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The effect of job design and quality of work life toward affective commitment of teachers

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The effect of job design and quality of work life toward affective commitment of teachers

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The purpose of this study was to analyze the direct influence of job design and quality of work life on the affective commitment of teachers. This research method with a quantitative approach and data analysis techniques using path analysis.

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  1. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET) Volume 10, Issue 03, March 2019, pp. 1535–1542, Article ID: IJMET_10_03_154 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=10&IType=3 ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359 © IAEME Publication Scopus Indexed THE EFFECT OF JOB DESIGN AND QUALITY OF WORK LIFE TOWARD AFFECTIVE COMMITMENT OF TEACHERS Lukman Tamhir* Universitas Negeri Jakarta Jln. Rawamangun Muka Jakarta Timur -13220 Indonesia Bedjo Sujanto Universitas Negeri Jakarta Jln. Rawamangun Muka Jakarta Timur -13220 Indonesia Netti Karnati Universitas Negeri Jakarta Jln. Rawamangun Muka Jakarta Timur -13220 Indonesia *Corresponding Author ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to analyze the direct influence of job design and quality of work life on the affective commitment of teachers. This research method with a quantitative approach and data analysis techniques using path analysis. The findings of this study prove the direct effect of job design on affective, there is a positive direct effect quality of work life on affective commitment and there is a positive direct effect of job design on the quality of work life. The conclusion is that increasing the teacher's affective commitment must be supported by the job design and the quality of work life properly, effectively and efficiently.. Key words: Job design; Quality of work life; Affective commitment Cite this Article: Lukman Tamhir, Bedjo Sujanto, Netti Karnati, The Effect of Job Design and Quality of Work Life Toward Affective Commitment of Teachers, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology 10(3), 2019, pp. 1535–1542. http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=10&IType=3 1. INTRODUCTION Commitment to each individual is very important because with a commitment one can be more responsible for his work compared to individuals who have no commitment. Usually individuals who have a commitment, will work optimally so that they can devote their attention, mind, energy and time to their work, so that what they have done is in accordance with what is http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 1535 editor@iaeme.com
  2. The Effect of Job Design and Quality of Work Life Toward Affective Commitment of Teachers expected by the organization. Organizational commitment is a form of attitude. Attitudes can be grouped into three basic components, namely: emotional, informational and behavioral [1]. In organizational behavior, organizational commitment is a component of behavior. "In organization, attitudes are important because of their behavioral component" [2]. Attitude is a statement about someone's assessment of objects, people or events. In organizational behavior, there are various concepts about organizational commitment. [3] that organizational commitment is the level of identification of individuals with organizations and is committed to achieving organizational goals. Furthermore [4] that organizational commitment is the level at which individuals side with a particular organization and its objectives and desire to maintain membership in the organization. Specifically [5] defines organizational commitment as (1) a strong desire to remain a member of an organization; (2) willingness to mobilize a high level of effort for the organization; (3) a certain belief and acceptance of the values and objectives of the organization. In other words, this is an attitude that reflects employee loyalty to the organization and is an ongoing process whereby members of the organization express their concern for the organization and continued success and welfare that affective commitment is the emotional bond of employees to the organization, identification with the organization, and involvement in the organization. Members of organizations with high affective commitment will continue to be members of the organization because they want it (want to). Affective commitment is that employees are happy to be members of the organization, believe in and feel good about the organization and what it stands for, are attached to the organization, and intend to do what is good for the organization [6] Affective commitment is a psychological attachment of individuals characterized by individual acceptance of organizational goals, involvement and a strong desire to survive in the organization. Dessler cited in [5] suggests the following specific guidelines for implementing management systems that must help solve current dilemmas and increase employee organizational commitment: first, commit to values that prioritize people; second, clarify and communicate your mission; third, guaranteeing organizational justice; fourth, create a sense of togetherness and fifth, support employee development. Teachers with strong affective commitment make their membership in an organization because they want to do it or in other words, members like. Meyer and Allen's organization, quoted in, [5] furthermore, it is emphasized that there are three causes or factors that give rise to members' affective commitment to the organization, namely individual characteristics, organizational structure, and work experience. These three factors need to be sought by the school principal in order to grow the teacher's affective commitment to the school. [7] argues that leadership is a process to influence others to understand and agree with what needs to be done and how the task is carried out effectively, as well as a process to facilitate individual and collective efforts to achieve common goals. inspire, motivate, and direct their activities to help achieve group or organizational goals. Teacher professionalism is an indicator of the teacher's commitment to the profession as well as the school as the organization where he teaches. Teachers should be an agent of change to successfully face the challenges in the industrial revolution [8]. According to [9] Educational resources is realized through the construction of the peer community, which lays the foundation for the overall management of the educational resources, to meet the needs of educational resource management. To reach professional and high-quality teachers, it is necessary to take part in various teacher training and education programs. Based on research findings [10] explained that the teacher had a very good perception of the program, where this training is considered to help them improve their knowledge and skills prepare lesson plans and do the teaching. http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 1536 editor@iaeme.com
  3. Lukman Tamhir, Bedjo Sujanto, Netti Karnati A teacher who has an affective commitment will try to work seriously as an appreciation of the profession that is owned, in addition to realizing the goals to be achieved by the school wholeheartedly for the advancement of educational institutions. each employee has a different basis and behavior based on his or her commitment to the organization. Teachers with affective commitment really want to be a professional, creative and innovative teacher concerned so that they have the desire to use optimal business to achieve organizational goals. Job design is the allocation of types of work by considering several ideas and then combining the work with the tasks of the employee, and the task is adjusted to the organizational goals and needs of the individual. Job design, the delineation of task responsibilities as regulated by organizational strategy, technology, and structure, is a key determinant of individual motivation and ultimately of organizational success [3]. Job design trying to improve efficiency and effectiveness of work, matching individual tasks with groups, and achieving quality work life and job satisfaction for each individual to do work. [11] Explain that job design the process of assigning tasks to a job, including the interdependence of tasks with other jobs. Job designs dimensions can interact effectively to enhance positive behavior and sustain greater commitment [12]. Luthan & Jonathan (2012:440) Job design of a job's content, the methods that are used on the job, and the way in which the job relates to other jobs in the organization [1]. Job design needs to have a piece of knowledge, skills, motivation, and good job design techniques and create a conducive working climate and influence affective commitment to achieve organizational goals. Research results of [13] “Various aspects of job design influence employees' affective commitment". Work must be designed as well as possible so that it can provide a benefit and can increase commitment to both the organization and employees. Benefits to the organization in the form of achieving organizational goals effectively and efficiently. Job design is absolutely owned by every organization because in the design of the work carried out by the principal by arranging a number of tasks into a job so that the work done becomes clearer and more directed based on the knowledge and skills of the teacher. The quality of work life is one form of philosophy applied by management in managing organizations in general and human resources in particular. According to [14] That the quality of work life as philosophy, is a way of management's view of humans, workers, and organizations. The main elements in the philosophy are management's concern about the impact of work on humans, the effectiveness of the organization and the importance of employees in solving decisions especially those concerning work, career, income and their destiny in work [15]. QWL programs are another way in which organizations recognize their responsibility to develop jobs and working conditions that are excellent for people as well as for the economic health of the organization [16]. To achieve a good quality of work life, it requires high affective commitment. The results of the study prove that the quality of work life is very influential on affective commitment. This is consistent with the findings of [17] there is a positive and meaningful relationship between the quality of work life and its dimensions including a safe and healthy environment, development of human capabilities, constitutionalism, social integration and the total life space with the organizational commitment. The teachers' quality of work life has significantly negative effects on school alienation and burnout levels and a significantly positive effect on affective commitment [18]. Furthermore, [19] that QWL has a very significant role in the variables since it determines how the organization is perceived". Whereas to improve the quality of work life also consider the design of good and effective work. The first step towards the improvement of QWL is to consider the topic of job design and organization. 2. METHOD http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 1537 editor@iaeme.com
  4. The Effect of Job Design and Quality of Work Life Toward Affective Commitment of Teachers The research was carried out in Junior High School Ternate, North Maluku Province. This study uses a survey method with a quantitative approach [19]. Data analysis techniques with path analysis [20], [21]. Collecting data with a questionnaire. This study examines the interrelationship between research variables and analyzes the influence of job design variables, work life quality, and affective commitment. The research hypothesis is shown in Figure 1. Figure 1. Research Hypothetic Model 3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION 3.1. Descriptive Statistics Data on job design variables, work life quality, and affective commitment are presented in the form of descriptive statistics. Descriptive statistics are used to explain the size of the concentration of data and disseminate data, namely range, minimum, maximum, mean, standard deviation, and variance. Summary of statistical descriptive data in table 1. Table 1 Summary of Descriptive Statistics N Range Minimu Maxim Mea Std. Variance m um n Deviation Job Design 92 48 98 146 120. 12.654 160.124 09 Quality of work 92 48 98 146 121. 12.343 152.361 life 65 Affective 92 48 97 145 120. 13.127 172.321 Commitment 75 Valid N 92 3.2. Test Normality Calculation obtained by Lhitung value of 0.063
  5. Lukman Tamhir, Bedjo Sujanto, Netti Karnati Regression Estimation α = 0,05 Error Y over X 1 92 0,063 0,092 Normal Y over X 2 92 0,061 0,092 Normal 3.3. X 2 over X 1 92 0,047 0,092 Normal Test of Significance and Linearity of Regression Regression Equations Y= 49.59 + 0.59 X1 for significance tests obtained F count = 43.59> Ftable = 6.93 at α = 0.01. Because Fcount> Ftable, the regression equation is stated to be very significant. For linearity test obtained Fcount of 1.56 Ftable, the regression equation is stated to be very significant. For linearity test obtained Fcount of 0.57 Ftable, the regression equation is stated to be very significant. For linearity test obtained Fcount of 1.10
  6. The Effect of Job Design and Quality of Work Life Toward Affective Commitment of Teachers Table 5 Summary of Hypothesis Testing Results No Direct Influence Path Tcount ttable Decision Conclusion Coefficient α= 0,05 1 (X1) towards (Y) 0.311 3.05 1.99 Ho is rejected Positive direct effect 2 (X2) towards (Y) 0.418 4,09 1.99 Ho is rejected Positive direct effect 3 (X1) towards (X2) 0.623 7,56 1.99 Ho is rejected Positive direct effect Based on the path coefficient for job design variables on affective commitment amounting to py1 = 0.311 because t count = 3.05> t table at α = 0.05 Ho is rejected, meaning job design has a positive direct effect on affective commitment. The results of this study are reinforced by relevant theories and research, namely: The influence of job design on behavior depends on the commitment that results [22]. Based on the policies and practices of human resource development some things that can contribute to increasing commitment are learning and development, career planning, performance management, management awards, policies to balance work life and design work [23]. The path coefficient for work life quality variables on affective commitment is py2 = 0.418 because tcount = 4.09> t table Ho is rejected, meaning that the quality of work life has a positive direct effect on affective commitment. The results of this study are reinforced by relevant theory and research, namely: The quality of work life and organizational commitment are positively related [24].The quality of work life has shown a significant effect on organizational commitment. Research results [25] that the influence of QWL has been linked to various factors that apply to staff including their satisfaction at work, career advancement, and organizational commitment. The results of the study [26] that QWL increases organizational commitment which is a positive behavior. The results of his research proved that there is a positive and significant relationship between quality of work life and third organizational commitment [27]. Based on the path coefficient for job design variables on the quality of work life of p21 = 0.623 because t count = 7.56> t table Ho is rejected means job design has a positive direct effect on the quality of work life. The results of this study are reinforced by relevant theories and research, namely: Job design can contribute to the quality of work life [28]. Research results [29] that Indicators of job design have an impact on the quality of work life, which is influenced by a safe work environment, health services, proper work time and appropriate salary. Research results [30] revealed that work design is to improve the quality of work life of employees. 4. CONCLUSIONS From the results of path analysis and hypothesis testing, it can be concluded that : (1) The division of tasks and teacher's work well by the principal tends to increase the teacher's strong affective commitment in the organization, (2) A good, comfortable and conducive quality of work life tends to increase affective commitment and (3) The design of tasks and teacher work effectively and efficiently by the principal tends to improve the quality of work life of the teacher in the school ACKNOWLEDGMENT I would like to express the deepest appreciation to The Office of Education and Culture of Ternate City, Head of High Junior School in Ternate and my colleagues in Postgreduate Universitas Negeri Jakarta. Without their guidance and persistent help, this dissertation would http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 1540 editor@iaeme.com
  7. Lukman Tamhir, Bedjo Sujanto, Netti Karnati not have been possible. I would also like to thank The University Bumi Hijrah North Maluku for their financial support granted through predoctoral fellowship. REFERENCES [1] F. Luthan, International management: Culture, strategy, and behavior. 2009. [2] S. P. Robbins, Essetials of Organizational Behavior, 7th editio. USA: Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 2002. [3] Robert Kreitner, Features that integrate ETHICS :, Eleventh e. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company BOSTON NEW YORK, 2009. [4] S. and J. Robbins, Organizational Behavior. New York: Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, 2013. [5] F. Luthans, Organizational behavior an evidence-based approach 12th edition. 2012. [6] J. A. Colquitt, J. A. LePine, and M. J. Wesson, Organizational behavior: Improving performance and commitment in the workplace, vol., no. 2009. [7] Gary Yukl, Leadersihip In Organizations, Eighth edi. New York: Pearson, 2013. [8] M. Z. Che Had and R. Ab Rashid, “A Review of Digital Skills of Malaysian English Language Teachers,” Int. J. Emerg. Technol. Learn., vol. 14, no. 02, p. 139, 2019. [9] Y. Chen, “Educational resource management in grid community based on learning object metadata standard,” Int. J. Emerg. Technol. Learn., vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 130–143, 2018. [10] N. M. Ratminingsih, L. P. P. Mahadewi, and D. G. H. Divayana, “ICT-based interactive game in TEYL: Teachers’ perception, students’ motivation, and achievement,” Int. J. Emerg. Technol. Learn., vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 190–203, 2018. [11] S. L. McShane and M. A. Von Glinow, Organizational Behavior - Emerging Realities for the Workplace Revolution. 2008. [12] A. O. Osibanjo, A. J. Abiodun, O. P. Salau, A. A. Adeniji, H. O. Falola, and I. I. Alimi, “Job design and behavioural outcome of employees in agricultural research training, Ibadan, Nigeria,” Data Br., vol. 19, pp. 1880–1887, 2018. [13] L. G. Pee, “The Effects Of Job Design On Employees’ Knowledge Contribution To Electronic Repositories,” 2011. [14] J. L. Gibson, J. M. Ivancevich, J. James H. Donnelly, and R. Konopaske, Organizations - Behavior, Structurem Processes. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc, 2014. [15] W. F. Cascio, Managing Human Resources: Productivity, Quality of Work Life, Profits, Ninth Edit. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2013. [16] John W. Newstrom, Organizational Behavior Human Behavior at Work, Fourteenth. unites states: McGraw-Hill Education, 2011. [17] N. K. Sajjad and B. Abbasi, “Studying the Relationship between Quality of work life and Organizational Commitment,” Res. J. Recent Sci. Res.J.Recent Sci, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 92–99, 2014. [18] H. Akar, “The Relationships between Quality of Work Life, School Alienation, Burnout, Affective Commitment and Organizational Citizenship: A Study on Teachers,” Eur. J. Educ. Res., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 169–180, 2018. [19] Cresweel, Educational Research :Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, FOURTH EDI., vol. 91. United States of America.: Pearson Education, 2012. http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 1541 editor@iaeme.com
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