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Curriculum English for Information Technology: Part 2

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Curriculum English for Information Technology: Part 2

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English for Information Technology is a topic-based course. To prepare students for their future job, the course is designed to introduce students to a full range of IT texts and to give students opportunities to practice their language skills in different IT contexts. The materials used in this book are arranged from general to more specialist content so that they can be understood by students easily.

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  1. LESSON 6: DATABASES AND SPREADSHEETS I. Warm up Read the following sentences and decide whether they are true (T) or false (F). 1. A spreadsheet program displays information in the form of a table, with a lot of columns and rows. 2. In a spreadsheet you can only enter numbers and formulas. 3. In a spreadsheet you cannot change the width of the columns. 4. Spreadsheet programs can produce visual representations in the form of pie charts. 5. Spreadsheets cannot be used as databases. II. Listening: Spreadsheet Listen to Helena Davies, an IT trainer, explaining how to use mail merging to some employees. Number these steps in the order that you hear them. Activate the Mail Merge command (Print Merge in some Programs). This combines the main document and the data document. Click ‘print’ and the program generates a single letter for each record in the data document. Create the data document with a database program or with the right spreadsheet software. This document contains rows with names, addresses and other information that will be merged with the standard letter. Create the main document with a word processor. Type the standard letter and insert the appropriate field names into it. III. Reading A. Try to answer these questions. 1. What is a spreadsheet? What is it used for? 2. What type of information can be keyed into a cell? 3. What will happen if you change the value of a cell? 4. What is a database? 5. Which task can be performed by using a database? Make a list of possible applications. 44
  2. B. Here is part of an article about databases. First, read all the way through and underline the basic features of a database. Basic features of a database program With a database, you can store, organize, and retrieve a large collection of related information on computer. If you like, it is the electronic equivalent of an indexed filing cabinet. Let us look at some features and applications. Information is entered on a database via fields. Each field holds a separate piece of information, and the fields are collected 'together into records. For example, a record about an employee might consist of several fields which give their name, address, telephone number, age, salary, and length of employment with the company. Records are grouped together into files which hold large amounts of information. Files can easily be updated: you can always change fields, add new records, or delete old ones. With the right database software, you are able to keep track of stock, sales, market trends, orders, invoices, and many more details that can make our company successful. Another feature of database programs is that you can automatically look up and find records containing particular information. You can also search on more than one field at a time. For example, if a managing director wanted to know all the customers that spend more than £7,000 per month, the program would search on the name field and the money field simultaneously. A computer database is much faster to consult and update than a card index system. It occupies a lot less space, and records can be automatically sorted into numerical or alphabetical order using any field. The best packages also include networking facilities, which add a new dimension of productivity to businesses. For example, managers of different departments can have direct access to a common database, which represents an enormous advantage. Thanks to security devices, you can share part of your files on a network and control who sees the information. Most aspects of the program can be protected by user-defined passwords. For example, if you wanted to share an employee's personal details, but not their commission, you could protect the commission field. In short, a database manager helps you control the data you have at home, in the library or in your business. 45
  3. Task 1: Now make a list of the words you do not understand. Can you guess their meaning? Compare your ideas with other students. Task 2: Complete these statements using the information in the text 1. A database is used to …………………………………………………. 2. Information is entered on a database via ……………………………... 3. Each field holds ………………………………………………………. 4. ‘Updating’ a file means ………………………………………………. 5. The advantages of a database program over a manual filing system are ........................... 6. Access to a common database can be protected by using ……………….. IV. Language work: Requirements: Need to, have to, must, be essential, critical Note how we describe requirements of We can also treat need as a modal verb particular jobs: and use the negative form needn't: 1. You need to be able to empathize with the 7. You needn't have a degree in computing person at the other end of the phone. science. 2. IT managers have to take responsibility Have to is an ordinary verb. Its negative for budgets. form is made in the usual way: 3. You must be interested in your- subject. 8. You don't have to be an expert in 4. You must have worked for at least two everything. years in systems analysis. 5. Experience with mainframes is essential Mustn't has a quite different meaning. It critical. means it is important not to do something. we can describe things which are not It is used for warning, rules, and strong requirements like this: advice. For example: You do not need to have a degree in 9. You mustn't make unauthorized copies of computing science. software. Exercise 1: Put the verbs in bracket in the correct form. 1. The total number of pixels in which the display ..........(divide) both horizontally and vertically is known as the resolution. 2. The number of pixels need ......... (be) large in order to have high resolution display. 3. Computers can do mathematical operations ....... (quick). 4. It is critical ........... (protect) filter that cuts down the emissions. 46
  4. 5. You have to ........ (put) your keyboard at the same height as your elbows. 6. Many terminals can be ………(addition) to basic system if the need arises. 7. It is sometimes a very ………(complicate) process getting into a computer installation for security reasons. 8. You shouldn’t ....... ( stare) at the screen for long periods of time. 9. A computer is limited in its ability by the …………(imagine) of man. 10. A computer can……………(solution)a problem faster than any human being. 11. These days you don’t need ………… (study) BASIC. 12. You must ………… (become) an expert in too narrow a field. 13. You have to have good ............(communicate) skills to become an IT Manager. 14. You must be an expert in hardware to become a ............(program). 15. Technical qualifications need …. (be) renewed at intervals to ensure they do not go out of date. V. Speaking Study these requirements for different jobs in computing advertised on the Internet. Then describe the requirements using the methods studied in this unit. 1. Systems manager/ 2. Cisco Technician 3. Programmer Programmer - technical specialist - CCNA qualified - 3. yrs exp. Basic - min. 2. years work in - excellent skills in the Technical Environment systems surrounding technologies - team player with strong - programming - Min. 2 yrs work in support analytical and problem- - plus exp.of netview/ solving skills. automation design $ - ability to communicate issues and solutions and support manager time effectively. 47
  5. VI. Puzzle Complete the sentences by using a term from the list. Then write the words in the crossword to find the hidden message. Database field layout merging record sorted updated 1. In order to personalize a standard letter, you can use “ mail ………” ( a technique which consists of combining a database with a document made with a word processor). 2. Records can be automatically …….. into any order. 3. You can decide how many fields you want to have on a …………….. 4. Fields can easily be …………….. by adding new information or deleting the old one. 5. A …… program can be used to store, organize and retrieve information of any kind. 6. The …….. of the records can be designed by the user. 7. Each piece of information is given in a separate …………….. 48
  6. LESSON 7: GRAPHICS AND MULTIMEDIA I. Warm up Graphics programs have several options that work in conjunction with the tools menu to enable the user to manipulate and change pictures. Look at the facilities on the left and match them with the definitions on the right. 1. Patterns menu a. Turning an image round. 2. Scaling b. A tool which lets you scale the 'view' of a picture and edit 3. Rotating a small portion of it as if you were working under a 4. Inverting magnifying glass. It is very useful for doing detailed work as 5. Zoom you can edit the pictures one dot at a time. 6. Slanting c. Making the object larger or smaller in any of the 7. Black-and-white dithering horizontal, vertical, or depth directions. d. A shading technique where two different colors are placed next to each other; the human eye blends the colors to form a third one. It is also used to show shading in black and white. e. A palette from which you choose a design to fill in shapes. f. Reversing the color of the dots in the selected part of a picture, so that white dots become black and black dots become white. g. Inclining an object to an oblique position. II. Listening: A. A sales assistant is explaining the components of a multimedia system to a customer. Listen and complete this diagram. 49
  7. Multimedia system hardware software processor RAM peripherals data system software ............ memory ................ ........................ ............. ............. music ........................ ................ ........................ High-quality ............ .............. sound capabilities ............... ........................ color ............ ............... ..................... ................ ......................... monitor ........ speakers, .............. ........................ ...................... Compare your answers with another student. B. Now listen again and answer these questions 1. What is multimedia? 2. What is the advantage of computer multimedia presentations over TV and video? 3. Which system software is designed by Apple for multimedia work? a. Windows with Multimedia control panels b. QuickTime 4. Can an existing PC be adapted for multimedia applications? III. Reading: Multimedia magic! A. Answer these questions 1. Why is multimedia similar to graphics? 2. Which types of data are involved? 3. Is it easy to adapt most PCs for multimedia applications? B. Read the texts and match them with the headings in the box below. Sound, Music, MIDI CD – ROM titles full of pictures, action and sound CD- ROM is more than just heavy metal The potential of using multimedia 50
  8. 1……………………………….. Until now multimedia applications have been used mainly in the fields of information, training and entertainment. For example, some museums, banks and estate agents have information kiosks that use multimedia. Several companies produce training programs on optical disks, and marketing managers use presentation packages (like Microsoft Power Point or Lotus Freelance Graphics for Windows) to make business presentations. They have all found that moving images, sound, and music involve viewers emotionally as well as inform them, and make their message more memorable. 2……………………………… Sound is an important component of the multimedia approach. The effective use of sound can be used to grab the attention of the participant, set the mood, or underscore a point. The most popular way of delivering sound is the hardware soundboard. Such boards offer two important capabilities. The first of these is a built-in stereo synthesizer complete with a built-in audio amplifier. Just connect a set of speakers and you've got instant sound, music and speech capabilities. The second capability is. the musical instrument digital interface, or MIDI. This is a specialized serial interface that allows an electronic musical instrument to communicate with other MIDI-equipped instruments or PCs. CD:'ROM is popular 3 ………………………………… Between 80 and 90 percent of all multimedia applications are distributed on CD-ROM, some just on CD, some on several media (as with Autodesk's Multimedia Explorer, which comes with both a CD-ROM and diskettes). The reason for CD-ROM's popularity in multimedia is simple -a single CD can contain 650 MB of data. That's over 500 floppy disks' worth of programs, sound, and graphics. The newest CD-ROM standard, CD-ROM XA (for eXtended Architecture) uses data compression to fit even more on these shiny discs. Many XA drives are also compatible with Kodak's Photo CD technology, which digitizes photographs and places them on a CD-ROM. 51
  9. 4 …………………………………. Electronic encyclopedias integrate text, pictures, and sound, and usually have a video section with a full motion video window. The Compton's Encyclopedia enables you to read about whales, look at photos of whales, listen to whale songs, and view an animated sequence showing whale movements through the ocean. Similarly, the Grolier Encyclopedia lets you read about birds, view pictures of birds, and listen to recordings of their songs. Other CD-ROMs include dictionaries, guides, and courses about history, science, the human body, cinema, literature, foreign languages, etc. For example, Cinemania from Microsoft has information on thousands of films and photographs, reviews, biographies and dialogues from films. (Section 2 and 3 adapted from Updating to multimedia' in PC Upgrade, June 1993) Task 1: Read the texts again and correct these statements. There is a technical mistake in each of them. 1. Multimedia applications do not use huge amounts of data. 2. You don't need to have a soundboard on your PC to hear speech and music.. 3. Most multimedia software is distributed on magnetic disks. 4. Kodak's Photo CD technology is not compatible with many CD-ROM drives. 5. There are no language courses available on CD-ROM. Task 2: Match these terms in the box with the explanations. a. Computer animation b. Video computing c. MIDI interface d. CD-ROM player e. Multimedia control panels 1. Small programs inside the OS designed to work with audio and video files. 2. A code for the exchange of information between PCs and musical instruments. 3. A drive used to handle CD-Rom disks. 4. Manipulating and showing moving images recorded with a video camera or captured from a TV or video recorder. 5. Images which move on the screen. 52
  10. IV. Language work: Gerunds Gerunds are nouns formed by adding -ing to verbs. A gerund usually functions as: - the subject of a sentence: e.g. Smoking is bad for your health. - the object of a verb: e.g. She has never done any computing. - the complement of the subject: e.g. His favourite pastime is playing computer games. - after prepositions. e.g. We look forward to having cheaper and faster computers. Exercise 1: Complete these sentences with the correct form of the verb: infinitive or -ing form. 1. Don't switch off without (close down) your PC. 2. I want to (upgrade) my computer. 3. He can't get used to (log on) with a password. 4. You can find information on the Internet by (use) a search engine. 5. He objected to (pay) expensive telephone calls for Internet access. 6. He tried to (hack into) the system without (know) the password. 7. You needn't learn how to (program) in HTML before (design) web pages. Exercise 2: Rewrite each of these sentences without changing the meaning. 1. One task of the supervisor program is to load into memory non-resident programs as required. Loading into memory...................................................................................... 2. Communicating directly with the hardware is the role of the operating system. The role of the operating system ...................................................................... 3. Although her computer is old, it still runs very well. In spite of ........................................................ 4. Internet helps them to communicate easily, such as chatting, sending or receiving email. One of the advantage of Internet is .................................................... 5. She uses a computer to send email. A computer ................................................... 6. He should install more memory in order to his computer to process data faster. It is necessary ........... ........................................................................ 53
  11. LESSON 8: FACES OF THE INTERNET I. Warm up Try to answer these questions: 1 What is the Internet? 2 What can you do on the Internet? Make a list of possible applications. A program like Microsoft Internet Explorer allows you to search, view and manage information over the Web. htto://www.microsoft.com/ie II. Reading A. Which Internet utility (1 to 7) would you use to do each of these tasks (a to g)? Read the text below to check your answers. 1 email a send a message to another person via the Internet 2 Web browser b transfer files from the Internet to your hard disk 3 Newsreader c have a live conversation (usually typed) on the Internet 4 IRC/chat program d connect to a remote computer by entering certain instructions 5 FTP software and run programs on it. 6 Videoconferencing e take part in public discussion areas, called newsgroups 7 Telnet f fetch and view Web pages on the Internet g participate in live conversations, using text, audio, and video. B. Read the text and do the following task. Internet Software Getting connected The language used for data transfer on the Internet is known as TCP/IP (transmission control protocol internet / protocol). This is like the Internet operating system. The first program you need is a PPP (point- to-point protocol) driver. This piece of software allows the TCP/IP system to work with your modem; it dials up your Internet service provider (ISP), transmits your password and log-in name and allows Internet programs to operate. 54
  12. Email Email is your personal connection to the Internet. It allows you to exchange messages with people all over the world. It can include text, pictures, and even audio and animation. When you set up an account with an ISP, you are given a unique address and anyone can send you email. The mail you receive is stored on the server of your ISP until you next connect and download it to your hard disk. Web browsers The Web is a hypertext-based system where you can find news, pictures, games, online shopping, virtual museums, and electronic magazines -any topic you can imagine. You navigate through the Web using a program called a 'browser', which allows you to search and print Web pages. You can also click on keywords or buttons that take you to other destinations on the net. This is possible because browsers understand hypertext markup language (HTML), a set of commands that indicate how a Web page is formatted and displayed. IRC, audio and video chatting IRC -Internet relay chat -is a system for real-time (usually typed) conversation. It's easy to use. To start a chat session, you run an IRC program, which connects you to an IRC server -a computer dedicated to IRC. Then, you join a channel which connects you to a single chat area. Next, you type message, and the other participants can see it. Internet telephone and video chatting are based on IRC protocols. Videoconferencing programs enable users to talk to and see each other, and collaborate. They are used in intranets -company networks that use Internet software but make their Web site accessible only to employees and authorized users. FTP and Telnet With FTP software, you can copy programs, games, images, and sounds from the hard disk of a remote computer to your hard disk. Today, this utility is built into Web browsers. A Telnet program is used to log directly into remote computer systems. This enables you to run programs kept on them and edit files directly. 55
  13. Newsgroups Newsgroups are the public discussion areas, which make up a system called 'Usenet.' The contents of the newsgroups are contributed by people who send articles (messages) or respond to articles. They are classified into categories: comp (computers), misc (miscellaneous), news (news), rec (recreation), soc (society), sci (science), talk and at (alternative). Task 1: Read the text again and choose the right answer. 1. An Internet service provider (ISP) is a. a program that connects you to the Internet. b. a company that gives you access to the Internet. 2. HTML is a the software which allows you to fetch and see Web pages. b the codes used to create hypertext documents for the Web. 3. An IRC channel is a an IRC discussion area. b a computer system dedicated to IRC. 4. Usenet is a a big system of public discussion groups. b a newsgroup. 5 An intranet is a like small version of the Internet inside a company. b a commercial online service. Task 2: Find a suitable word to fill in the gap a. LAN b. network architecture c. nodes d. protocol e. modem f. token g. gateway h. account 1. You need a .............. to convert computer data into a form that can be transmitted over the phone lines 2. .......... is a network contained in a relatively small area. 3. .............is the arrangement of nodes in a communication system (distribution of elements in a network). 56
  14. 4...............is a device that translates protocols between different networks (e.g. it can link networks of PCs and Macs to mainframes and minicomputers.) 5. ............is a special unit of data which acts as a key on a Token Ring network; only the machine in possession of this piece of software can transmit on the network. 6. ........... is a set of rules that allows the exchange of information over a network. 7. Computer devices interconnected in a network are called ............ 8. To have access to the Internet, you must first open an ........... III. Listening Listen to Diana Wilson, a member of the Internet Safety Foundation. She is talking about cyberspace’s dangers and benefits for children. Complete the notes. Benefits - The Internet brings benefits for (1)..... and entertainment. Risks - manipulation of children - invasions of (2)............. - child (3)....................... Cyber Patrol, a popular Internet - violence and neo-Nazi (4)..................... filter: Solutions http:///www.cyberpatrol. com - There are Web sites (5).........for children. - Internet (6)............ programs let parents block objectionable Web sites. - Web sites should (7)......... their content with a label, from child-friendly to over 18- only: But this may limit free expression. IV. Language work: If - clause Conditional clauses When you want to talk about a possible situation and its consequences, you use a conditional sentence. Here, we examine two types of conditionals. - First conditional (possible situation). 57
  15. + If A happens, B will happen. ( present simple), (will + verb) E.g. If you click on the speaker icon, you'll get a piece of dialogue from the movie. In the main clause, we can also have modal (can), an imperative, or a present tense verb. - Second conditional (unlikely situation) + If A happened, B would happen. (past simple), (would + verb) E.g. If I had the money, I would (I'd) invest in a multimedia upgrade kit. Other modals (could, should, might) may appear in the main clause. Exercise 1: Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form. 1. If I (get)……… a sound card, I'll be able to create my own music with a MIDI. 2. If the system (have)……. a Super VGA card, we would obtain a better resolution. 3. You won't be able to play CD-ROM disks if you (not have) ….. a CD-ROM drive. 4. If you (come) ……… to the annual computer exhibition, you could see the new Macs. 5. If I could afford it, I (buy) ………. a Multimedia PC. Exercise 2: Match the sentences in Column A with appropriate sentences from Column B. Then join each action and effect using an if-sentence. Column A Column B 1. you press Print Screen a. you can drag it across the screen 2. you press Ctrl + Alt + Del in Windows b. it would speed up the computer 3. you added more memory c. you may lose data 4. you installed a modem d. you would have more space at your desk 5. you used a better search engine e. you would be able to connect to a telephone 6. you forget to save regularly line 7. you hold down the mouse button over an f. you can make a copy of the screen icon g. you would find more relevant results 8. you used an LCD display h. it displays a list of active programs Exercise 3: Describe the consequences of these actions using an if-sentence. 1. You don't virus-check floppies 2. There was a power cut while you were using your computer 3. You install a faster processor 4. You forgot your password 58
  16. 5. You press the delete key 6. You use search engine 7. You double-click on an icon 8. You use power-saving options V. Speaking In small groups, study and discussion the illustration below. Then prepare a description and give an oral report to the class. This diagram represents a wide area network or WAN. Two networks are linked via satellite. One network is in ........................... and consists of .............................................. The other LAN is in .......................... and contains ................................................................................ In Los Angeles, the computers are connected to the telephone lines by ....................... However, in Barcelona .................................................................................................................... The satellite receives signals from ............................................... Then the signals are retransmitted to ................................................................................................................................. The purpose of this integrated network may be ................................................................... It allows large companies and institutions to .................................................................................... 59
  17. VII. Word-play Solve the crossword puzzle using the clues below 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Across 1. The means of communication between a human and a computer. (4,9) 5. To load software on to a computer, ready for use. (7) 7. To transmit a message to all nodes on a network (9) 9. and 3 down Usually found in one building or a group of building close together. (5,4,7). 10. This kind of network often uses a telephone exchange to connect different devices directly. (8) Down 2. Taking place at exactly the same time as something else. (11) 3. See 9 across. 4. An ............. board may be inserted into a computer to give it added features. (9) 6. The opposite of 9 across and 3 down. (3) 8. The network configuration in which all devices are linked through the central computer. (4) 60
  18. LESSON 9: PROGRAMMING I. Warm up A. In pairs, try to think of an answer for the question. What is programming? Look at the definition in the Glossary. Is it similar to yours? B. Complete the following definitions with the words and phrases in the box. The various parts of the program may occur in programs language Binary numbers a given problem 1. algorithm The step-by-step specification of how to reach the solution to ………………………. 2. flow chart A diagram representing the logical sequence between ………………………………. 3. coding The translation of the logical steps into a programming …………………………….. 1. machine code The basic instructions understood by computers. The processor operates on codes which consist of …………………………………………………………………. 5. debugging The techniques of detecting, diagnosing and correcting errors (or bugs) which ………………………………………………………………………………….. II. Listening A. Listen to Lucy Boyd, a software developer, explaining how a program is produced. Number these steps in the order you hear them. Provide documentation of the program. Understand the problem and plan the solution. Test and correct the program. Make a flowchart of the program. Write the instructions in coded form and compile the program. B. Listen again and takes notes. Use your notes to explain what each step means. 61
  19. III. Reading A. Before reading the text, try to fill in the gaps in these sentences. Machine code applications program compiler Source program object program 1. ............is a program written in one of the high-level languages. 2. A program written in a high-level language must be interpreted into ..........before the computer will read and process it. 3. A program designed to perform a specific task called an.............. 4. The............. is the program produced when the original program has been converted into machine code. 5. A ............. is a program that converts a high-level language into machine code. B. Now read the text to cheek your answers Programming languages Unfortunately, computers cannot understand ordinary spoken English or any other natural language. The only language they can understand directly is called machine code. This consists of the 1s and 0s (binary codes) that are processed by the CPU. However, machine code as a means of communication is very difficult to write. For this reason, we use symbolic languages that are easier to understand. Then, by using a special program, these languages can be translated into machine code. For example, the so-called assembly languages use abbreviations such as ADD, SUB, MPY to represent instructions. These mnemonic codes are like labels easily associated with the items to which they refer Basic languages, where the program is similar to the machine code version, are known as low-level languages, each instructions is equivalent to a single machine code instruction, and the program is converted into machine code by a special program called an assembler. These languages are still quite complex and restricted to particular machines 62
  20. To make the programs easier to write and to overcome the problem of intercommunication between different types of machines, high-level languages were designed such as BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN or Pascal. These are all problem-oriented rather than machine-oriented. Programs written in one of these languages (known as source programs) are converted into a lower-level language by means of a compiler (generating the object program). On compilation, each statement in a high-level language is generally translated into many machine code instructions People communicate instructions to the computer in symbolic languages and the easier this communication can be the wider the application of computers will be. Scientists are already working on Artificial Intelligence and the next generation of computers may be able to understand human languages. Read the text again and find answers to these questions: 1. Do computers understand human languages? 2. What are the differences between low-level and high-level languages? 3. What is an assembler? 4. What is the function of a compiler? 5. Can you explain the terms ‘source program’ and ‘object program’? 6. In the future, could computers be programmed in Spanish, French or Japanese? IV. Language work: Problem and solution Study these ways of liking a problem and a solution Problem: get rid of logic errors Solution: hand-test the program You can get rid of logic errors by hand-testing the program To get rid of logic errors, hand-test the program 63
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