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Summary of Geography doctoral dissertation: Assessment tourism resources and bioclimate conditions to developing tourism in the Southern Vietnam

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Summary of Geography doctoral dissertation: Assessment tourism resources and bioclimate conditions to developing tourism in the Southern Vietnam

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The aim of this dissertation was to clarify the rationales for the research and evaluation of tourism resources, bioclimatic conditions for developing tourism in Southern Vietnam, and propose the orientation of developing tourism types in Southern Vietnam on the basis of evaluating tourism resources and bioclimatic conditions.

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  1. MINISTRY OF EDUCATION VIETNAM ACADEMY AND TRAINING OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY GRADUATE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ----------------- HOANG THI KIEU OANH Major : Physical Geography Code : 9 44 02 17 ASSESSMENT TOURISM RESOURCES AND BIOCLIMATIC CONDITIONS FOR DEVELOPING TOURISM IN SOUTHERN VIETNAM SUMMARY OF GEOGRAPHY DOCTORAL DISSERTATION Hanoi - 2019
  2. The dissertation has been completed at: Graduate University Science and Technology - Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology Science advisor 1: Prof. Sc Dr. Nguyen Khanh Van Science advisor 2: Assoc Prof.Dr. Dang Van Phan Reviewer 1: ……………………………….. Reviewer 2: ……………………………….. Reviewer 3: ……………………………….. The thesis will be defended in Doctoral Committee, organized at: - Location: Graduate University Science and Technology - Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology - Time: The dissertation can be found at: - Library of Graduate University Science and Technology - National Library of Vietnam
  3. 1 INTRODUCTION 1. The relevance of the topic The future strategy of Vietnam tourism development predition for 2020 and upto 2030 defines tourism to become spearhead economic sector with the higher percentage of GDP and create dynamics for social – economy. The potential of tourism resources of Southern Vietnam is very high. Its geographical position is located in the southern key economic region - the driving force of economic development of the country, on the important international route. The Southern Vietnam has 3/10 national tourist cities, including 338 national monuments with 13 special national monuments, and one world intangible cultural heritage. In particular, the Southern Vietnam has a lot of ecosystems with high biodiversity; 4 World Biosphere Reserves, 6/9 Ramsa World Zones, 9 National Parks, 7 Biosphere Protected Areas; 5 nature reserves, 3 species conservation zones. There are also long and beautiful beaches, systems of islands on the East and West sides. The climate regime of the Southern Vietnam is favorable for tourism all year round. The annual temperature amplitude is not too different, rainfall does not last long, there are very few natural disasters and floods. It has a huge network of rivers, streams, canals with raft houses, floating markets on the river, large lakes, waterfalls (Da Han, Mo), Binh Chau hot springs, high mountain terrain. In fact, the effectiveness of Southern Vietnam tourism is not commensurate with its potential. The tourism between South-East and South-West Region are not evenly developed. Tourism is mostly concentrated in a number of tourist centers such as Ho Chi Minh City, Can Tho and Vung Tau with lack of regional connectivity and uneven distribution in quantity and quality. Tourism products lack specificity and originality, especially in South-West Region. The infrastructure is not synchronous, some projects have not been able to promote the efficiency or abandoned. At present, there are no topics to study in detail about the role of Bioclimatic Condition to development of regional tourism. It is necessary to have further studies, focusing on orientation, determining the key types of tourism of the Southern Vietnam with high potential to bring higher efficiency for tourism development in the coming time, to meet the actual social needs. Four types of tourism selected for
  4. 2 evaluation in the dissertation are outstanding types such as sightseeing tourism, relaxation tourism, ecotourism and cultural tourism. For the above reasons, the PhD student has decided to select the topic "Assessment tourism resources and bioclimate conditions to developing tourism in the Southern Vietnam" for her doctoral dissertation. Hopefully, this dissertation can give the future orientation to develop 4 types of tourism in Southern Vietnam effectively. Besides it is also a geographical instruction for tourists to participate in sightseeing, relaxation, Ecotourism and culture tourism in the Southern Vietnam. 2. Objectives of dissertation The aim of this dissertation was to clarify the rationales for the research and evaluation of tourism resources, bioclimatic conditions for developing tourism in Southern Vietnam, and propose the orientation of developing tourism types in Southern Vietnam on the basis of evaluating tourism resources and bioclimatic conditions 3. Research tasks of dissertation - Collecting, analyzing and systematizing documents and materials on the characteristics of tourism resources and bioclimatic conditions of the research territory. - Overview of research and evaluation issues of tourism resources and bioclimatic conditions for the purpose of tourism development in the world, in Vietnam and in the Southern Vietnam. - Establishing rationales, research and evaluation methods of tourism resources, bioclimatic conditions for tourism development. - Zoning physical geographic regions in Southern Vietnam and establishing zoning map with scale of 1: 250,000; classifying tourism bioclimate of Southern Vietnam and establishing bioclimate classification map with scale of 1: 250,000; installing evaluation criteria and specification for the advantages of tourism resources and bioclimatic conditions for developing potential tourism types of Southern Vietnam. - Evaluating and synthesizing tourism resources and bioclimatic conditions for tourism development in every regions and proposing orientation for developing tourism types in the Southern Vietnam in every regions.
  5. 3 CHAPTER 1 RATIONALES, METHODS FOR EVALUATING TOURISM RESOURCES AND BIOCLIMATIC CONDITIONS FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT 1.1. Overview of relevant scientific researches 1.1.1. Relevant researches on over the world In the past 9 decades, many research directions for developing tourism have been established, in which assessing territorial resources for tourism development is mentioned with many approaches such as works of Demoders, I.A Vedenhin and N.N. Misonharrenco (1969), I.I Piriicic (1985), A.G Ixatsenko. Today, tourism activities have been standardized, managed closely and monitored with conservation, especially in developed countries, which is published by Hu and Rit Chie.J (1993), Daniel Leung and others (2013) , Jianwei Quian et al (2019), C. Lim and J.C.H. Min (2008), R.Sharley and Telfer (2002). The history of bioclimatel research has existed for a long time. Many climate studies are the basis for the development of bioclimate researchs such as W. Koppen (Germany), Buduco, Alixop, Yeu Am Sinh, de Freitas et al. , Asgary et al. Climate is the key to forming many different tourism resources, thereby assessing the role of climate for each specific tourism resource (Becken (2013), Scott & Lemieux (2009) and Gomez Martin (2005), Hamilton and Lau (2005), C. Goh (2012), D. Maddison (2001), Hadwen et al. (2011)). Currently, many general climate parameters are established in applied bioclimate such as DI, ET, EI, and HIS, SET, PET, or CIT, TCI found by Mieczkowski (1985). The TCI index has been developed and applied in many studies in different territories such as: Amelung and Moreno, Ghislain Dubois. Many researchers also combined other climate indexes with TCI, TCI and THI for assessing HCI. TCI index has developed into various new concepts such as UTCI, TTCI, CIT, MCIT. In the last 10 years, more and more specific and detailed studies on applied bioclimate were published, in which the general trend is the assessments of human adaption with the increasingly
  6. 4 negative changes of the current climate (John Wash , Jacqueline M. Hamilton, Francesco Musco). 1.1.2. Relevant researches in Vietnam Most of research and evaluation works are based on the background of landscape with the works on physical geographic zoning, studies on landscape assessment and general assessment of natural conditions and physical resources which is typically reported by Nguyen Duc Chinh - Vu Tu Lap, Pham Hoang Hai, Nguyen Thuong Hung, Nguyen Ngoc Khanh, Nguyen Van Nhung, Nguyen Van Vinh, Pham Trung Luong, Dang Duy Loi, etc. Few researchers focused studying on tourism bioclimate for developing tourism, such as Vu Boi Kiem, Tran Viet Lien, Nguyen Minh Tue, Nguyen Tham and Nguyen Hoang Son, Nguyen Khanh Van. Many doctoral dissertations were also followed this direction such as Nguyen Thu Nhung, Nguyen Dang Tien, Nguyen Huu Xuan. Through these studies, climate resources for tourism development are analyzed in different directions. In many studies, these authors also used bioclimatic condition map to help tourists choose the best time and regions for tourism. In Southern Vietnam, many planning projects, conferences and seminars for tourism have been conducted to promote tourism development in this region. It is an important step of socio-economic development orientations in order to link tourism development among Southern provinces (Nguyen Minh Tue; Vu Tuan Canh and others; Bui Thi Hai Yen, etc.). Besides, there are many researches on tourism of each locality in the South, each work is the experience of culture, ethnicity, bringing diverse perspectives on tourism potentials of specific localities. There have been a number of researches on bioclimatic conditions for tourism in Southern Vietnam. However, they are still limited and coherent, not classified and established a map of the tourism bioclimate. In this serie, some works can be listed such as Dang Van Phan, To Hoang Kia, Nguyen Khanh Van and others. 1.2. General rationales of dissertation 1.2.1. The concepts of tourism According to the Vietnam Tourism Law in 2017: “Tourism is an activity related to human outside of his regular residence with the
  7. 5 time under 1 year in order to meet the needs of sightseeing, study, entertainment, and relaxation in certain time period or other purpose’’ “Tourism resources are Tourism resources are natural landscapes, natural elements, cultural and historical relics, human creative works and other human values can be used to to meet the demand for tourism, is a basic element to form tourism zones, tourism spots, tourism routes, tourism towns. Tourism resources include nature resources and cultural resources”. Tourism territorial organizations include tourism destinations, tourist area, tourism route, tourism centre. 1.2.2. Tourism resource – condition for tourism development According to the Vietnam Tourism Law in 2017: "Natural tourism resources include elements of geology, topography, geomorphology, climate, hydrology, ecosystems, natural landscapes that can be used for tourism purpose”. "Humanities tourism resources include cultural traditions, folk cultural and artistic elements, historical, revolutionary, archeological, architectural, and creative labor works of people and other physical and intangible cultural heritage can be used for tourism purposes”. 1.2.3. Climatic conditions and bioclimatic resources According to the Agriculture Encyclopedia “Bioclimate which is a interdisciplinary science between Climate and Ecology studies the effects of climate on living organisms”. In a certain environment, bioclimatic conditions which are one of an ecological condition affecting all organisms (flora and fauna, microorganisms, humans) include typical signs of weather such as radiation, temperature, precipitation, humidity, etc. These conditions are used for the human purposes called bioclimatic resources. The research on human health for tourism purposes is the study of climate and weather conditions impacting on human health, tourism organization, tourism activities. This research needs to point out the favorable and unfavorable periods of bio-climate conditions for human health, for each kind of tourism in certain region. 1.3. Research viewpoints and methods 1.3.1. Research viewpoints The following research points are used in this dissertation: System points; General points; Historical – Perspective points.
  8. 6 1.3.2. Research mothods 1.3.2.1. System of general research methods: The following popular methods are used in this dissertation: Methods of data collection, analysis and processing; Field practical methods; Map and GIS methods; Professional solution. 1.3.2.2. Rationale of physical geographic zoning Inheriting the results of local and world researchers about geographic zoning, studies of the natural characteristics of the Southern Vietnam, the PhD student has selected 5 principles of zoning of physical geography in the Southern Vietnam as followed: objective; incurred; systemized; relative homogeneity and same territory. The choice of zoning of physical geography in Southern Vietnam includes 3 following methods: zoning according to the key factor; linkage analysis of constituent components; comparative geography, in addition there are many other methods such as map, field practie, ancient geography, geophysics, geochemistry, mathematics. Based on the differentiation characteristics of the physical geography in Southern Vietnam, PhD student has selected to inherit the results of physical geography zoning by research group Pham Hoang Hai, Nguyen Thuong Hung, Nguyen Ngoc Khanh (1997) with the 3-level system: Zone  Region  Area for zoning of physical geography in Southern Vietnam. 1.3.2.3. Methods for assessing resources and bioclimatic conditions a. Rationale for evaluating the systhemizing of resources According to work of Pham Trung Luong: “Assessing natural conditions and natural resources for tourism are used to determine the level of convenience(good, medium, poor) of natural conditions and natural resources for the whole tourism activities in general or for each tourism types, each specific activities in service of tourism in particular”. Step 1. Establishment of Evaluationt Scale: selecting evaluation criteria, determining grades, targets, scores for each rank and coefficient of each criterion. Step 2. Evaluating Process: In the topic, the PhD student uses the average score to evaluate the results.
  9. 7 Step 3: Result Evaluation ∑ (CT1) In which: X: average score/ ki: coefficient of i criterion/ Xi: criteria: evaluation score of i criterion / i: evaluation criteria, i = 1,2,3...n. Based on the average score to classify the rating levels from RTL to ITL. Levels are determined by the formula (CT2) CT2: (CT2) m: ratting number (m=4) In which: Level 1: Xmin ≤ X1
  10. 8 CHAPTER 2 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESOURCES AND BIOCLIMATIC CONDITIONS IN SOUTHERN VIETNAM 2.1. Nature Characteristics of Southern Vietnam 2.1.1. Geographic location of Southern Vietnam The Southern Vietnam is located in the South of Indochina peninsula, from latitude 8o to latitude 12o N. East-Southern Vietnam has an area of 23,590.7 km2, accounting for 7.1% of the whole country area. West-Southern Vietnam has an area of about 40,576 km2. The position of Southern Vietnam is the premise to create motivation to attract domestic and abroad tourists. 2.1.2. Geological and topographic characteristics of the Southern Viernam In the exploitation of tourism, the terrain of East-Southern Vietnam is very diverse: mountain topography is mainly distributed in the North, Northeast, midland terrain, selling plains of basalt soil with a height of 50-200 m. West-Southern Vietnam is a relatively flat delta, divided by interlaced system of rivers and streams, middle islands, riverside, island system and sea encroachment area with many pristine islands, some low mountains with the form of limestone mountain topography along the border with Cambodia. 2.1.3. Hydro-marine characteristics of Southern Vietnam The Southern Vietnam has two large river systems, including Dong Nai - Vam Co River with 586 km in length and Mekong River with 225 km in length. If East-Southern Vietnam is a region with great marine potential with beautiful beaches, West-Southern Vietnam has the potential conditions to form attractive tourism routes on the rivers. 2.1.4. Biological characteristics and territorial biodiversity Forest is the most prominent natural resource in Southern Vietnam. East-Southern Vietnam has 6 special forests, including 4 national parks, 01 nature reserve and 2 cultural-historical forests, Can Gio mangrove forest and Cat Tien National Park are the world biosphere reserves. West-Southern Vietnam has 2 world biosphere reserves, 5 national parks, 4 nature conservation zones, 3 species
  11. 9 conservation zones, 7 habitat protection zones and 1 forest area for scientific experimental research, Minh Hai mangrove forest research and application center (Ca Mau). 2.1.5. Characteristics of bioclimate resources of Southern Vietnam Southern Vietnam climate is characterized by the equatorial tropical climate with humid monsoon, high solar radiation, large number of sunshine hours, high annual average temperature, low annual temperature amplitude and abundant rainfall. However, there are still differences among regions as well as among localities in the region. That difference has affected production and business activities as well as tourism seasonality, the ability to develop tourism types. 2.2. Characteristics of humanitarian tourism resources of Southern 2.2.1. Cultural and historical relics Shouthern Vietnam is the most abundant land of religious belief in Vietnam, with many particularly important relics and high values for tourism. East-Shouthern Vietnam has 156 cultural and historical relics of cultural heritage ranked nationally, including 1 intangible cultural heritage of the world, 7 special national monuments. West-Shouthern Vietnam has 182 cultural and historical relics ranked nationally, including 6 special national monuments. Artistic architectural monuments include many types such as pagodas, temples, shrines, cathedrals and ancient houses associated with the spiritual life and indigenous people's culture. 2.2.2. Folk culture festival In Southern Vietnam, the folk festivals of Vietnamese people are still unified from the North to the South, with central festivals attracting a large number of pilgrims to attend. The total number of festivals in West-Southern Veitnam is 1,237 festivals. 2.2.3. Traditional handicraft villages Handicrafts in the East-Southern Vietnam are not many but quite unique. East-Southern Vietnam has about 90 traditional handicraft villages with many exploiting values for tourists. Besides, West-Southern Vietnam currently has 211 handicraft villages. 2.2.4. Other humanitarian resources Culinary culture: folk cuisine is unique regarded as high cultural value for tourism development. Traditional art: Southern
  12. 10 Vietnam culture has two main characteristics: the characteristics of the river delta and the continuation of cultural elements of the Cham, Khmer and Chinese into Vietnamese culture in the region. 2.3. Classification of bioclimate and establishment of a bioclimatic map for Southern Vietnam 2.3.1. Determinination of the criteria for classification of bioclimate in Southern Vietnam From the results of analysis and systemization of climate statistic data for the purpose of developing tourism types, the PhD student mainly uses two basic elements: heat and humidity to classify bioclimate of Southern Vietnam with 03 criteria. presented in the form of combinational matrix: annual average air temperature, total annual rainfall, and number of rainy days 2.3.2. Results of classification of tourism bioclimate for Southern Veitnam As a result, there are 12 types of bioclimate in the Southern Vietnam. They are expressed through a set of symbols such as: IAa, IBb, ICc, IDb, etc. The characterization of bioclimatic units is carried out in sequence from the types of bioclimate: III – relative hot, II - hot, to: I - very hot; From the bioclimatic type of heavy rainfall (A), moderate rain (B), little rain (C) to very little rain (D); based on the number of rainy days: high (a), moderate (b), low (c), very low (d). 2.3.3. Establishment of a map of bioclimate classification for Southern Vietnam The establishment of bioclimatic maps must adhere to the following principles: reflecting the climate characteristics of the researched territory, their differentiation in space, reflecting favorable aspects and limitations of bioclimatic conditions for organizing tourism types and the implementation of tourism activities in the study area, reflecting the nature of the impacts of climate factors on human health and implementation of tourism activities. The methods used to establish bioclimate maps include statistical methods and data processing, field practical methods and methods of using GIS geographic information systems. The mapping method to show the main contents of the map is the point sign method (meteorological stations), method of combining brush strokes with quality base (bioclimate types). The 1: 250,000 map scale is determined by contents and research territories.
  13. 11
  14. 12 2.3.4. Evaluation of the characteristics of tourism bioclimate in Southern Vietnam using TCI index According to results of the assessment and calculation of climate data series at meteorological stations in Southern Vietnam in the period from 1980 to 2015, it is showed that TCI of Southern Vietnam mainly is in the range of 40- 54 (from the acceptable threshold to relatively good), which means that it is possible to develop tourism activities. In 12 months, TCI
  15. 13 Inheriting the results of the study of physiall geographic zoning in Vietnam and the differentiation of natural conditions of Pham Hoang Hai - Nguyen Thuong Hung - Nguyen Ngoc Khanh (1997) Southern Vietnam is divided by 3 levels of physical geographyic zoning: Zone  region  area. Zone: is determined by the heat-moist criteria. Located in the tropical monsoon landscape, Southern Vietnam belongs to the South zone, which has the dry South-West monsoon with prolonged dry season and no cold winter. Region: is a set of similar areas in terms of arising, with the same geomorphological structure, the same development history with similar characteristics of climatic conditions under the impact of circulation and terrain, similar characteristics about organisms, the same characteristics about ethnic communities, creating a similar level of technical impact on nature. Area: according to the actual differentiation of natural conditions, the level of regional division is determined based on the tectonic - geomorphological criteria, with the typical points of hydrological characteristics, differentiation criteria between the sea and land. 2.4.2. Results of zoning of physical geography in Southern Vietnam Southern Vietnam has 3 zoning levels, in which the highest level is Southern zone, consisting of two different physical geographic regions: Region of the East-Southern highland delta (I) characterized by the terrain region with low hills and high deltas, relatively ancient, gradually rising with ancient steps + 20m, + 40m and + 100m, large basalt eruptions filled the valleys between ancient stone blocks; Region of the West-Southern Delta (II) The main characterized by the relatively flat and low delta area below 10 m,
  16. 14 young, wide, fast-growing, built up by the alluvium of the Mekong River and the Saigon - Dong Nai river system during the period of sea level rise slowly from 7 thousand years ago. This region tends to sink in general. The lowest zoning level is area. the Southẻn Vietnam has 11 areas. East-Southern Vietnam region is divided into 3 areas based on tectonic - geomorphological criteria. Meanwhile, the West-Southern Vietnam region consists of 8 areas based on tectonic criteria - geomorphology and the norm differentiation between sea and land, which consists of 6 inland areas and 2 areas of coastal islands. Table 2.4. Zoning system of physical geography in Southern Vietnam Southern Vietnam (South zone) – dry S South-West Region ymbol monsoon, no cold winter I. East-Southern 1. High hills in Binh Duong – Binh I.1 region Phuoc – Dong Nai 2. Ancient alluvial shelf area in Tay I.2 Ninh – Ho Chi Minh City – Dong Nai 3. East-Southern coastal area I.3 II. West-Southern 4. Dong Thap Muoi area II.1 region 5. Delta area of Tien river and Hau river II.2 6. Coastal area of Tien and Hau rivers II.3 7. Long Xuyen quadrangle area II.4 8. Lowland area of western Hau river II.5 9. Ca Mau peninsula II.6 10. Island area of Gulf of Thailand II.7 11. Island area of eastern West-Southern II.8 region
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  18. 16 CHAPTER 3 GENERAL EVALUATION OF TOURISM RESOURCES AND BIOCLIMATIC CONDITIONS FOR TOURISM TYPES OF SOUTHERN VIETNAM 3.1. Basis for selection and evaluation of tourism types in Southern Vietnam In the scope of this dissertation, PhD student only assesses several typical tourism types, depending on the resources and sustainability factors. The selected tourism types for evaluation include: 1) Natural sightseeing tourism; 2) Relaxation tourism: 3) Ecotourism; 4) Cultural tourism. These are sustainable, less harmful to the environment, with long-term and unique potential. 3.2. Evaluation of tourism resources for tousirm types in Southern Vietnam 3.2.1. Evaluation of tourism resources for Natural Sightseeing Tourism development Sightseeing tourism is mainly taken place in areas with beautiful landscapes, diverse and unique topography, diverse organisms, favorable bioclimatic conditions. The PhD student decided to assess on 4 criteria: landscape, topography, biology, bioclimatic conditions. Based on the average score of each area, the PhD student divides the level of advantage of each area for sightseeing tourism in 4 evaluation levels. Among the selected criteria, their influence on Sightseeing Tourism varies. Based on the characteristics and requirements of the Sightseeing Tourism and the expert opinions, the most important influence factor is the landscape, the second is the terrain, the third is the organism and bioclimate conditions. This is the basis for determining the coeficients of the criteria. As a result of assessing the advantages of Sightseeing Tourism, we found that the two areas I.3 and II.4 are very convenient. 4 areas I.1, I.2, II.7, II.8 have a convenient level for tourism development. Areas II.3 and II.6 are quite convenient for Sightseeing Tourism. Areas II.1, II.2, II.5 are less convenient for Sightseeing Tourism. 3.2.2. Evaluation of tourism resources for Relaxation Tourism development
  19. 17 Relaxation Tourism is a tourism type combining with health recovery and healing. The areas with the most convenient bioclimate for human health and beautiful natural landscapes are the conditions for developing Relaxation Tourism. The PhD student selected 4 criteria: climate, beach, terrain and landscape. Bioclimatic condition is the most important factor for Relaxation Tourism development. It is determined as highest coefficient, the beach is the second important factor, followed by the terrain factor, finally the landscape has lowest coefficient in the rating scale. In addition, criteria such as biological resources (biodiversity, forest vegetation, subtropical fruits and vegetables ...) are also considered and evaluated but not decentralized. Based on the average score of each area, the results of convineint level of each area are as follows: I.3 areas achieve very convenient level for Relaxation Tourism development. Areas II.4, II.7 and II.8 are convenient. Areas I.1, I.2, II.2, II.3 are at the quiet convenient level. Less convenient for Relaxation Tourism development is belong to I.1, II.5, II.6 3.2.3. Evaluation of tourism resources for Ecotourism development Ecotourism is a tourism type based on indigenous nature and culture, associated with environmental education, contributing to conservation and sustainable development efforts with active participation of local communities. Thereby, the PhD student determined the requirements for ecotourism development as the following 3 criteria: natural ecosystem with high ecological diversity, bioclimatic conditions affecting tourist’s health when traveling, terrain creating favorable conditions for travel. According to expert opinions, criteria, evaluation level and score of biological criteria, bioclimatic condition criteria and topographical criteria for Ecotourism development can be used to evaluate these resources for Sightseeing Tourism development (Section 3.2.1). The impact level of these criteria decreases as followed chain: biology, terrain and bioclimatic condition.
  20. 18 Based on the average scores of the criteria, the results of the advantages of the areas for Ecotourism development are evaluated as follows: The level of very convenient assessment for Ecotourism is achieved by two regions I.3 and II.4. There are 6 areas with convenient assessment for ecotourism development, including: II.7, II.8, I.1, I.2, II.1, II.6. Areas II.3 and II.5 are assessed at relatively convenient levels, area II.2 is at the low convenient lvel for Ecotourism development due to the concentration of major agricultural and monotonous ecosystems. 3.2.4. Evaluation of tourism resources for Cultural Tourism development "Cultural Tourism is a type of tourism based on national cultural identity with the participation of the community to preserve and promote traditional cultural values". Thereby, the PhD student defined 3 important criteria for developing Cultural Tourism: cultural heritage including physical and intangible. Bioclimate is just a condition for organizing Cultural Tourism. The most important physical cultural heritage with a coefficient of 0.5, coefficient of intangible cultural heritage is 0.33, Bioclimate has the lowest coefficient at 0.17. Areas I.2, I.3, II.2, II.4, II.8 are evaluated as very convenient level for Cultural Tourism development. Areas I.1, II.3 and II.8 have convenient level for Cultural Tourism development. The areas II.1 are assessed quiet convenient. Low convenient level for Cultural Tourism development is belong to areas II.6 and II.7. 3.3. General synthesis of convenience levels of 4 tourism types in each area Based on the evaluation criteria and the convenience level of tourism types according to areas, the results of general assessment of convenience levels of 4 tourism types are as follows: Areas I.3, II.4, II.8 achieve very convenient level for general development of all tourism types. Convenient level for tourism development is belong to 4 areas, including I.1, I.2, II.3, II.7. Besides areas II.1, II.2, II.5, II.6 achieve the assessment of quiet convenient level for tourism
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