Photoshop cs5 missing manual_3

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  1. Layer Blend Modes Figure 7-10: By placing two images on separate layers, you can use Darken mode to zap a white background. Here, the top layer has a fairly dark sunburst and the bottom layer has a crazy guy on a white background. If you change the blend mode of the sunburst layer to Darken, the white background on the layer below it seems to disappear. Since parts of the crazy guy’s face and hand are lighter than the sunburst—the sunburst wins the color war explained on page 292 and covers him up in those spots— you can hide those parts of the sunburst to keep him whole. Simply add a layer mask and paint with a Brush set to black (see page 113 for more on layer masks). Figure 7-11: By changing the blend mode of the tattoo layer to Mul- tiply, its white back- ground disappears so you can see through to the skin below. All you need to do now is use the Type tool to put your name on the little banner across the heart! chapter 7: combining images 293
  2. Layer Blend Modes • Color Burn. This mode darkens your image by increasing the overall contrast. When you use it on 50 percent gray, it intensifies color on the layers below, which can beautify an ugly sky in a hurry (see Figure 7-12). You can also use it to colorize a grayscale image, though the paint will be really dark and high con- trast (it’s better to use Hue mode, discussed on page 301). Keyboard shortcut: Shift-Option-B (Shift+Alt+B on a PC). Figure 7-12: Ain’t nothing like a dull sky to ruin a perfectly decent photo. Happily, you can whip the sky into shape by adding a layer to the top of your layers stack, fill- ing it with 50 percent gray, and changing its blend mode to Color Burn. If the effect is too strong, you can lower the gray layer’s opacity, as shown here. To ap- ply the color change only to certain areas of your image, add a layer mask (page 113). Tip: An easy way to fill a layer with 50 percent gray is to make a new layer, go to Edit➝Fill, and then choose 50% Gray from the Use pop-up menu. Those Adobe programmers think of everything! • Linear Burn. In this mode (which is actually a combination of Multiply and Color Burn), Photoshop darkens your image by decreasing brightness. Linear Burn produces the darkest colors of any Darken blend mode, though with a bit more contrast than the others. It has a tendency to turn dark pixels solid black, which makes it ideal for grungy, textured collages like the one in Figure 7-13. Keyboard shortcut: Shift-Option-A (Shift+Alt+A on a PC). Photoshop CS5: The Missing Manual 294
  3. Layer Blend Modes Figure 7-13: In this Layers panel, you can see the origi- nal image near the bottom followed by a Threshold Adjustment layer (page 337). Popping in three pieces of art (circled) and changing their blend modes to Linear Burn created this trendy collage. The opacity of the sunbeam and grunge texture was lowered to about 60 percent, and the sunbeam was positioned over the boy’s eye. That’s it! • Darker Color. This mode compares the base and blend colors and keeps the darkest pixels. No blending going on here—the lighter colors just vanish. Note: You may have noticed that Photoshop doesn’t have a keyboard shortcut for Darker Color mode. That’s because this mode didn’t come around until Photoshop CS3 when Adobe started running out of keyboard shortcut combos. Same goes for Lighter Color mode (page 297). Lighten Blend Modes These modes, the opposite of the Darken modes, have the power to lighten, or dodge, your image (see Chapters 9 [page 376] and 10 [page 447] for more on using the Dodge tool). Black is the neutral color for this group; it disappears in all but one of the following modes: • Lighten. In this mode, the lightest pixels win the war of colors. Photoshop com- pares all the colors and keeps the lightest ones from the base and the blend, and then combines them to produce the result color. Everything else is nixed (including black), which makes this mode perfect for removing a black back- ground (see Figure 7-14). Keyboard shortcut: Shift-Option-G (Shift+Alt+G on a PC). chapter 7: combining images 295
  4. Layer Blend Modes Figure 7-14: To zap the black background of this fireball (the top layer), change its blend mode to Lighten. Now the flames are visible only where they’re lighter than the colors in the steel ball. A layer mask was added to hide a few rogue flames underneath the ball. • Screen. In this mode, Photoshop multiplies the opposite of the blend and base colors, making everything a lot lighter as though a bottle of bleach was spilled on it. It’s great for fixing images that are too dark or underexposed (like when your camera’s flash doesn’t fire; see page 119). Keyboard shortcut: Shift-Option- S (Shift+Alt+S on a PC). • Color Dodge. This mode lightens your image by decreasing contrast. It has a tendency to turn light pixels solid white, and, unlike the other Lighten modes, it keeps black pixels, so the dark parts of your image don’t change. You can use this mode with 50 percent gray to brighten your image—a great way to give hair some instant highlights (see Figure 7-15). Keyboard shortcut: Shift-Option-D (Shift+Alt+D on a PC). Photoshop CS5: The Missing Manual 296
  5. Layer Blend Modes Figure 7-15: By filling a layer with 50 percent gray and changing its blend mode to Color Dodge, you get instant hair highlights—no trip to the beauty salon required! Just add a layer mask to protect other parts of the image (like the face and background) from the highlighting. • Linear Dodge (Add). This mode lightens your image by increasing brightness. It’s a combo of Screen and Color Dodge modes, so it’ll lighten your image more than any other blend mode. But since it tends to turn all light colors white, it can make your image look unnatural. Keyboard shortcut: Shift-Option-W (Shift+Alt+W on a PC). • Lighter Color. With this mode, Photoshop compares the base and blend colors and keeps only the lightest pixels. Unlike Lighten mode, it doesn’t combine any colors; it just keeps the lightest ones. (The Note on page 295 explains why this mode doesn’t have a keyboard shortcut.) chapter 7: combining images 297
  6. Layer Blend Modes Lighting Blend Modes In contrast to the Lighten and Darken modes, Lighting blend modes do a little dark- ening and a little lightening to increase the contrast of your image. They have a neu- tral color of 50 percent gray, which doesn’t affect the result color; it just disappears. • Overlay. In this mode, if the blend color is darker than 50 percent gray, Photo- shop multiplies its color value with the base color. If the blend color is lighter than 50 percent gray, Photoshop multiplies its color value with the inverse of the base color (like it does in Screen mode). And if the blend color is exactly 50 percent gray, Overlay has no effect on the result color at all. You can use this mode to increase contrast or colorize a grayscale image. Keyboard shortcut: Shift-Option-O (Shift+Alt+O on a PC). • Soft Light. As the name suggests, this mode is the equivalent of shining a soft light on your image. It makes bright areas brighter (as if they were dodged) and dark areas darker (as if they were burned). If you paint with black in this mode, you’ll darken the underlying image; if you paint with white, you’ll lighten it. You can use this mode to add texture to an image or to make an image look like it’s reflected in metal (see Figure 7-16). Seasoned Photoshop jockeys use Soft Light with the Dodge and Burn tools to retouch portraits nondestructively (see page 447). Keyboard shortcut: Shift-Option-F (Shift+Alt+F on a PC). Figure 7-16: To create a quick reflection in a metal object, change the top layer’s blend mode to Soft Light. Photoshop CS5: The Missing Manual 298
  7. Layer Blend Modes • Hard Light. This mode, which is equivalent to shining a harsh light on your image, combines Multiply and Screen modes: if the blend color is lighter than 50 percent gray, the image gets lighter (like Screen mode); if it’s darker than 50 percent gray, the image gets darker (like Multiply). If you paint with black or white in this mode, you simply get black or white. If you really want to increase the level of detail in an image, you can use this mode in conjunction with the Emboss filter. Keyboard shortcut: Shift-Option-H (Shift+Alt+H on a PC). • Vivid Light. In this mode, Photoshop applies Color Burn to increase the con- trast of colors darker than 50 percent gray and Color Dodge to decrease the contrast of colors lighter than 50 percent gray. Use Vivid Light to make an im- age pop or to add texture. Keyboard shortcut: Shift-Option-V (Shift+Alt+V on a PC). • Linear Light. This mode combines the Linear Burn and Linear Dodge modes: It uses Linear Burn to decrease the brightness of colors darker than 50 percent gray and Linear Dodge to increase the brightness of colors lighter than 50 per- cent gray. Linear Light is great for adding texture to images, as shown in Figure 7-17. Keyboard shortcut: Shift-Option-J (Shift+Alt+J on a PC). Figure 7-17: Want to turn a loved one to stone? No problem! Simply use the Quick Selection tool (page 149) to select the person’s skin and then add a layer mask to a layer containing marble or stone (the top layer here). Change the marble layer’s blend mode to Linear Light and you’ve got an instant statue. chapter 7: combining images 299
  8. Layer Blend Modes • Pin Light. This mode combines Lighten and Darken: If the blend color is lighter than 50 percent gray, it replaces areas of the base color darker than 50 percent gray with the blend color; pixels lighter than 50 percent gray don’t change at all. But if the blend color is darker than 50 percent gray, Pin Light replaces lighter areas of the base color with the blend color and darker areas don’t change. You’ll rarely use this mode because it can produce odd results (or none at all), but feel free to experiment with it—especially with filters (see Chapter 15). Keyboard shortcut: Shift-Option-Z (Shift+Alt+Z on a PC). • Hard Mix. This mode greatly reduces the range of colors in your image (an effect known as posterizing), so you end up with large blocks of super-bright colors like red, green, or blue. In this mode, Photoshop analyzes the sum of the RGB values in the blend color and adds them to the base color. For example, if the value of the red, green, or blue channel is 255, Photoshop adds that value to the base; and if the value is less than 255, Photoshop adds a value of 0. (See page 46 for more on color values.) You can reduce the effect of this mode by lowering the Fill setting at the top of your Layers panel (see page 78). You won’t use Hard Mix very often, but it’s fun for the occasional special effect, as you can see in Figure 7-18. Keyboard shortcut: Shift-Option-L (Shift+Alt+L on a PC). Figure 7-18: In Hard Mix mode, Photoshop changes all the pixels to pri- mary colors (see the figure on page 487), leaving you with solid blocks of bright, high- contrast color. Photoshop CS5: The Missing Manual 300
  9. Layer Blend Modes Comparative Blend Modes This category should really be called “psychedelic.” Its two modes are similar, and they both produce freaky results that are useful only on Halloween or in grungy col- lages (discussed earlier in this chapter). However, as you’ll soon find out, they can be temporarily useful. Black is the neutral color in both modes. • Difference. This mode analyzes the brightness of both the base and the blend colors and subtracts the brightest pixels. If you use white as your blend color, Photoshop inverts (flip-flops) the base color, making the image look like a film negative. If you use black as your blend color, Photoshop doesn’t change any- thing. You wouldn’t want to use this mode on your image for keeps, but you can use it temporarily to locate the midtones (see the box on page 400 for details). You can also use it to align two layers of the same image (if, say, they were shot at different exposures): just change the top layer to Difference mode and use your arrow keys to move the image until you no longer see the odd engraved look. Keyboard shortcut: Shift-Option-E (Shift+Alt+E on a PC). • Exclusion. This mode is similar to Difference but results in a little less con- trast. Blending with white inverts the base color and blending with black doesn’t do anything. You can also use Exclusion to align images; just follow the steps for aligning images with Difference mode. Keyboard shortcut: Shift-Option-X (Shift+Alt+X on a PC). Hue Blend Modes All the modes in this category relate to color and luminance (brightness) values (see page 488 for more on brightness). Depending on the colors in your image, Photo- shop applies one or two of these modes to the image (they don’t have a neutral color like the other blend modes). Hue blend modes are extremely practical because you can use them to change, add, or intensify the colors in your image. • Hue. This mode keeps the lightness and saturation (color intensity) values of the base color and adds the hue (another word for “color”) of the blend color. If you want to change an object’s color without changing how light or dark it is, use this mode (see page 342). However, Hue can’t introduce a color that isn’t al- ready there to colorize grayscale images, so you have to use another mode (like Color, which is explained later in this list). Keyboard shortcut: Shift-Option-U (Shift+Alt+U on a PC). • Saturation. This mode keeps the luminance and hue of the base color and picks up the saturation of the blend color. If you want to increase an image’s color intensity, this mode can help you out (see Figure 7-19). You can also use Satura- tion to drain color from part of an image by painting that area black. Because black has no saturation value, it desaturates intersecting colors. Keyboard short- cut: Shift-Option-T (Shift+Alt+T on a PC). chapter 7: combining images 301
  10. Layer Blend Modes Figure 7-19: If you’ve ever been to Texas, you know the margaritas there are much brighter than the one in the original image (left). To boost the color saturation, add a new layer filled with a color that has the saturation value you want (it doesn’t mat- ter which color) and then change its blend mode to Saturation. The image takes on only the blend color’s saturation value, not its hue. • Color. In this mode, Photoshop keeps the luminance of the base color and picks up the hue and saturation of the blend color, which makes it handy when you’re colorizing a grayscale image (see page 358). Keyboard shortcut: Shift-Option-C (Shift+Alt+C on a PC). • Luminosity. This mode keeps the base color’s hue and saturation and picks up the blend color’s luminance. Use Luminosity when you’re sharpening an image (see page 463), and when you’re using curves or levels Adjustment layers (see Chapter 9). Keyboard shortcut: Shift-Option-Y (Shift+Alt+Y on a PC). Up to Speed Pass Through Mode Let’s say you’ve created a layer group consisting of several When you create a layer group (page 105), Pass Through image layers set to Linear Burn mode to create a grunge col- appears at the top of the blend mode pop-up menu. In lage. Pass Through mode lets the Linear Burn effect trickle this mode, Photoshop makes sure that any blend modes, down to any background or text on layers below the group. blending slider settings (page 303), opacity settings, and fill If you don’t want the blending to affect the layers below the settings you’ve applied to layers in the group trickle down group, change the layer group’s blend mode to Normal. to layers below the group. Photoshop CS5: The Missing Manual 302
  11. Zapping Backgrounds with Blending Sliders Zapping Backgrounds with Blending Sliders If the subject of your image is radically brighter or darker than its background, you’ll want to sit up and pay attention to this section. While blend modes are pretty power- ful in their own right (and several of them can pulverize a white or black background instantly), another set of blending options in the Layer Style dialog box (page 128) can eat backgrounds for lunch—nondestructively! Photoshop gives you a few different ways to open the Layer Style dialog box (Figure 7-20). Once you’ve selected the image layer you want to work with by clicking it, open the dialog box using one of the following methods: • Double-click its layer thumbnail in the Layers panel. • Click the little fx button at the bottom of the Layers panel and choose Blend- ing Options. • Choose Layer➝Layer Style➝Blending Options. Note: The Blending sliders won’t work on a locked Background layer; you have to double-click the layer first to make it editable. At the bottom of the resulting dialog box lie two pairs of sliders (they look like tri- angles): one set for the This Layer bar and another for the Underlying Layer bar, as shown in Figure 7-20 (top). Each slider lets you make parts of your image transpar- ent based on the brightness value of the pixels. The left slider represents the shadows (blacks) in your image and the right one represents the highlights (whites). If you want to affect the currently active layer, then tweak the This Layer slider (you’ll learn about the Underlying Layer slider in a moment). For example, if the background of your currently active layer is black and the subject (or object in the foreground) is much brighter, you can hide the black part by drag- ging the shadow slider (the one on the left) toward the middle until the black part is transparent. If you want to hide a white background, drag the highlight slider (the one on the right) toward the middle until the white part is transparent. Note: If you save your document as a PSD file, you can adjust these sliders anytime you want by activat- ing the layer and summoning the Layer Style dialog box. chapter 7: combining images 303
  12. Zapping Backgrounds with Blending Sliders Figure 7-20: Top: You can use the blending sliders to make short work of removing solid-col- ored backgrounds. In this image, the black background has been hidden by dragging the shadow slider toward the middle. To soften the edges of the bits that remain, you can split the slider in half (as described lower on this page) and then drag its left half back to the left. Bottom: Once you’ve hidden the black in this Matrix-like back- ground, you can see through to the image on the layer below, which makes for a quickie collage. To soften your subject’s edges once you’ve hidden the background, you can make the edge pixels partially transparent by splitting the shadow or highlights slider in half. To soften the edge pixels after you’ve hidden a black background, Option-click (Alt-click on a PC) the left half of the shadows slider and drag it slightly back to the left (circled in Figure 7-20). Likewise, if you’ve hidden a white background, you can Option-click (Alt-click) the right half of the highlights slider and drag it slightly to the right to tell Photoshop to make pixels with that particular brightness value par- tially transparent. Photoshop CS5: The Missing Manual 304
  13. Auto-Aligning Layers and Photomerge You can perform this pixel-hiding magic on colors, too. Just pick the channel (see Chapter 5) you want to work with from the Blend If pop-up menu above the sliders, and that particular color appears in the slider instead of black and white. The Underlying Layer sliders let you control the range of visible colors on layers below the currently active layer. As you drag the sliders, parts of the image on under- lying layers appear through the pixels on the active layer as if you’d cut a hole out of it. If you drag the shadows slider toward the middle, you’ll begin to see the darkest parts of the underlying image show through the active layer. If you drag the highlight slider toward the middle, you’ll start to see the lightest parts of the underlying image. As you can see in Figure 7-20, the blending sliders can do an amazing job of hiding backgrounds based on color. But if your subject contains some of the colors in the background, the blending sliders will zap those areas, too. In that case, you’ll have to use a different method to hide your background, like another blend mode or a layer mask (discussed earlier in this chapter). Note: To learn how to combine two images using the Apply Image command, which lets you pick which channel Photoshop uses to do the blending, head to this book’s Missing CD page at www.missingmanu- als.com/cds. Auto-Aligning Layers and Photomerge If you’ve ever needed to combine a few group shots to get an image where everybody is smiling and everybody’s eyes are open, you’ll appreciate Auto-Align Layers. Sure, you can manually align layers, but when you run this command, Photoshop does all the hard work for you by examining the selected layers and aligning them so identi- cal areas overlap (see Figure 7-21). Note: The Auto-Align feature isn’t magic; the angle and the distance from the subject in both shots need to be the same for it to work. However, in Photoshop CS5, this command takes a look at the lens correc- tion profiles specified in the new and improved Lens Correction filter (page 655), which helps this tool do a better job of aligning layers. Once you’ve gotten your images into the same document (on different layers), select at least two layers by Shift- or �-clicking them (Ctrl-clicking on a PC), and then choose Edit➝Auto-Align Layers (this menu item is grayed out unless you have at least two layers selected). In the resulting dialog box (Figure 7-21, top), you can choose from these alignment methods: • Auto. If you’re not sure which method will work best to align your images, let Photoshop decide. When you choose this option, Photoshop picks either Per- spective or Cylindrical, depending on which one it thinks will create the best composition. It usually does a good job aligning your images, though you may notice some distortion (as explained in the next two bullet points). chapter 7: combining images 305
  14. Auto-Aligning Layers and Photomerge Figure 7-21: Top: When you’re trying to align multiple group shots, the Auto-Align Layers dialog box’s Reposition option is your best bet. Bottom: The Auto-Align layers command is great for merging a few imperfect shots into one perfect shot (or rather, one where each subject is smiling). To do that, combine the images into one document and place the non-smiling layer atop the smiling layer. After you run the Auto-Align layers command, just add a layer mask to the top layer and then paint the non-smile away with a black brush so your smiling pal shows through! • Perspective. When you choose this method, Photoshop adjusts the four corners of your layers and repositions, stretches, and skews each one so any overlapping areas match in perspective. The final image looks slightly warped—both ends are a little larger than the center of the image, as if they were closer to you. This method can also make one of your layers look like it’s coming out of the screen toward you, which can be visually interesting. Photoshop CS5: The Missing Manual 306
  15. Auto-Aligning Layers and Photomerge Tip: Photoshop picks its own reference layer (the layer it tries to align all the other layers with) unless you designate one yourself using the Lock All layer lock, discussed on page 103. • Cylindrical. If you’re combining several images into a panorama (see Figure 7-22, top), choose this option. Along with repositioning, stretching, and skew- ing your layers, Cylindrical helps get rid of any bow-tie lens distortion (where the subject looks like it’s being pinched inward) by curving the images slightly (see Figure 7-22, middle). Figure 7-22: Top: If you want to stitch these forest images together, you can use the Auto-Align Layers command or Photomerge to get it done. Middle: To compensate for bow-tie lens distortion, the Cylindrical alignment method curves your final image slightly (notice that the bottom and top edges of the image aren’t straight). Bottom: The Spherical method gives you a perfectly rectangular panorama. • Collage. This method tells Photoshop to scale, rotate, and reposition the layers to align them with overlapping content without changing their shape. Choose Collage if you don’t want your images to become distorted in any way. chapter 7: combining images 307
  16. Auto-Aligning Layers and Photomerge • Spherical. Like Cylindrical, Spherical repositions, stretches, and skews layers to match up overlapping areas. It also tries to correct barrel distortion (where the subject looks rounded) by making your panorama perfectly rectangular (see Figure 7-22, bottom). • Reposition. If you’re aligning a group shot to hide a frown or closed eyes, choose this option. It won’t stretch or skew your layers; it’ll just reposition them so they line up. The Auto-Align Layers dialog box also gives you two ways to correct camera lens distortions. Turn on the Vignette Removal checkbox to get rid of darkened or soft edges caused by wide-angle lenses, or the Geometric Distortion checkbox to make Photoshop warp your image slightly to reduce the spherical look also caused by wide-angle lenses or being too close to your subject with a regular lens. Note: In Photoshop CS5, Auto-Align Layers now uses the camera profiles you set up in the Lens Correc- tion filter, which should give you more accurate panoramas. See the box on page 658 to learn more about the new options in the Lens Correction dialog box. Once you’ve aligned your images, flip to page 309 to see how you can make Photo- shop blend them together seamlessly using the Auto-Blend command. Building Panoramas with Photomerge Photoshop has an automatic photo-stitcher called Photomerge that gives you all the same options as the Auto-Align Layers dialog box, but you don’t have to combine your images into the same document first—Photoshop does that for you. This is really helpful when you’re merging images into a wide shot, though Photoshop CS4 and later, unlike previous versions, doesn’t let you manually arrange your images into a panorama (see the box on page 310). To use Photomerge, choose File➝Automate➝Photomerge. In the resulting dialog box’s Use pop-up menu (at the very top), tell Photoshop whether you want to use individual files or a whole folder. Click the Browse button to find the images on your hard drive, or, if you’ve already opened the documents, click the Add Open Files button. On the left side of the dialog box, you can pick an alignment method or leave it set to Auto and let Photoshop decide for you. If you want Photoshop to use layer masks to help cover up any seams, leave the Blend Images Together checkbox at the bottom of the dialog box turned on (this setting has the same effect as running the Auto-Blend command discussed on page 309). The Vignette Removal and Geo- metric Distortion checkboxes work the same way here as they do in the Auto-Align dialog box (see page 305). Photoshop CS5: The Missing Manual 308
  17. Auto-Blending Layers When you’ve got all the settings the way you want them, click OK. Photoshop com- bines your images into a new document with each image on its own layer, rotated and positioned to fit with all the others. All you need to do is crop the image (page 222) to get rid of any transparent bits around the edges, or you can recreate that por- tion of the image by hand using the Clone Stamp tool (see page 311 and Appendix D online) or, even simpler, Content-Aware Scale (page 258). Tip: You’ll find cropping and cloning easier if you flatten (page 112) the image first, though be sure to choose File➝Save As and give the image another name so you can flatten it without worrying about sav- ing over the original. Also, you can choose Edit➝Content-Aware Scale (page 258) to slightly “stretch” your image so you don’t have to crop it quite so much. Auto-Blending Layers The Auto-Blend Layers command, which was designed to be used after the Auto- Align Layers command (page 305), helps you blend images for a panorama or col- lage, or combine multiple exposures of the same image to create an extended depth of field (see page 310) so more of an object looks like it’s in focus. When you use this command, Photoshop creates complex layer masks to blend your images, saving you a lot of hard work. Up to Speed Shooting Panoramas If you’re taking photos specifically to make a big honkin’ • Keep the lighting (exposure) consistent. Though panorama, here are a few things to think about while Photomerge is pretty darn good at blending images, you’re snapping away: you’re going to notice if you took one of your shots in the shade and the other in direct sunlight. For the • Use a tripod. A tripod or some other stabilizing best results, keep your lighting constant by exposing surface (like your mate’s shoulder) helps you take for the brightest portion of the image manually (even steadier shots. You don’t want your panorama to be if it means consulting your camera’s manual). blurry, right? • Make sure the angles are the same. Photoshop • Include an overlapping element in each shot. has one heck of a time matching up images shot at If you’re taking three shots, make sure you include different angles, but mismatched shots can make for some of what’s in the first shot in the second, and some interesting creative possibilities. some of the second shot in the third. That way you have overlapping bits that Photoshop can use to align your images. Note: You can use the Auto-Blend Layers command only when you’re working in RGB or Grayscale mode (see page 46 for more on color modes). chapter 7: combining images 309
  18. Auto-Blending Layers To get the best results, start with the Auto-Align Layers command and then choose Edit➝Auto-Blend Layers. In the resulting dialog box, choose one of the following blending options: • Panorama. Select this option to have Photoshop search for overlapping areas in your images to piece them together into a single image. • Stack Images. If you’ve fired off several shots of an object with different parts in focus (known as different depths of field) and you want to combine them into a single shot that looks like the whole object is in focus, choose this option. Let’s say you shot a tiger—with a big zoom lens, of course—that was stretched out lengthwise and facing you. If you shot one image with his head in focus, another with the middle of his body in focus, and a third with his tail in focus, you can choose Stack Images to make Photoshop combine the three images into a single shot with the whole tiger in focus. • Seamless Tones and Colors. Turn on this checkbox to make Photoshop smooth any noticeable seams and color differences between your images during the blending process. As mentioned earlier, this command has a ton of potential uses. One visually inter- esting possibility is to make a collage of two or more action shots to create a stop- motion effect. Figure 7-23 has the details. Tip: You can also use the Auto-Blend Layers command to help you scan really big images. For example, if the image is too big to fit onto your scanner in one piece, scan different sections of it—being careful to cre- ate overlapping areas—and then let Photoshop piece it together for you by running the Auto-Align Layers command and then running Auto-Blend Layers. FReQUeNtLY ASKed QUeStIoN Interacting with Photomerge control exactly how Photoshop stitched your panorama to- Dude, where’s my interactive Photomerge dialog box? I gether, and let you create nonrectangular panoramas that used to use it all the time to hand-place images into a went off in all directions instead of just left to right. panorama! Because the out-of-date programming code behind this Sadly, that dialog box is gone; Adobe removed it back in dialog box would have required all manner of reworking Photoshop CS4. to get it to work in recent versions of Photoshop, Adobe Previous versions of Photoshop had an Interactive Layout decided to nix it. However if you squeeze your eyes shut option at the bottom of the Photomerge dialog box that real tight and click your heels together three times, it might opened a huge window where you could manually arrange come back. (Kidding!) images into a panorama. This wildly useful option let you Photoshop CS5: The Missing Manual 310
  19. Cloning Between Documents Figure 7-23: You can use the Auto-Blend Layers command to create interesting collages in mere seconds. The best part is that Photoshop does all the masking for you, as shown here in the Layers panel. Woo-hoo! Cloning Between Documents All this combining-images-into-the-same-document business can cause your Lay- ers panel to get long and unwieldy. And as you learned back in Chapter 3, loading a document with layers can increase its file size and even slow Photoshop down (especially if you’ve got an older computer or very little memory). Fortunately, if the images you want to combine use the same color mode (page 46), there’s a solution. Sure the Clone Stamp tool is great for tricks like banishing blemishes (page 434) or giving someone a third eye, but it has other uses, too. To prevent your Layers panel from becoming overcrowded, use this tool to copy bits and pieces of an image from chapter 7: combining images 311
  20. Cloning Between Documents one open document to another. Using the Clone Source panel—the clone source is the object you’re copying—you can clone from up to five different sources whether or not they’re in the same document. Here’s how to clone from one open image into another: 1. Open the source (the image[s] you’re cloning from) and the target (the image you’re cloning to). To choose clone sources in documents other than the current image, open the source documents. Click the Arrange Documents button in the Application Bar (page 67) to choose a preview method that lets you see all your open documents or just click each document’s tab to activate it (see Chapter 2, page 68, for more on working with tabbed documents). 2. Press S to grab the Clone Stamp tool, and then open the Clone Source panel. Choose Window➝Clone Source or click the panel’s icon in the panel dock. (Full coverage of the Clone Source panel’s many options starts on page 311.) 3. Set the clone source. Click the tab of the image you want to clone from (like the cats in Figure 7-24, top left). Then Option-click (Alt-click on a PC) the area you want to copy to set it as your clone source. Figure 7-24: Top: By cloning the kitties from one image onto the bird- houses in another, you can create a mischievously cute collage. Bottom: The brush preview is extremely helpful in positioning the cloned art (left). If you mess up and clone in a little too much (middle), grab the History brush (page 29) and paint to reveal that part of the original image (right). If you’re clon- ing onto a new layer, you can also use the Eraser tool. Photoshop CS5: The Missing Manual 312
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