Brushless Permanent Magnet Motor Design P6
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Brushless Permanent Magnet Motor Design P6
Brushless Permanent Magnet Motor Design P6: You've just picked up another book on motors. You've seen many others, but they all assume that you know more about motors than you do. Phrases such as armature reaction, slot leakage, fractional pitch, and skew factor are used with little or no introduction. You keep looking for a book that is written from a more basic, yet rigorous, perspective and you're hoping this is it.
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Nội dung Text: Brushless Permanent Magnet Motor Design P6
 146 Chapter S Figure 6.8 Geometry for the torque calculation in the dual ax ial flux topology. To understand this phenomenon, consider the magnet shown in Fig. 6.8. Theflux entering the stator from a differential slice is
 Design ations more saturated than the teeth at the outer radius. Moreover, since the stator back iron thickness is wider than necessary at the inner radius, the net steel reluctance at the inner radius is much lower than that at the outer radius. Given (6.57), the slot bottom width is wSb = rsi  wthi (6.58) and the slot aspect ratio at the inner radius is a* = ^ (6.59) Wtbi + Wsb Electrical parameters The derivation of electrical parameters closely follows the radial flux topology analysis conducted earlier in this chapter. Therefore, the der ivations for this topology will not be justified as thoroughly. Torque. The torque produced by the axial flux topology requires some development because the torque is produced at a continuum of radii from RI to R0. Rather than develop the torque expression from the basic configuration considered in Chap. 4, it is convenient to start with the torque expression developed for the radial flux topology (6.18) T = NmkdkpksBgLR ro Ngpp Fig 1 where L is the conductor length exposed to the air gap flux density Bg and Rro is the radius at which torque is produced. Based on this equa tion, and the geometry shown in Fig. 6.8, the incremental torque pro duced at a radius r by the interaction of Bg and a conductor of length dr is T(r) = 2NmkdkpkgBgNgppnsir dr (6.60) where the factor of 2 appears because there are conductors on two stators producing torque at the radius r. Integration of this incremental torque gives a total developed torque of CR T = 2NmkdkpksBgNsppnsi " r dr JR, = NmkdkpksBgNsppnsi(Ro  Rf) (6.61) Back emf. Using (6.61) and following what was done earlier in (6.19), the peak back emf at rated speed is rn = — = NmkdkpksBgNSppns(Rl  Rl)
 148 Chapter S from which the number of turns per slot required to produce Emax is E TTJOY n, = int (6.63) NrnkdkpksBgNspp(R20  Rf)con where as before int() returns the integer part of its argument because the number of turns must be an integer. Due to the truncation involved in (6.62), the peak back emf may be slightly less than 2? max . The actual peak back emf achieved can be found by substituting the value com puted in (6.63) back into (6.62). Current. Following the analysis conducted for the radial flux topology, the required total slot current, phase current, and conductor current densities are L = NmkdkpksBgNspp(Ro  Rf) L Iph  N n ph s and Jc = (6.66) respectively. Given the specified maximum conductor current density e/ m a x and the slot crosssectional area (6.54), the conductor slot depth required to support Jmax is d3 = t — ( 6 . 6 7 ) RcpWsbv max From this value, the total stator axial length can be computed as L= ds + wbi (6.68) where ds = ¿i + d2 + d3 (6.69) Resistance. As stated earlier, the windings on the two stators are assumed to be connected in series. Therefore, factors of 2 are required since Ns, Nsm, Nsp, Nspp, and ntpp are defined per stator. The slot re
 Design ations sistance per slot is given by (4.28) with appropriate changes to reflect this topology, pn2s{R0  Rj) Rs = — (6.70) n, cprxs Since the end turn length is different at the inner and outer radii, the end turn resistance per slot is the average of that at the two radii, prijir{TC0 + rci) R (6 71) ' " 4kcpAs  Given two stators each having Nsp slots per phase, the phase resistance is Rph = 2Nsp(Rs + Re) (6.72) Inductance. Calculation of the phase inductance requires slightly more work than the resistance because the air gap inductance is influenced by the two stators and two air gaps. As opposed to the single air gap case considered in Fig. 4.17, there are two air gap reluctances in series and the effective number of turns creating the air gap flux is equal to 2ns. Furthermore, the coil crosssectional area is not rectangular but rather is Ac = 0C(R2  Rf)l2, where 9C = acp6p is the angular coil pitch in mechanical radians. Applying this information to (4.16) and dividing by 4 to express the air gap inductance on a per slot per stator basis gives = (2ns)2fxRp,0Ackd = n2sixRi±0Qc{R20  Rf)kd g 8(Zm + 2fxRkcg) 4{lm + 2fxRkcg) The slot leakage inductance per slot is given by (6.29) with the slot length L replaced by R0  R„ Lx n'i ¿¿0^3 + Mo^l (R  Ri) (6.74) — 0 3^SÒ (Ws + wsb)/ 2 ws and the approximate end turn inductance per slot is given by the sum of onehalf of (4.22) for the inner and outer end turns, Le = In + In (6.75) 16 \ 4A J 16 V4A J
 150 Chapter S As earlier with the phase resistance, the total phase inductance is the sum of that due to all slots, Lph = 2Nsp(Lg + Ls + Le) (6.76) Performance The performance of this topology follows that of the radial flux topology. The I2R loss is given by (6.32) and the core loss is given by (6.34) where the approximate stator volume is V„ = 2KST[TR(R20  Rf){Wbi + ds)  NSAS(R0  Ri)] (6.7 Combining this information allows one to estimate the efficiency as (6.36). In a manner similar to that calculated for the radial flux to pology, the heat density leaving the slot conductors and the maximum heat density appearing at the stator periphery are pr Qs = (6,78 (R0  RL)(2d, + wsb)Ns = (6 ^ 2«
 Design ations 6.4 Design Equations for the Dual Axial Flux Topology No. Expression Description (ir/30)Sr Mechanical speed, rad/s (Oe (NJ2)wm = Electrical speed, rad/s ft = el {2 it) (ú Fundamental electrical frequency, Hz T =746PAp/wm : Torque from horsepower Ns =NspNph No. of slots N = Nsp/iVm No. of slots per pole per phase 11 spn ^spp Nph No. of slots per pole Ns„ = int(Nspp)/Nw Coilpole fraction
 152 Chapter S 6.4 Design Equations for the Dual Axial Flux Topology (Continued) No. Expression Description d\ + d2 = aSdWtbi Shoe depth, split between d\ and d2 _ • ,/ E m3X No. of turns per slot ~ m \NmkdkpksBgNspp(m  Rf)w, emax = NmkdkpksBgNsppns(R2  Rf)con Peak back emf T I = Peak slot current NmkdkpksBgN,pp(R2  RÌ) L Phase current Iph N n ph s L d,3 = Conductor slot depth KpWsbJn As = tfs6tÌ3 Conductor area Peak conductor current KCPAS density ds  di + d2 + d3 Total slot depth L = ds + wbl Stator axial length IB I Psmai  Peak slot flux density Ws 2 Rs = P n (R0  Äj) Slot resistance 2 R _ pn 7T{Tco + TCI) End turn resistance AhcpAs RPh = 2 Nsp(Rs + Re) Phase resistance 2 2 = n sixRii0dc{R 0  iffiàrf Air gap inductance * " 4(Zm + 2fiRkcg) Hodz Ls = n2 3 ws + u>s&)/2 U;5 0 (R  Ri) Slot leakage inductance n2stl0TcoI 7a>7r \ . njp.0Tcl / T* IT , End turn inductance Le = le l n U Â j +  i r l n U i Lph = 2Nsp(Lg + Ls + Le) Phase inductance V« = 2kst[n(R2  Rì)(wbl + ds)  NsAs(Ro Ä,)] ~ Stator steel volume Pr — NphlphRph Ohmic power loss Pel  PbiVsF(Bmax, fe) Core loss Efficiency = Pr Qs Slot heat density (R0  Ri)(2d3 + wsb)Ns Pr + Pel Qst = 2  Ä?) 2tT(R Stator heat density
 Design ations problem. The approach followed here may not be the best approach. However, it offers a good starting point for those interested in develop ing their own motor design capabilities and does illustrate many of the design tradeoffs inherent in motor design. There is no end to the exceptions and variations that could be considered. Many companies have computerbased design programs that have been modified and improved regularly for decades. To compete with these programs, the analysis conducted in this chapter would have to include libraries of material characteristics, wire gage selection, motor drive selection and characterization, and at least a onedimensional, steadystate thermal characterization.
 Chapter 7 Motor Drive Schemes The preceding material presented in this text is not complete without an understanding of how brushless PM motors are electrically driven to produce rotational motion. Since motor torque is the input to a mechanical system or load, it is desirable to have fine control over torque production. In the common situation where smooth mechanical motion is desired, constant ripplefree torque must be produced. Based on the material presented so far, constant torque is difficult to produce for several reasons. First, periodically varying cogging torque usually exists which is inde pendent of any applied motor excitation. Second, the desired mutual torque is not even unidirectional unless the phase current changes sign whenever the back emf does. Furthermore, constant mutual torque is produced only when the product of the back emf and applied current is constant with respect to position. While elaborate and expensive drive schemes are possible, in many applications simplifying assumptions are made that lead to readily implemented drive schemes that perform rea sonably well. In this chapter, these simple drive schemes will be illus trated for two and threephase motors. The fundamental task for a motor drive is to apply current to the correct windings, in the correct direction, at the correct time. This process is called commutation, since it describes the task performed by the commutator (and brushes) in a conventional brush dc motor. As before, the goal is to develop an intuitive understand ing rather than discuss every nuance of every possible motor drive scheme. More detailed information can be found in references such as Leonhard (1985), and Murphy and Turnbull (1988). With this intuitive understanding, more complex drive schemes are readily understood. TwoPhase Motors Until now, torque and back emf expressions have been developed con sidering just one motor phase. When there is more than one phase, 155
 156 Chapter Seven each individual phase acts independently to produce torque. Following the ideas that lead to the torqueback emfcurrent relationship (3.28), consider the twophase motor illustrated in Fig. 7.1. Power dissipated in the phase resistances produces heat, the phase inductances store energy but dissipate no power, and power absorbed by the back emf sources EA and EB is converted to mechanical power Tio (think about it: where else could it go?). Writing this last relationship mathemati cally gives EAiA + EgiB — Tu (7.1) Here the back emf sources are determined by the motor design and the currents are determined by the motor drive. Because of the BLv law (3.12), the back emf sources are linear functions of speed, i.e., E = kco, where k, the back emf waveshape, is a function of motor parameters and position. Substituting this relationship into (7.1) gives kAiA + k^ifi — T (7.2) Thus the mutual torque produced is a function of the back emf wave shapes and the applied currents. Most importantly, (7.2) applies in stantaneously. Any instantaneous variation in the back emf wave shapes or the phase currents will produce an instantaneous torque variation. Equation (7.2) provides all the information necessary to design drive schemes for the twophase motor. Since the back emf waveshapes are a function of position, it is convenient to consider (7.2) graphically. Making the simplifying assumption that the back emf is an ideal T co Figure 7.1 A twophase motor.
 Motor Drive Schemes 157 2rc 3K n/2 3N/2 5n/2 Figure 7.2 Square wave back emf shapes for a twophase motor. square wave, Fig. 7.2 shows the back emf waveshapes, with that from phase B delayed by 7t/2 electrical radians with respect to phase A. OnephaseON operation Given the waveshapes shown in Fig. 7.2, several drive schemes become apparent. The first, shown in Fig. 7.3, is onephaseON operation where only one phase is conducting current at any one time. In this figure, the phase currents are superimposed over the back emf waveshapes and (7.2) is applied instantaneously to show the resulting motor torque on the lower axes. The overbar notation is used to signify current flowing in the reverse direction. Some important aspects of this drive scheme include: • Ideally, constant ripplefree torque is produced. • The shape of the back emf of the phase not conducting at any given time, e.g., phase A over 37t/4 < 9 < 57T/4, has no influence on torque production since the associated current is zero. Thus the shape of the back emf need only be flat when the current is applied. The smoothing of the transitions in the back emf that exist in a real motor do not add torque ripple. • Neither phase is required to produce torque in regions where its associated back emf is changing sign. • Each phase contributes an equal amount to the total torque produced. Thus each phase experiences equal losses and the drive electronics are identical for each phase.
 158 Chapter Seven backEMF Phase ""A"' A curreni —f  I 3K 2k backEMF Phase B curreni! r !_. J TX/2 3n/2 5K/2 Torque Figure 7.3 OnephaseON torque production. • Copper utilization is said to be 50 percent, since at any time only onehalf of the windings are being used to produce torque; the other half have no current flowing in them. • The amount of torque produced can be varied by changing the am plitude of the current pulses. • Square pulses of current are required but not achievable in the real world, since the inductive phase windings limit the current slope to di/dt = v/L, where v is the applied voltage and L is the inductance. Using 6 = cot, this relationship can be stated in terms of position as di/dd = U/{CDL). With either interpretation, the rate of change in current is finite, whereas Fig. 7.3 assumes that it is periodically infinite. TwophaseON operation Following the same procedure used to construct Fig. 7.3, Fig. 7.4 shows twophaseON operation, where both phases are conducting at all
 Motor Drive Schemes 159 back EMF Phase A A current 2K back EMF Phase B B current Ji/2 3ITI2 5VJ2 Torque AB AB AB AB AB AB Figure 7.4 TwophaseON torque production. times. The phase current values given in (6.22) and (6.65) assume this drive scheme. Important aspects of this drive scheme include: • Ideally, constant ripplefree torque is produced. • The shape of the back emf is critical at all times, since torque is produced in each phase at all times. • If either current does not change sign at exactly the same point that the back emf does, negative phase torque is produced, which leads to torque ripple. • Both phases are required to produce torque in regions where their associated back emf s are changing sign. • Each phase contributes an equal amount to the total torque produced. Thus each phase experiences equal losses and the drive electronics are identical for each phase. • Copper utilization is 100 percent. • The amount of torque produced can be varied by changing the am plitude of the square wave currents.
 160 Chapter Seven • Impossible to produce square wave currents are required. • For a constant torque output, the peak phase current is reduced by onehalf compared with the onephaseON scheme. The sine wave motor A square wave back emf motor driven by square current pulses in either one or twophaseON operation as described above represents what is usually called a brushless dc motor. On the other hand, if the back emf is sinusoidal, the motor is commonly called a synchronous motor. Operation of this motor follows (7.2) also. However, in this case it is easier to illustrate torque production analytically. The key to understanding the twophase synchronous motor is by recalling the trigonometric identity sin 2 0 + cos20 = 1. Let phase A have a back emf shape of kA = K cos 6, and be driven by a current iA = I cos 6. If as before the back emf of phase B is delayed by TT/2 electrical radians from phase A, kB = K sin 9, and the associated phase current is is = I sin 0. Applying these expressions to (7.2) gives = kAlA + kB^B T (7.3) KI(cos26 + sin20) = KI = T Thus once again the torque produced is constant and ripplefree. In addition, the currents are continuous and only finite di/dd is required to produce them. Just as in the square wave case considered earlier, the currents must be synchronized with the motor back emf. To sum marize, important aspects of this drive scheme include: • Ideally, constant ripplefree torque is produced. • The shape of the back emf and drive currents must be sinusoidal. • If both phase currents are out of phase an equal amount with their respective back emf s, the torque will have a reduced amplitude but will remain ripplefree. • Each phase contributes an equal amount to the total torque produced. Thus each phase experiences equal losses and the drive electronics are identical for each phase. • Copper utilization is 100 percent. • The amount of torque produced can be varied by changing the am plitude of the sinusoidal currents. • The phase currents have finite di/dd. Based on the three examples considered above, it is clear that there are an infinite number of ways to produce constant ripplefree torque.
 Motor Drive S c h e m e s 1 6 1 All that is required is that the lefthand side of (7.2) instantaneously sum to a constant. The trouble with the square wave back emf schemes is that infinite dildO is required. The torque ripple that results from not being able to generate the required square pulses is called com mutation torque ripple. The trouble with the sinusoidal back emf case is that pure sinusoidal currents must be generated. In all cases, the back emf and currents must be very precise whenever the current is nonzero; any deviation from ideal produces torque ripple. For the square wave back emf schemes position information is required only at the commutation points (i.e., four points per electrical period). On the other hand, for the sinusoidal back emf case much higher resolution is required if the phase currents are to closely follow the back emf waveshapes. Thus simple and inexpensive Hall effect sensors are suf ficient for the brushless dc motor, whereas an absolute position sensor, e.g., an absolute encoder or resolver, is required in the sinusoidal cur rent drive case. Despite the fact that the square wave back emf schemes inevitably produce torque ripple, they are commonly implemented because they are simple and inexpensive. In many applications, the cost of higher performance cannot be justified. Hbridge circuitry Based on Figs 7.3 and 7.4 it is necessary to send positive and negative current pulses through each motor winding. The most common circuit topology used to accomplish this is the full bridge or Hbridge circuit as shown in Fig. 7.5. In the figure, Vcc is a dc supply, switches Si through S4 are commonly implemented with MOSFETs or IGBTs (though some still use bipolar transistors because they're cheap), diodes Di through Z)4, called freewheeling diodes, protect the switches by providing a reverse current path for the inductive phase current, and R, L, and Eb represent one motor phase winding. Basic operation of the H bridge is fairly straightforward. As shown in Fig. 7.6a, if switches Si and S4 are closed, current flows in the positive direction through the phase winding. On the other hand, when switches Figure 7.5 An Hbridge circuit.
 162 Chapter Seven 1 R Eb s4 (a) ZfD, R 1 Eb f •4\S4 (b) Figure 7.6 (a) Positive current conduction and (6) neg ative current conduction in an Hbridge circuit. S 2 and S 3 are closed, current flows in the negative direction through the phase winding as shown in Fig. 7.66. In either case, the current climbs exponentially according to the L/R time constant and reaches the value of (±VCC  Eb)/R if the switches are left closed long enough. Turnoff behavior. What takes more work to understand is the turn off behavior of the H bridge and how phase current is controlled to limit its magnitude. Current control is accomplished by chopping, i.e., employing pulsewidthmodulation (PWM) techniques. Because of its fundamental nature, PWM will be discussed at length later. For the time being, consider the turnoff behavior of the H bridge. This be havior is guided by the fundamental behavior of inductors. That is, that current cannot change instantaneously but must be continuous, and the larger the voltage across an inductor, the faster the current through it will change. To start, let the phase current be a constant I m with switches Si and S4 closed as shown in Fig. 7.6a. Given these initial conditions, consider what happens when both switches are opened to bring the current back to zero. Now, since current no longer flows through Si and S4, a negative voltage appears across the inductor because di/dt is negative. At the same time, the phase current continues to flow in the same direction because it can't change instantaneously. The only path for current flow
 Motor Drive Schemes 163 (a) Si DÏZ "3d \ 3 \S3 © s 2 / D 2 7S Eb 7SD, \ S 4 (b) Figure 7.7 Current decay when (a) switches Si and S4 open, (6) only switch S 4 opens. is through diodes D2 and jD3 as shown in Fig. 7.7a. No current can flow through open switches or in the reverse direction through diodes Di or D4. During this time, the voltage across the phase inductance is L —   Ri  Vcc  Eb (7.4) which is clearly large and negative when i > 0, Vcc > 0, and Eb > 0. As time progresses, the current decreases exponentially toward the negative value  (V cc + Eb)/R. Upon reaching zero current, the diodes turn OFF, the energy in the inductor (0.5Li2) is returned to the supply, and the circuit rests. If the circuit lacked freewheeling diodes, the inductor voltage would increase in amplitude until one or more switches are destroyed in an attempt to provide a current path for the inductor current. In some situations, just one of the two switches is opened. To illus trate this action, assume the conditions shown in Fig. 7.6a and open only switch S 4 ; let Si remain closed. The path for decaying current flow in this case is through D3 and
 164 Chapter Seven which is much smaller in magnitude than that given in (7.4) because  Vcc is missing. Hence the inductor current decays much more slowly in this situation. Later this turnoff mode will prove helpful in imple menting PWM current control. Switch current. A major task in drive circuit design is to size the switches, that is, to determine their rms currents. In the H bridge, switches Si and S 4 carry the positive portion of the phase current, whereas switches S2 and S3 carry the negative portion of the phase current. Because of this division, the rms switch current is less than the rms phase current. As illustrated for the twophaseON scheme in Fig. 7.8, the rms value of the switch current is easily shown to be 100/V2 = 70.7 percent of the rms phase current. Though not shown, the same ratio applies to the onephaseON scheme. Summary. Important aspects of the Hbridge circuit include: • Bidirectional current flow is easily achieved. • Given that the back emf and current have the same sign in Figs. 7.3 and 7.4, the back emf acts to fight the increase in phase current amplitude during turnon. • In the onephaseON drive scheme in Fig. 7.3, the back emf and current have the same sign at the turnoff points. Thus, by (7.4), the Phase Current K 2N 3K Sjand S4 Current e e S2and S 3 Current 0 Figure 7.8 Phase and switch currents for twophaseON operation.
 Motor Drive S c h e m e s 1 6 5 back emf acts to assist the decrease in phase current during turn off. • In the twophaseON drive scheme Fig. 7.4, the back emf and current have opposite signs immediately after the turnoff points. Thus the back emf acts to fight the decrease in phase current during turnoff. Thus the back emf hinders commutation at both turnon and turn off in the twophaseON drive scheme. • At no time can vertical pairs of switches, i.e., Si and S 2 or S 3 and S 4 , be closed simultaneously. If this happens, a shootthrough fault occurs where the motor supply is shorted. In implementation, a short delay is often added between commutations to guarantee no shoot through condition occurs. • For the square wave back emf schemes, the rms switch current is equal to 70.7 percent of the rms phase current. • For twophase motors, two H bridges are required, giving a total of eight switches to be implemented by power electronic devices. ThreePhase Motors Threephase motors overwhelmingly dominate all others. The exact reasons for this dominance are not known, but the historical dominance of threephase induction and synchronous motors and the minimal number of power electronic devices required are likely contributing factors. The addition of a third phase provides an additional degree of freedom over the twophase motor, which manifests itself in more drive schemes and terminology. For example, wye (Y) and delta (A) connec tions are possible. In threephase motors, the power balance equation leads to kAiA + kBiB + kcic = T (7.6) where kc and ic are the back emf shape and current respectively, of the third phase. By construction, the back emf s of each phase have the same shape but are offset from each other by 27773 electrical ra dians, or 120 electrical degrees. The back emf shapes for the ideal square wave back emf motor are shown in Fig. 7.9. ThreephaseON operation The most obvious drive scheme for the threephase motor is to extend the twophaseON operation of the twophase motor as shown in Fig. 7.10. Here each phase conducts current at all times and contributes equally to the torque at all times. At each commutation point one phase
 166 Chapter Seven 2k 2jt/3 5K/3 71/3 471 /3 IK ¡3 Figure 7.9 Square wave back emf shapes for a threephase mo tor. current changes sign and the others remain unchanged. The phase current values given in (6.22) and (6.65) assume this drive scheme. The important aspects listed above for the twophaseON, twophase motor apply here as well. Despite the conceptual simplicity of this drive scheme, it is hardly ever implemented in practice because three H bridges as shown in Fig. 7.5 are required, one for each phase winding. The resulting 12 power electronic devices make the drive expensive compared with other drive schemes. Y connection Just as the Y connection is a popular configuration in threephase power systems, it is also the most common configuration in threephase brushless PM motors. As shown in Fig. 7.11, the center or neutral of the Y is not brought out and each external terminal or line is connected to a half bridge circuit, and the collection of three half bridges is called a threephase bridge. In this way, an H bridge appears between each set of terminals. Only six power electronic devices are needed for the switches in the threephase bridge, as opposed to eight for a twophase motor. The supply voltage is applied from line to line through the switches rather than from line to neutral. Compared with the three phaseON case, the supply voltage works against two back emf sources
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