh (12) Fe + 2HC1 > FeClj + H2t (12) 2FeCl2 + CI2 > 2FeCl3 (13) FeCl2 + Ag2S04 > FeS04 + 2 A g C U ( 1 4 ) FeS04 + Ca(N03)2 > Fe(N03)2 + C a S 0 4 i (13) Fe2(S04)3 + 3BaCl2 > 2¥eCh + S B a S O ^ I 5. Vie't cac p h a n ufng theo sO do sau: (14) Fe2(S04)3 + 3Ba(NOs)2 > 2Fe(N03)3 + 3BaS044 S^t o x i t s i t tii — ^ s i t (II) o x i t - ^ s i t ( I I I ) oxit (15) Fe(N03)3 + 3 N a O H )>Fe(OH)34 + SNaNOg > oxit s i t t\i ^ ^ s i t ( I I ) clorua - ^ > s a t ( I I ) sunfat (16) 2Fe(OH)3 FeaOg + SHgO — ^ s i t (II) hidroxit sat(III) n i t r a t sit(II) nitrat (17) FeClg + 3 K 0 H — ^ F e ( 0 H ) 3 i + 3KC1 J. _i!£>_> s i t ( I I I ) clorua s i t ( I I I ) n i t r a t - ^ l i - > sat,(III) oxit ^ l ^ n h o m o x i t — ^ ^ k a U a l u m i n a t - ^ - > nhom hidroxit (18) FeCla 4 2 N a O H >Fe(0H)2i + 2NaCl - i i ^ nhom o x i t - ^ ^ n h o m - ^ sit (19) 4Fe(OH)2 + O2 khsngkhi + 2H2O > 4Fe(OH)3>l Led giai Bai 4. V i e t cac p h a n ufng theo scf do sau: ( 1 ) 3Fe + 2O2 Fe304 sat oxit sat ttf sat(III) s u n f a t ^ ^ > sat(III) hidroxit ( h a y 4Fe + H2O > Fe304 + 4H2T) s^tdlDoxit ^ ^ s a t - ^ ^ W s a t d l D n i t r a t (7) V sat(III) hidroxit (2) Fe304 + CO — ^ 3FeO + 4C02t ^ s ^ t d l l ) clorua ^ -> s^t(II) clorua > s a t ( I I I ) clorua sat s^t(II) clorua (3) 2FeO + - O2 Fe203 2 -> sim) sunfat >canxi sunfat. S o d 6 & c h u S i n h a n \lr\s Hoa V f i c(J (4) 3Fe203 + C O 2Fe304 + COgt
  20. (5) Fe304 + 8HC1 > 2FeCl3 + FeCh + 4H2O (9) 2Fe + 6H2SO4 dac n(5ng >Fe2(S04)3 + a S O a t + 6H2O (6) FeCla + Ag2S04 > FeS04 + 2 A g C U (10) Fe2(S04)3 + F e > 3FeS04 (7) FeS04 + 2 N a O H > F e ( 0 H ) 2 i + Na2S04 (11) 3FeS04 + | c i 2 Fe2(S04)3 + F e C l 3 (8) 3Fe(OH)2 + I O H N O 3 > 3 F e ( N 0 3 ) 3 + N O t + 8H2O (9) 2Fe(N03)3 + Fe > 3Fe(N03)2 1 (hay 2 F e S 0 4 + - O2 + H2SO4 -> Fe2(S04)3 + H2O) (10) 6Fe(N03)2 + 3CI2 > 4Fe(N03)3 + 2FeCl3 (11) FeCl3 + 3AgN03 > Fe(N03)3 + 3 A g C U (hay 2FeS04 + 2H2SO4 d a c n o n g - > F e 2 ( S 0 4 ) 3 + S 0 2 t + 2H2O) (12) 2Fe(N03)2 Fe203 + 4NO2T + - O2T (hay 10FeSO4 + 2 K M n 0 4 + 8H2SO4 > 5Fe2(S04)3 + 2MnS04 2 + K2SO4 + 8 H 2 O ) (13) Fe203 + 2A1 AI2O3 + 2Fe ( hay 6 F e S 0 4 + K2Cr207 + 7H2SO4 -> Fe2(S04)3 + Cr2(S04)3 (14) AI2O3 + 2 K 0 H > 2KAIO2 + H2O + K2SO4 +7H2O (15) KAIO2 + CO2 + H2O > Al(0H)3i + KHCO3 (12) Fe2(S04)3 + 3BaCl2 > 2 F e C l 3 + 3BaS04 (16) 2 A 1 ( 0 H ) 3 - ^ ^ AI2O3 + 3H2O (17) AI2O3 ) 4A1 + 3 0 2 t (13) 2FeCl3 + Fe > 3FeCl2 (18) 2A1 + 3FeCl3 ^2A1C13 + 3Fe (hay 2FeCl3 + Cu — ^ 2FeCl2 + CUCI2) Bai B. Hoan t h a n h cac p h a n ufng theo scf do sau: (14) FeCla + 2 N a O H > Fe(0H)2^ + 2NaCl P i r i t sat Sat(ni) oxit ^ ^ S a t ( n i ) sunfat (15) 4Fe(OH)2 + O2 khongkw + 2H2O -—> 4Fe(OH)3 4 Sat(ni) n i t r a t Sat(ni) oxit S a t ( H I ) clorua Sat(ni) n i t r a t Sat(II) nitrat —^> S a t ^ ^ (16) 2Fe(OH)3 Fe203 + 3H2O Sat(ni) sunfat > Sat(n) sunfat > S a t ( n i ) sunfat (17) FeaOg + C O - ^ 2FeO + C O g t ) Sat(III) clorua > Sat(II) clorua > Sat(II) hidroxit (18) FeO + CO Fe4 + C02t -^->'Sat(ni)hidroxit^^ Sat(in)oxit^^ Sat(n) oxit (19) 3Fe + 2O2 — ^ Fe304 Sat Oxit s a t tCr Sat ( H ) oxit (20) Fe304 + CO 3FeO + 4 C 0 2 t LM giai ki 7. H o a n t h a n h cac phUo-ng t r i n h phan ufng theo chu5i b i e n hoa sau: (1) FeS2 + I I O 2 — ^ Fe203 + SSOgt (2) Fe203 + 3H2SO4 > Fe2(S04)3 + 3H2O Fe304-i2U FeCl3 ^ Fe2(C03)3 ^ F e ( N 0 3 ) 3 ^ Fe(N03)2^ Y (3) Fe2(S04)3 + 3Ba(N03)2 > 2Fe(N03)3 + 3 B a S 0 4 i (1) (8) (12) ^ ry (4) 2Fe(N03)3 Fe203 + SNOat + ^ © 2 ? ^'^^•Fe(OH)3SFe2(S04)3 ( l O L ^ F e C (13) l.—- ^ 18) (11) (5) FegOg + 6HC1 > 2FeCl3 + 3H2O X (20) (21) (26) :28) '(19) (6) FeCl3 + 3AgN03 > Fe(N03)3 + 3 A g C U (33 (27) (7) 2Fe(N03)3 + Fe > 3Fe(N03)2 FeCl3^ Fe(N03)3^ Y Zn(N03)2 + F e i (37>--''""^ (32^ (hay Fe(N03)2 + H 2 O - J i ^ Fe + - Ost + 2 H N O 3 ) Fe(N03)2 FeO ^ ^-l39pFe2(S04)3 (40) " T - (41)
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