Altruism and systems

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  • However, an altruistic basis for donation does not necessarily exclude other approaches: systems based on altruism and systems involving some form of payment are not mutually exclusive. This holds in two circumstances: first, in the absence of reward, where payment may be used to recompense the donor for costs actually incurred in donating (that is, in order to avoid financial losses as a result of donation); and second, in the presence of reward, where some forms of reward (monetary or otherwise) may in fact co-exist with altruistic intent.

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  • The pressure for B2B marketers is on. Modern B2B buyers have an increasing tendency and capacity to research purchasing decisions online long before they engage with Sales. They are empowered with information, and are reluctant from a persistently struggling economy. Winning over modern B2B buyers requires organizations to revolutionize their marketing approach, and the barriers to success are vast. Facing great scrutiny, we must act on the buyer’s terms, tie all activities into revenue, and continually optimize performance.

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  • This study of a large, nationally representative sample of Australian women who had recently given birth provides the first examination of consultancy patterns across conventional maternity care providers and CAM practitioners during pregnancy. The study presents four key findings. First, the study reveals a substantial level of CAM practitioner use with nearly half of the pregnant women consulting a CAM practitioner concurrent to conventional maternity care.

    pdf9p thankinhphanliet 20-12-2012 51 7   Download

  • AI refers to several different procedures, all of which involve inserting sperm into a woman’s body, the differences referring to whether the sperm is placed in her vagina, uterus, cervix or fallopian tubes. AI can also be combined with hormonal drugs to stimulate production of multiple eggs to increase likelihood that one of them will be fertilized. AI can be done at home with a syringe or in a medical setting. Sperm used for AI is usually “washed,” which separates the sperm from the semen and eliminates dead or slow sperm and other chemicals that may impair fertilization.

    pdf5p le_minh_nha 25-12-2012 41 5   Download

  • Though there exists a body of feminist film making in Hindi cinema, the leading lady of Hindi films has more or less played defined roles which conform to the values upheld by Indian society. Women in Bollywood have been uni-dimensional characters, who are good or bad, white or black. There are no shades of grey. This dichotomy was reinforced in popular films which distinguished between the heroine and the vamp, the wife and the other woman. Films have also been inspired to a large extent from religion and mythology whereby women characters were seen as the epitome of virtue and...

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  • Income tax rates are at the center of many recent policy debates over taxes. Some policymakers argue that raising tax rates, especially on higher income taxpayers, to increase tax revenues is part of the solution for long-term debt reduction. For example, in the 112th Congress the Senate passed the Middle Class Tax Cut (S. 3412), which would allow the 2001 and 2003 Bush-era tax cuts to expire for taxpayers with income over $250,000 ($200,000 for single taxpayers). Other policymakers argue that maintaining low tax rates is necessary to foster economic growth.

    pdf20p trinhcaidat 19-04-2013 54 3   Download

  • Indeed calls from investors for increased ESG disclosure have been growing louder. In April 2009 Eurosif, the European Sustainable Investment Forum, issued a public policy position paper to recommend the European Commission encourage greater corporate transparency on ESG issues including a call for European institutions to mandate disclosure of ESG data by publicly traded, large corporations5 . Such reporting would be principles-based and use a limited number of standardised Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), some of which would be sector specific.

    pdf9p quaivattim 04-12-2012 29 2   Download

  • With outside runs, bury the wire along the pen border at least 12" deep, and toe the fence outward about 6 inches. This stops most predators from digging under the fence. Animals always dig at the base of a fence. By toeing the fence outward and burying it, the predator digs down right into more fencing. Some people run electric fencing around the outside of their pens 4" off the ground about one foot from the main fence to discourage predators. If your outside runs are not predator-proof, you need to lock up your poultry before dark. To...

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  • When comparing CBE to some of the more traditional models of education (Fig. 2), three fundamentally different characteristics emerge. First, CBE explicitly maps the specific health needs of the populations to a set of competencies for the workforce to be trained. In other words, it guides decisions about what graduates of the educational programs must be able to do, in order to address the key health issues of the community.

    pdf7p chiecxedien 03-01-2013 35 1   Download

  • Public health achieved considerable health improvements in the 19th Century with for example, treatment and legislation relating to water supply, sewage disposal and safer food. In the last century this legacy was extended with improvements in nutrition, the introduction of antibiotics and the sulphonamide drugs, early childhood vaccinations, the introduction of legislation on the compulsory use of seat belt and tobacco controls and taxation etc.

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  • The main method followed for this review included searching by snowballing and pubmed, collecting and reviewing published and unpublished materials on MNCH interventions. Recent evaluations and relevant documentations of different MNCH programmes were also consulted. Around 100 published articles from books, booklets, journals, reports, leaflets and web pages were reviewed.

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  • Available as a dust, wettable powder, and emulsifiable concentrate, permethrin is used on more than 10 percent of the birds (layers, breeders, pullets) treated for ectoparasites. Treatment is most often applied to birds at a rate of 1 gallon of spray (0.004 pound of active ingredient) spray per 100 birds. Premise application at the same concentration is made at a rate of 1 to 2 gallons spray per 1,000 square feet of surface area. Dust formulations (0.25 percent) are applied to birds (dust boxes) and premises (litter) at a rate of 1 pound (0.003 pound of active ingredient) per 100...

    pdf6p loginnhanh 22-04-2013 43 1   Download

  • Childhood obesity is a global epidemic and rising trends in overweight and obesity are apparent in both developed and developing countries. Available estimates for the period between the 1980s and 1990s show the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children increased by a magnitude of two to five times in developed countries (e.g. from 11% to over 30% in boys in Canada), and up to almost four times in developing countries (e.g. from 4% to 14% in Brazil).

    pdf52p can_thai 11-12-2012 49 0   Download

  • Schools have an important role to play in equipping children with the knowledge, attitudes, and skills they need to protect their health. Skills-based health education is part of the FRESH framework (Focusing Resources on Effective School Health), proposed and supported by WHO, UNICEF, UNESCO, UNFPA, and the World Bank. This document was published jointly by agencies that support the FRESH initiative, and emphasises the role of schools, however this document will also be relevant to out of school settings.

    pdf94p chiecxedien 02-01-2013 38 0   Download

  • In addition to the discussions on whether a two-pronged approach should be adopted, the session also offers an opportunity to discuss which gender issues should be prioritized in a future development agenda. There has been a call to focus on women’s strategic priorities which will help to transform women’s lives in the long-term. It has also been suggested that the new goals should reflect an understanding that women’s poverty is, in part, a result of their socially enforced gender roles and relations.

    pdf5p connicquy 20-12-2012 30 5   Download

  • For more than half of small businesses (58 percent), their social media efforts meet their expectations. Over a quarter (28 percent) feel their expectations have not been met, and 8 percent feel social media exceeds their expectations. This has not changed much in the past six months. What has changed is what small businesses’ expect to achieve with social media. Instead of the lofty goal of social media identifying and attracting new customers, small businesses’ biggest expectation from social media now is just to raise awareness of their business. A full 77 percent of small..

    pdf28p bi_ve_sau 05-02-2013 35 5   Download

  • In China, either small farmers bring their cows to the station or the cows are housed near the milking facility – to allow cows managed by households to be milked by machine and have the milk go directly to a refrigerated bulk tank. There are also a growing number of medium-sized specialized household farms with 200-10004 cows. These are often private farmers within reasonable transportation distances from major consuming areas. These farmers also have mechanized milking, cold storage, and highly productive animals (5000-7000 litres/head/year).

    pdf0p conduongdinhmenh 07-05-2013 34 5   Download

  • E-tribes or virtual communities: whatever one chooses to call them, at least one thing seems assured. With 51 per cent of Internet users using the Web daily, and exponential global growth rates for new users, prodigious growth in the quantity, interests, and influence of virtual communities is guaranteed. Unlikely to replace physical encounters, or information from traditional media, online interactions are becoming an important supplement to social and consumption behavior.

    pdf13p doiroimavanchuadc 06-02-2013 62 4   Download

  • General meeting. An Annual General Meeting (AGM) of shareholders must be held at least once in a calendar year and the time between two AGMs should not exceed 15 months (extendable up to three months with approval, except for first AGM). A company may hold its first AGM within 18 months from the date of incorporation and, in such a case, it will not be necessary to hold an AGM in the year of incorporation or the following year. Among the business to be addressed at an AGM is approval by the shareholders of the audited financial statements for the...

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  • Theoretical development in the area of health change in an older population began with the realization that the rapid mortality decline among the old beginning in the late 1960s could be linked to important population health consequences (15, 75). Fries (36) generated some of the interest in trends in health with his promotion of the idea that there was an ongoing “compression of morbidity.

    pdf8p thankinhphanliet 01-01-2013 30 3   Download



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