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Bài giảng môn học Tiếng Anh chuyên ngành Tin học - Trịnh Thị Thu Hương

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Bài giảng môn học Tiếng Anh chuyên ngành Tin học - Trịnh Thị Thu Hương

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(NB) Bài giảng môn học Tiếng Anh chuyên ngành Tin học gồm có 8 đơn vị bài học, cung cấp cho sinh viên các kiến thức về ngữ pháp, từ vựng, dịch câu tiếng Anh trong các lĩnh vực của Tin học như máy tính, phần cứng, phần mềm,... Hy vọng với bài giảng này có thể giúp sinh viên có thể đọc, hiểu một số văn bản tiếng Anh đơn giản. Mời các bạn cung tham khảo.

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Nội dung Text: Bài giảng môn học Tiếng Anh chuyên ngành Tin học - Trịnh Thị Thu Hương

  1. BỘ CÔNG THƯƠNG TRƯỜNG CAO ĐẲNG CÔNG NGHIỆP VÀ XÂY DỰNG BÀI GIẢNG MÔN HỌC TIẾNG ANH CHUYÊN NGÀNH TIN HỌC Dùng cho hệ Cao đẳng chuyên nghiệp (Lưu hành nội bộ) Người biên soạn: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương Người phản biện: Tô Thị Thu Vân Uông Bí, năm 2011
  2. English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương CONTENTS Unit 1: What is a computer? page 3 Unit 2: Characteristics page 8 Unit 3: Computers capabilities and limitations page 15 Unit 4: Hardware and software page 21 Unit 5: Microcomputers page 27 Unit 6: The central processing unit page 33 Unit 7: Primary and secondary memory page 38 Unit 8: Types of memory page 44 - 1-
  3. English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương FOREWORDS The following collection of texts is collected from various textbooks. The texts are shortened, simplified and adapted to fit the skill level and interests of the learners in addition to meet the demand of the society. The collection, with five units, provides the learners with the technical terms in informatics with the hope that they can read, understand and translate simple technical textbooks, and magazines in English. As a result, learner can communicate with their partners in the future jobs. This collection is for students at the industry and construction of college. The author is always available to welcome any of your feedback, suggestions, corrections or comment. By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương - 2-
  4. English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương Unit one. WHAT IS A COMPUTER? < 1 > A computer is a machine with an intricate network of electronic circuits that operates switches or magnetize tiny metal cores. The witches, like the cores, are capable of being in one of two possible states, that is , on or off; magnetized or demagnetized. The machine is capable of storing and manipulating numbers , letters and characters. The basic idea of a computer is that w can make the machine do what we want by inputting signals that turn certain switches on and turn others off, or that magnetize or do not magnetize the cores. < 2 > The basic job of computer is the processing of information. For this reason, computers can be defined as devices which accept information in the form of instructions called a program and characters called data, perform mathematical and /or logical operations. The program, or part of it, which tells the computers what to do and the data, which provide the information needed to solve the problem, are kept inside the computer in a place called memory. < 3 > Computers are thought to have many remarkable powers. However, most computers, whether large or small have three basic capabilities. First, computers have circuits for performing arithmetic operations, such as: addition, subtraction, division, multiplication and exponentiation. Second, computers have a means of communicating with the user. After all, if we couldn’t feed information in and get results back, these machines wouldn’t be of much use. However, certain computers (commonly minicomputers and microcomputers) are used to control directly things such as robots, aircraft navigation systems, medical instruments, etc. < 4 > Some of the most common methods of inputting information are used punched cards, magnetic tape, disks, and terminals. The computer’s input device (which might be a card reader, a tape drive or disk drive, depending on the medium used in inputting information) readers the information into the computer For outputting information, two common devices used are a printer which prints the new information on paper, or a CRT display screen which shows the results on a TV- like screen. < 5 > Third, computers have circuits which can make decisions. The kinds of decision which computer circuit can make are not of the type: “ Who would wind a war between two countries?” or “ Who is the richest person in the world ?”. Unfortunately, the computer can only decide three things, namely: Is one number less than another? Are two numbers equal? and, Is one number greater than another? < 6 > A computer can solve a series of problems and make hundreds, even thousands, of logical decisions without becoming tired or bored. It can find the solution to a problem in a fraction of the time it takes a human being to do the job. A computer can replace people in dull, routine tasks, but it has not - 3-
  5. English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương originality; it works according to the instructions given to it and cannot exercise any value judgment. There are times when a computer seems to operate like a mechanical ‘ brain’, but its achievements are limited by the minds of human beings. A computer cannot do anything unless a person tells it what to do and gives it the appropriate information; but because electric pulse can move at the speed of light, a computer can carry out vast numbers of arithmetic- logical operations almost instantaneously. A person can do everything a computer can do, but in many cases that person would be dead long before the job was finished. * Vocabulary intricate: phức tạp, rối rắm circuit: mạch, mạch điện switch: khóa ngắt, công tắc magnet: nam châm magnetize: làm nhiễm từ core: lõi, nhân to store: lưu trữ to manipulate: xử lý character: ký tự to input: nhập vào, đưa vào to process: xử lý, chế biến instruction: lệnh, chỉ thị data: dữ liệu, dữ kiện memory: bộ nhớ arithmetic: số học minicomputer: máy tính mini exponentiation: số mũ, sự nâng lên lũy thừa originality: tính độc đáo, tính sáng tạo microcomputer: máy vi tính punch: đục lỗ, dùi lỗ card: miếng bìa punched card: bìa đục lỗ disk: đĩa ( từ) terminal: thiết bị đầu cuối medium: giá mang tin to output: đưa ra printer: máy in CRT ( Cathode Ray Tube): ống đèn tia âm cực display screen: màn hình hiển thị - 4-
  6. English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương * Grammar notes I/ The basic idea of a computer is that we can make the machine do what we want by inputting signals that turn certain switches on and turn others off, or that magnetize or do not magnetize the cores. Khái niệm cơ bản về máy tính là ( rằng) chúng ta có thể khiến cho máy thực hiện điều mà chúng ta muốn bằng cách đưa vào những tín hiệu, những tín hiệu này bật một số công tắc lên và tắt một số công tắc khác hoặc những tín hiệu này từ hoá hoặc không từ hoá các lõi. “ That we can make the machine do”: là mệnh đề bổ ngữ (Predicate clause ) đứng sau động từ “ To be”: Ví dụ : - The truth was that he never saw her: Sự thật là anh ta chưa bao giờ trông thấy cô ta - The trouble is that you get very little time: Điều rắc rối là anh có rất ít thời gian “ That turn contain switches on and turn others off ” là mệnh đề phụ tính ngữ hạn định, trong đó “ That là đại từ quan hệ ( Relative pronoun) Ví dụ: He that sows iniquity shall reap sorrơ Kẻ gieo gió sẽ gặp bão - Any students that wants to pass his examination must work hard. Bất cứ sinh viên nào muốn thi đỗ đều phải cố gắng học tập - “What we want” là mệnh đề phụ tân ngữ ( Objective clause) Ví dụ: - I don’t know what you are talking about Tôi không biết anh đang nói về cái gì - I’ll do just what I say. Tôi sẽ làm chính điều tôi nói II/ Computers are thought to have many remarkable powers Người ta nhận biết rằng máy tính có rất nhiều ưu thế nổi bật Subjecttive Infinitive Construction ( Cấu trúc động từ nguyên dạng làm chủ ngữ) Ví dụ: - She was thought to be honest:- Người ta nghĩ rằng cô ta trung thực - He was believed to have been murdered: - Người ta tin rằng nó đã bị ám sát - He is said to be a good doctor: - Người ta nói rằng anh ta là một bác sĩ giỏi Exercises: 1. Main ideas Which statement best expresses the main idea of the text? Why did you eliminate the other choices? 1 Computers have changed the way in which many kinds of jobs are done. 2 Instructions and data must be given to the computer to act on 3 Computers are machines capable of processing and outputting data. 4 Without computers, many tasks would take much longer to do. 2. Understanding the passage - 5-
  7. English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương Decide whether the following statements are true or false ( T/F) by referring to the information in the text. Then make the necessary changes so that the false statements become true. 1. …………..A computer can store or handle any data even if it hasn’t received information to do so. 2. …………..All computers accept and process information in the form of instructions and characters. 3. …………..The information necessary for the solving problems is found in the memory of the computer. 4. …………..Not all computers can perform arithmetic operations, make decision, and communicate in some ways with the user. 5. …………..Computers can still be useful machines even if they can’t communicate with the user. 6. …………..There are many different devices used for feeding information into a computer 7. …………..There aren’t as many different types of devices used for giving results as there are for accepting information. 8. …………..Computers can make any type of decision they are asked to 9. …………..Computers can work endlessly without having to stop to rest unless there is a breakdown. 3. Locating information Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expresses. Give line references as in the example below. ……………1/ Computer accept information, perform mathematical and/or logical operations then supply new information. ……………2/ All computers have three basic capabilities. ……………3/ A computer is machine that canbe made to operate by receiving signals. ……………4/ A computer cannot work without being told what to do. ……………5/ A computer can make three types of decisions. ……………6/ The fundamental job of a computer is processing information. ……………7/ A computer can do the work of hundreds of people in a very short time. ……………8/ The memory of a computer is used for storing information. 4. Content review Try to think of a definition for each of these items before checking them in the Glossary. Then complete the following statements with the appropriate words ( Some can be used more than once). Make sure you use the correct form, i.e; singular or plural Core device data Circuit terminal switch Program memory medium CRT display - 6-
  8. English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương 1. Every computer has circuit for performing arithmetic operations, operating…………… or magnetized…………… 2. A ……………with a screen is normally referred to as a ……………unit 3. A computer is a…………… that process information in the form of …………… and …………… and can store this information in a …………… 4. Card readers, tape drives, or disk drives are different…………… for inputting information. 5. Translate in to English Một máy tính điện tử là một máy xử lý thông tin. Máy tính xử lý thông tin một cách tự động, nhanh và chính xác. Tuy nhiên máy tính không thông minh. Để một máy tính có thể hoàn thành công việc nào đó, con người phải cung cấpcho máy tính một tập hợp các chỉ thị, gọi là chương trình, để máy tính theo đó mà làm việc. Dưới sự điều khiển của chương trình , máy tính tiếp nhận dữ liệu qua thiết bị nhập, thực hiện các phép toán số học và logic trên dữ liệu vào và thông qua thiết bị xuất, trả lại cho người sử dụng kết quả của những phép xử lý này - 7-
  9. English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương Unit 2. CHARACTERISTICS < 1> Computers are machines designed to process electronically, specially prepared pieces of information which are termed data. Handling or manipulating the informations, adding information or making comparisions ia called processing. Computers are made up of millions of electronic devices capable of storing data or moving them, at enormous speed, through complex circuits with different functions. < 2 > All computers have several characteristics in common, regardless of make or design. Information, in the form of instructions and data, is given to the machine, after which the machine acts on it, and a result is then returned. The information presented to the machine is the input; the internal manipulative operations, the processing, and the result, the output. These three basic concepts of input, processing and output occur in almost every aspect of human life whether at work or at play. For example, in clothing manufacturing, the input is the pieces of cut cloth, the processing is the sewing together of these pieces, and the output is the finished garment. Input comput Output er SEC. storage Figure 2.1 < 3> Figure 2.1 shows schematically the fundamental hardware components in a computer system. The centerpiece is called either the computer, the processor or usually, the central processing unit (CPU). The term “ computer” includes those parts of hardware in which calculations and other data minipulations are performed, and the high-speed internal memory in which data and calculations are stored during actual execution of programs. Attached to the CPU are the various peripheral devices such as card readers and keyboards ( two common examples of input devices). When data or programs need to be saved for long priod of time, they are stored on various secondary memory devices or storage devices such as magnetic tapes or magnetic disks. < 4> Computers have often been thought of as extremely large adding machines, but this is a very narrow view of their functions. Although a computer can only respond to a certain number of instructions, it is not a single-purpose machine since these instructions can be combined in an infinite number of - 8-
  10. English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương sequences. Therefore, a computer has no known limit on the kinds of things it can do; its versatility is limited only by the imagination of those using it. < 5> In the late 1950s and early 1960s when electronic computers of the kind in use today were being developed, they were very expensive to own and run. Moreover their size and reliability were such that a large number of support personnel were needed to keep the equipment operating. This has all changed now that computing power has become portable, more compact, and cheaper. < 6> In only a very short period of time, computers have greatly changed the way in which many kinds of work are performed. Computers can remove many of the routine and boring tasks from our lives, thereby leaving us with more time for interesting, creative work. It goes without saying that computers have created whole new areas of work that did not exist before their development. * Vocabulary: Characteristic: đặc trưng Design: thiết kế Piece: miếng, mảnh, mẩu Pieces of information: những khối thông tin Term: từ, thuật ngữ To term: gọi, đặt tên là To handle: giải quyết, xử lý To manipulate: thao tác, xử lý, tác động In such way as: theo cách như là To add: cộng Comparison: sự so sánh To be made up of: được tạo thành từ Enormous: to lớn, rất lớn In common: giống nhau, chung Regardless of: không phụ thuộc vào, không liên quan đến In the form of: dưới dạng To act on: tác động lên To present: trao cho, tặng, cung cấp cho Input: thông tin nhập vào Output: thông tin đưa ra Concept: khái niệm, ý niệm To occur: xảy ra, diễn ra Aspect: khía cạnh, lĩnh vực Clothing manufacturing: việc sản xuất quần áo Finished: đã hoàn thành, đã làm xong Schematically: bằng sơ đồ, bằng biểu đồ Fundamental: cơ bản, cốt yếu Centerpiece: trung tâm, trung tâm điểm Processor: bộ xử lý Central processing unit: bộ xử lý trung tâm - 9-
  11. English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương Internal: trong External: ngoài To execute: thực hiện Execution: sự thực hiện Attach: gắn, gắn liền, đi kèm Peripheral: ngoại vi Peripheral device: thiết bị ngoại vi Input device: thiết bị vào, thiết bị nhập Output device: thiết bị ra, thiết bị xuất To save: lưu trữ Secondary: phụ, thứ yếu Secondary memory device: thiết bị nhớ phụ Storage: sự lưu trữ Storage device: thiết bị lưu trữ View: cách nhìn nhận Narrow: hẹp, hẹp hòi To respond: trả lời, đáp lại Single-purpose: đơn năng, chỉ có một tác dụng To combine: kết hợp Infinite: vô hạn Sequence: thứ tự, trình tự, tuần tự Versatility: linh hoạt,có thể sử dụng vào nhiều việc Imagination: sự linh hoạt In use: đang được sử dụng To own: làm chủ, sở hữu Reliable: đáng tin cậy Reliability: độ tin cậy Portable: có thể xách tay Compact: gọn, thu nhỏ To remove: loại bỏ, huỷ bỏ Boring: tẻ nhạt, buồn chán * Grammar notes: I/ “ Morever, their size and reliability were such that a large number of support personnel were needed to keep the equipment operating” Hơn nữa, kích thước của chúng thì lớn và độ tin cậy lại thấp đến mức đòi hỏi phải có một số lượng lớn nhân viên phục vụ để duy trì thiết bị hoạt động Such that: Đến nỗi, đến mức Ví dụ: - The force of the exlosion was such that all glass windows were broken. Tiếng nổ mạnh đến nỗi tất cả các kính cửa sổ đều vỡ. - His behavior was such that everyone disliked him Tư cách của nó hèn đến nỗi mọi người đều ghét nó - 10-
  12. English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương II/ This has all changed now that computing power has become portable, more compact, and cheaper. Tất cả những điều đó đã thay đổi hoàn toàn vì giờ đây máy tính đã trở nên dễ mang, gọn và rẻ hơn. Now that: Vì, vì rằng Ví dụ: - Now that you’re grown up, you must stop this childish behavior. Vì cháu đã lớn rồi, cháu phải bỏ lối cư xử trẻ con đó đi - Now that the fog melted away, they hurried off. Vì sương mù đã tan, họ vội vàng ra đi * Exercises: 1. Main ideas Which statement or statements best expresses the main idea of the text? Why did you eliminate the other choices? 1 Computers have changed the way in which we live. 2 All computers have an input, a processor, an output and a storage device. 3 Computers have decreased man’s workload. 4 All computers have the same basic hardware components. 2. Understanding the passage Decide whether the following statements are true or false ( T/F) by referring to the information in the text. Then make the necessary changes so that the false statements become true. 1. …………..All information to be processed must be prepared in such a way that the computer will understand it. 2. …………..Because of the complex electronic circuitry of a computer, data can be either stored or moved about high speeds. 3. …………..Not all computers can process data given to them and produce results. 4. …………..The basic concepts of data processing are restricted to computers alone. 5. …………..The processor is the central component of a computer system. 6. …………..All other devices used in a computer system are attached to the CPU. 7. …………..Memory devices are used for storing information. 8. …………..Computers are very much restricted in what they can do. 9. …………..Computers today cost less, are smaller, and need fewer people to operate them than in the past. 10.…………..Computers haven’t changed oyr working conditions very much. 3. Locating information Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expresses. Give line references as in the example below. .......... ....... 1/ All computers are basicaaly the same. - 11-
  13. English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương .................. 2/ Then arithmetic and/or decision- making operations are performed. ……………3/ Computers are limited by man’s imagination more than anything else. ……………4/ All the equipment used in a computer system is the hardware. ……………5/ Computers are electronic machines used for processing data. ……………6/ If programs or data need to be kept for a long time, they are stored on tapes or disks. …………….7/ First the computer accepts data. …………….8/ Finally, new information is presented to the user. 4. Contextual reference: Look back at the text and find out what the words in bold typeface refer to 1. which are termed data (l.2) ........................................................................ 2 . or moving them ( l.6) ............................................................................. 3. the machines acts on it ( l.10) .................................................................... 4. They are stored on ( l.25) ........................................................................... 5.It isn’t a single- purpose machine( l.29) ..................................................... 6. The kinds of things it can do (l.31) ............................................................ 7. of those using it (l.32)................................................................................. 8. they were very expensive to own.(l.34) ................................................... 9. Moreover, their size and reliability.( l.34)................................................. 10. That didn’t exist (l.42) ............................................................................ 5.Word forms: First choose the appropriate form of the words to complete the sentences. Then check the differences of meaning in your dictionary. 1.imagination, imagine, imaginable, imaginative, imaginary. a. A computer is limited in its ability by the …………..of man. b. Some people are good at inventing……….. stories. c. It is practically impossible to………… the speed at which a computer calculates numbers. 2.Addition, add, added, additional, additionally, additive. a. Many terminals can be……………. to a basic mathematical operations. b…………….. and subtraction are two basic system if the need arises. d. When buying a system there is often no…………. charge for the programs. 3. Complications, complicate, complicated, complicating , complicatedly, a. There can be many…………. involved in setting up a computer in an old building. b. It is sometimes a very………… process getting into a computer installation for security reasons. c. It is sometimes very…………. to explain computer concepts. 4. difference, differ, different, differently, differential, differentiate, a. There isn’t a very big…………. in flowcharting for a program to be written in Cobol or Fortran. - 12-
  14. English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương b. There are many…………..computer manufacturers today, and a buyer must be able to…………..between the advantages and disadvantages of each. c. The opinions of programmers as to the best way of solving a problem often………… greatly. 5. Reliably, rely on, reliable, reliability, a. Computers are……………machines. b. If you don’t know the meaning of a computer term, you can’t always …………an all- purpose dictionary for the answer. c. Computers can do mathematical operations quickly and……………. 7a. Content review Try to think of a definition for each of these items before checking them in the Glossary. Then complete the following statements with the appropriate words. (Some can be used more than once). Make sure you use the correct form, i.e. singular or plural. Processing Hardware Magnetic tape Input Processor Magnetic disk Output Secondary memory Personnel Single-purpose 1.Information ………………… takes place in the ………………… not in the…………………device or…………………device. 2.The …………………refers to all the electromechanical devices used in computer installation. 3.………………and ………………… units are used as..............… storage devices. 4.A computer isn’t usually a …………………machine and may require quite specialized ………………… to operate it and all its related requirement. 7b. Content review Summarize the text on “Characteristics” by completing the following table. SYSTEM COMPONENTS PARTS Hardware 1. 2. Control unit 3. Peripheral devices A. Disks B. Others 3. 4. 5. 6. 8.Translate into English: Một hệ thống máy tính gồm nhiều thành phần cơ sở. Một thiết bị nhập ch phép nhập dữ liệu và chương trình vào máy. Dữ liệu và chương trình được chứa ở bộ nhớ trong của máy tính. Dưới sự điều khiển của chương trình, bộ xử lý của máy tính thao tác trên dữ liệu, chứa các kết quả trở lại trong bộ nhớ, cuối cùng - 13-
  15. English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương các kết quả được gửi ra một thiết bị xuất, ví dụ như màn hình hoặc máy in. Ngoài các máy tính hiện đại đều sử dụng các thiết bị nhớ như đĩa từ, băng từ để lưu trữ lây dài dữ liệu và chương trình. Một máy tính xử lý dữ liệu một cách tự động mà không cần sự can thiệp của con người. Tuy nhiên máy tính không thông minh. Chúng không thể quyết định một cách độc lập khi nào cộng, trừ, so sánh, hay cần nhập dữ liệu. Để một máy tính thực hiện được các chức năng mà không cần sự can thiệp trực tiếp của con người, thì phải cung cấp cho máy tính một tập hợp các lệnh gọi là chương trình để hướng dẫn nó. Chương trình được chứa một cách vật lý bên trong máy, khiến cho nó trở thành một chương trình được lưu trữ ( stored program). Vì vậy, một máy tính có thể được định nghĩa như một cái máy xử lý dữ liệu thành thông tin dưới sự điều khiển của một chương trình được lưu trữ trong máy - 14-
  16. English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương Unit 3. COMPUTERS CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS < 1> Like all machines, a computer needs to be directed and controlled in order to perform a task successfully. Until such time as a program is prepared and stored in the computer’s memory, the computer “ knows” absolutely nothing, not even how to accept or reject data. Even the most sophisticated computer, no matter how capable it is, must be told what to do. Until the capabilities and the limitation of a computer are recognized, its usefulness can not be thoroughly understood. < 2> In the first place, it should be recognized that computers are capable of doing repetitive operations. A computer can perform similar operations thousands of times, without becoming bored, tired or even careless. < 3> Secondly, computers can process information at extremely rapid rates. For example, modern computers can solve certain classes of arithmetic problems millions of times faster than a skilled mathematician. Speeds for performing decision- making operations are comparable to those for arithmetic operations but input-output operations, however, involve mechanical motion and hence require more time. On a typical computer system, cards are read at an average speed of 1000 cards per minute and as many as 1000 lines can be printed at the same rate. < 4> Thirdly, computers may be programmed to calculate answer to whatever level of accuracy specified by the programmer. In spite of newspaper headlines such as “ Computer Fails” these machines are very accurate and reliable especially when the number of operations they can perform every second is considered. Because they are man-made machines, they sometimes malfunction or breakdown and have to e repaired. However, in most instances when the computer fails, it is due to human error and is not the fault of the computer at all. < 5> In the fourth place, general- purpose computers can be programmed to solve various types of problems because of their flexibility. One of the most important reasons why computers are widely used today that almost every big problem can be solved by solving a number of little problems- one after another. < 6> Finally, a computer, unlike a human being , has no intuition. A person may suddenly find the answer to a problem without working out too many of the details, but a computer can only proceed as it has been programmed to. < 7> Using the very limited capabilities possessed by all computers, the task of producing a university payroll, for instance, can be done quite easily. The following kinds of things need be done for each employee on the payroll. First: Input information about the employee such as wage rate, hours worked, tax rate, unemployment insurance, and pension deductions. Second: Do some simple arithmetic and decision making operations. Third: Output a few printed lines on a cheque. By repeating this process over and over again, the payroll will eventually be completed - 15-
  17. English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương * Vocabulary: Capability: khả năng, năng lực Limitation: sự hạn chế To direct: chỉ dẫn, chỉ đạo, hướng dẫn Absolutely: hoàn toàn, tuyệt đối To accept: nhận, chấp nhận To reject: loại, loại bỏ, gạt bỏ Sophisticated: tinh vi, tinh xảo Usefulness: tính hữu dụng, hữu ích Thoroughly: một cách kỹ càng, cặn kẽ Recognize: thừa nhận, công nhận Capable: có khả năng, có thể Repetitive: lặp đi lặp lại Bored: buồn chán Tired: mệt mỏi Careless: cẩu thả, không cẩn thận Extremely: cực kỳ, hết sức Skilled: giỏi, có chuyên môn Mathematician: nhà toán học Decision-making: lô gic, thực hiện các quyết định Comparable: có thể so sánh với, ngang bằng với To involve: kéo theo, liên quan tới Motion: chuyển động Hence: do đó, vì vậy To require: đòi hỏi Typical: điển hình, thông thường To program: lập chương trình Level: mức độ, cấp Accurate: chính xác, Accuracy: độ chính xác In spite of: mặc dù Headline: tiêu đề lớn To consider: xem xét, xét, xét tới To malfunction: trục trặc To break down: hỏng, hỏng hẳn Instance: trường hợp, tình huống For instance: ví dụ, chẳng hạn Due to: do, do bởi Fault: lỗi, lỗi lầm General- purpose: đa năng, đa dụng Flexibility: tính linh hoạt, mềm dẻo Intuition: trực giác To proceed: tiến hành, thực hiện - 16-
  18. English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương To possess: sở hữu, có Payroll: bảng lương Easy: dễ dàng Easily: một cách dễ dàng Employee: người nhân viên, viên chức Wage: lương Wage rate: mức lương Tax: thuế Tax rate: mức thuế Unemployment: sự thất nghiệp Insurance: bảo hiểm Deduction: sự, khoản trừ đi, khoản bị khấu trừ Pension: tiền trợ cấp, tiền hưu Pension deduction: tiền đóng bảo hiểm xã hội To output: đưa ra, xuất ra, gửi ra Line: dòng Cheque: séc Over and over again: nhiều lần, lặp đi lặp lại Eventually: cuối cùng * Grammar notes I/ Until such time as a program is prepaied and stored in the company’s memory Cho tới lúc mà chương trình được chuẩn bị và lưu trữ trong bộ nhớ máy tính As (Đại từ): Mà Ví dụ: - He is the same man as I met yesterday: -Ông ta đúng là người mà hôm qua tôi gặp. - Such women as Nam knew, thought he was charming:-Những người đàn bà mà Nam biết nghĩ rằng anh ta là người quyến rũ II/ It should be recognized that computers are capable of doing repetitive operations:-Phải công nhận rằng máy tính có khả năng làm những thao tác lặp đi lặp lại “ It” trong câu là chủ ngữ giả, chủ ngữ thật là mệnh đề phụ danh từ mở đầu bằng “ that”. Ví dụ: - It is natural that birds of a feather flock together:-Lẽ tất nhiên là ngưu tầm ngưu mã tầm mã - It is said that England was the first country to have railways: Người ta nói rằng nước Anh là nước đầu tiên có đường xe lửa Exercises: 1. Main ideas Which statement best expresses the main idea of the text? Why did you eliminate the other choices? 1. The most elaborate of computers must be programmed in order to be useful 2. It is important to know what a computer can and can not do - 17-
  19. English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương 3. A Computer is useless without a programmer to tell it what to do 2. Understanding the passage Decide whether the following statements are true or false ( T/F) by referring to the information in the text. Then make the necessary changes so that the false statements become true. 1. ………….A computer can not do anything until it has beeb programmed 2. ………….A computer is a useless machine if its capabilities and limitations are unknown. 3. ………….A computer can repeat the same operation over and over again forever if permitted 4. ………….The speed at which different computer components function is considered to be one of the limitations of a computer 5. ………….Computers do not usually make mistakes unless they breakdown 6. ………….A computer can think and solve problems by itself 7. ………….A computer is a single- purpose machine in that it can not programmed to solve various types of problems 8. ………….Computers can solve big problems by following a series of simple steps 9. ………….A computer usually solves problems by doing some mathematical and decision-making operations 10.………….Computers are used because they are fast and exact. 3. Locating information Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expresses. Give line references as in the example below. ……………1/ A computer can do the same operation millions of time without stopping ……………2/ A computer must work out the details of a problem before reaching a solution. ……………3/ A computer needs to be told what to do ……………4/ Computer can solve all kinds of different problems ……………5/ Knowledge of a computer’s capabilities and limitations is important ……………6/ A computer can process information very rapidly. …………….7/ Computers are exact and dependable ……………. 8/ Input and output devices operate more slowly than the arithmetic and decision-making devices 4/ Contextual reference Look back at the text and find out what the words in bold typeface refer to. 1. no matter how capable it is (l.4) .................................................. 2. to those for arithmetic operations (l. 14) ................................................... 3. they are man-made machines ( l.22) .................................................. 4. they sometimes malfunction ( l.22) ................................................... 5. because of their flexibility ( l.26) ................................................... - 18-
  20. English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương 6. one after another ( l.28) .................................................. 7. one after another ( l.28) .................................................. 8. as it has been programmed to ( l. 31) ................................................. 9. the following kinds of things need be done( l.34) ................................................ 10.by repeating this process ( l.38) ................................................. 5/ Word forms First choose the appropriate form of the words to complete the sentence. Then check the differences of meaning in your dictionary. 1. repetition, repeat, repetitive, repeatedly, repeating a. There are some people who……..…. arrive late to class whenever they’re working on a program because they forget the time. b. A computer can do……..….operations without getting tired or bored. c. ……..…., which can be a boring and unproductive task has been eliminated with the use of computer. d. A computer can……..…. the same operation over and over again accurately without becoming bored and tired. 2. Comparison, compare, comparatively, comparative. a. Renting a computer isn’t……..…. to owning one. b. Computers can……..….numbers. c. There is sometimes very little ……..…. to be made between two different brand-name microcomputers d. The difference in price of microcomputers from different manufacturers can be……..….small 3. repairs, repaired, repairable, repair a. When the computer is down it need to be……..…. b. Electronic equipment often takes a long time to……..…. c. ……..….to a computer system are often done by the same company who manufactured the system. 4. accuracy, accurate, accurately a. A computer is always……..…. in its results if well prepared b. ……..…. is on of the advantages of using computers in research or in statistical analysis. c. Computers can produce results quickly and……..…. 6/ a. Content review Match the words in column A with the appropriate statement in column B A B 1. Decision- making a. can solve different types of operations problem 2. Programmer b. all the equipment needed input, 3. General- purpose process and output information computers c. those which compare numbers 4. computer system d. decides what the program is to be - 19-

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