Homeostasis and metabolism of the organisms.

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  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding regulatory RNAs that function via the degradation of target mRNAs and inhibition of translation. They are found widely in higher eukaryotic organisms, and in several species that have been closely examined, hundreds of miRNAs have thus far been discovered with mechanistically conserved, yet functionally diverse, roles necessary for the proper development, homeostasis and metabolism of the organisms.

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  • A global research community of scientists is teasing out the biochemical mechanisms that regulate normal cellular physiology in a variety of organisms. Much of current research aims to understand the network of molecular reactions that regulate cellular homeostasis, and to learn what allows cells to sense stress and activate appropriate biochemical responses.

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  • “Epigenetics” as introduced by ConradWaddington in 1946, is defined as a set of interactions between genes and the surrounding environment, which determines the phenotype or physical traits in an organism, (Murrell et al., 2005;Waddington, 1942). Initial research focused on genomic regions such as heterochromatin and euchromatin based on dense and relatively loose DNA packing, since these were known to contain inactive and active genes respectively, (Yasuhara et al., 2005).

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  • Bone is the major constituent of the skeleton which is a hallmark of all higher vertebrates. Besides the protection of internal organs and the support of body structures, the most important functions of bone are to serve as an attachment site for muscles allowing locomotion and provide a cavity for hematopoiesis in the bone marrow (Mendez-Ferrer et al. 2010; Zaidi 2007). Moreover, bone has a central role in mineral homeostasis as it functions as a reservoir for inorganic ions that can be mobilized rapidly on metabolic demand...

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