Windows 2000 Server System Administration Handbook P2

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Windows 2000 Server System Administration Handbook P2

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Increased Reliability, Availability, and Scalability Reliability, availability, and scalability are important parameters of network operating systems. An operating system should be able to work 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and the administrator should not be required to perform a reboot after every configuration change; in addition, the operating system should be able to correct itself when problems occur. Finally, an operating system should be able to grow in order to meet the demands of expanding businesses. Reliability is the measure of the consistency with which a computer runs its applications and services. Windows 2000 Server provides many reliability...

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  1. 6 Chapter 1 • The Windows 2000 System Administration Migration Path improving the system’s overall reliability and scalability, providing a pow- erful Internet and application server, and providing a powerful end-to- end management solution, while reducing total cost of ownership. Increased Reliability, Availability, and Scalability Reliability, availability, and scalability are important parameters of network operating systems. An operating system should be able to work 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and the administrator should not be required to perform a reboot after every configuration change; in addition, the operating system should be able to correct itself when problems occur. Finally, an operating system should be able to grow in order to meet the demands of expanding businesses. Reliability is the measure of the consistency with which a com- puter runs its applications and services. Windows 2000 Server pro- vides many reliability solutions, including: s Core operating system services s Fault tolerance s Disaster recovery s System recovery and updates s Reliable storage s Avoidance of outages and reboots Core Operating System Services Windows 2000 Server provides these core operating system services: s Error handling and protected subsystems s Recoverable file system s Automatic restart The operating system is designed to correct itself by managing errors without crashing the entire computer. The operating system
  2. The Windows 2000 System Administration Migration Path • Chapter 1 7 ensures that a fault in one program will not affect other running programs, by using protected subsystems that isolate programs in memory. Windows 2000’s new NTFS 5.0 file system logs all disk I/O oper- ations as individual, unique transactions, so the system provides fault tolerance by undoing or redoing transactions after a system is brought back up after having suffered a disk failure. It is to be hoped that your system will never have to restart itself after a system failure; however, if a failure does occur, Windows 2000 Server can be set to restart itself automatically. This capability is important if no administrators are present when the system crashes. Because many servers have enormous amounts of RAM, dumping the contents of RAM could take quite a while, thus increasing downtime. Fortunately, Windows 2000 is designed to restart more quickly than it was able to do in earlier versions, thanks to a new “Write kernel information only” dump option. Fault Tolerance Windows 2000 Server increases fault tolerance by providing: s Support for various RAID levels s Distributed file system (Dfs) Windows 2000 supports the various levels of RAID that adminis- trators may require; it includes support for disk mirroring or disk duplexing (RAID level 1), and disk striping with parity (RAID level 5). Windows 2000 Server also supports RAID level 0, which is striping without Parity; however, this offers no data redundancy. Another feature, the Distributed file system, improves fault toler- ance by providing increased data availability and load balancing when it is integrated with Active Directory. Dfs makes finding and managing information much easier by implementing a single name- space for miscellaneous file system resources, which allows shares to be maintained redundantly among multiple servers.
  3. 8 Chapter 1 • The Windows 2000 System Administration Migration Path Disaster and System Recovery Windows 2000 Server provides methods for disaster and system recovery: s Tape backup and UPS support s Repair Command Console s Safe mode boot s System File Protection Windows 2000 includes an enhanced and powerful tape backup utility, and also includes support for uninterruptible power supplies through a UPS service, which sends alerts in the event of a power failure. In addition, the service is capable of safely shutting down the system before the battery power in the power supply is depleted. Another useful utility allows access to the NTFS file system for authorized users in case the server becomes inaccessible. Using the boot floppies, you can access this utility, called the Repair Command Console. Before Windows 2000, many administrators would resort to installing a parallel copy of Windows NT into a dif- ferent directory in order to gain access to the files system. The other option was to install NT on a FAT partition so access could be gained to the file system through the use of a Windows 98 boot disk. Fortunately, the Windows 2000 Repair Command Console pro- vides an alternate way to safely and efficiently gain access to the file system. Windows 2000 Server incorporates great features from operating systems such as Windows 98, by allowing a computer to be started in Safe mode. Often a computer will not start because of a bad or misconfigured driver. In the past, administrators often relied upon the “Last known good configuration” menu selection; however, this did not always work. With the ability to boot into Safe mode, the system can be started with the minimal number of drivers loaded, which allows you to make modifications or remove the faulty driver. Windows 2000 also avoids file version mismatches, through the System File Protection (SFP) system. SFP monitors protected files
  4. The Windows 2000 System Administration Migration Path • Chapter 1 9 and keeps a cache of original system files in case it becomes neces- sary to restore one of them. SFP tracks the proper file versions and stores this information in catalogs with a .cat extension. The system performs a check of these catalog files, and if any of the files are missing or corrupted, SFP will pull the good file from its cache, or ask the original media to restore the file. Reliable Storage Windows 2000 also increases reliability by providing enhancements to the storage system such as: s Remote Storage Server s Dynamic volumes s Disk quotas Remote Storage Server (RSS) works with the Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) system, which allows different types of media to be part of the file system. RSS can automatically monitor the amount of space available on a local disk and is capable of moving data if free disk space drops below a specified level to secondary storage devices. Reparse points exist on the primary storage so that the migrated files can easily be retrieved from secondary storage. Windows 2000 also increases reliability by the use of dynamic volumes. Dynamic volumes function much like partitions; however, volumes are not limited to only four, as partitions are. In addition, an administrator can create, extend, and mirror volumes without rebooting the system. Finally, Windows 2000 increases storage reliability by providing disk quotas, a much desired feature found in other network operat- ing systems. By using quotas, an administrator has control over the amount of data that is allowed on NTFS volumes by users. Windows 2000 provides quota management at the volume level and does not support quotas on directories; therefore, you will need to acquire a third-party utility if you need to limit directories.
  5. 10 Chapter 1 • The Windows 2000 System Administration Migration Path Avoiding Crashes and Reboots An operating system with increased reliability and availability makes the lives of administrators less hectic. Microsoft provides many new solutions for frustrating problems, including crashes and frequent system reboots, that once plagued NT administrators. These solu- tions have been implemented into Windows 2000 Server: s Fewer reboots s Fewer memory leaks and “blue screens” Server reboots may not yet be a thing of the past, but the num- ber of times you will have to reboot your Windows 2000 server has been dramatically reduced. More than 90 percent of the situations that once required a reboot no longer do so. Table 1.2 outlines vari- ous administrative tasks, and specifies whether or not the system will require a reboot. Table 1.2 Administrative Tasks that Require No Reboot Administrative task Reboot Configuring Plug and Play devices No Increasing the PageFile MaxSize No Adding a new PageFile No Adding and removing network protocols No Changing an IP address No Configuring audio and video drivers (including No attribute changes) Installing SQL Server 7.0 No Installing Microsoft Exchange No Iincreasing disk space on NTFS No Font changes Yes Service pack installations Yes Machine name change Yes Domain membership change Yes
  6. The Windows 2000 System Administration Migration Path • Chapter 1 11 Memory leaks have often been the cause of system crashes or the dreaded “blue screen of death.” In fact, many administrators have often resorted to setting up a schedule to automatically reboot the server because of these leaks. Because third-party drivers have often been the source of system crashes, Microsoft has implemented several initiatives to contribute to the development of better-quality third-party device drivers such as enhanced driver testing and driv- er signing. Drivers now undergo a rigorous test process, and drivers that pass Microsoft’s high-quality labs will be digitally signed. In addition, Windows 2000 includes Driver Verifier. This verification process can locate errors in kernel mode drivers, and is able to react to the unstable driver without disrupting the system. High-Availability Solutions Windows 2000 provides protection against network, application, hardware, and environmental failures. Availability is the measure of the proportion of time when a system is up and available. Both Advanced Server and DataCenter Server provide high-availability solutions. A solution is highly available if it is available at least 99.9 percent of the time. To achieve this level of availability, Microsoft provides these features: s Cluster Services s Support for multihomed systems Both Windows 2000 Advanced Server and DataCenter Server integrate Microsoft Cluster Services. Clustering protects against fail- ures to provide higher levels of availability. Cluster Services provide a graphical management console that allows for simple and intuitive administration. In addition, the service monitors applications and services, and is able to recover data from various types of failures almost immediately. Multihomed computers allow for the use of multiple network interface cards on a single machine. Windows 2000 Server support
  7. 12 Chapter 1 • The Windows 2000 System Administration Migration Path for this feature increases availability by preventing a NIC from act- ing as a single point of failure. Improved Scalability Overall, Windows 2000 Server increases system and application scalability, which is directly related to the specific product chosen from the Windows 2000 Server family. The server family is capable of scaling a range of systems, from small workgroups to large enter- prise deployments. Windows 2000 DataCenter Server provides native support for up to 32 processors. Most important, however, are the improvements that have been made in the Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP) code, which provides fast performance by making multiple processors available to complete individual processes simultaneously. In addition, Windows 2000 integrates network and application load balancing with the new multiprocessor optimizations, including: s Enhanced memory allocation removes contention across the many processors. s The use of “fibers,” which are lighter than “threads,” increases overall throughput. s Contention is reduced by an increase in the maximum file system cache from 512 MB to 960 MB. Other Windows 2000 features that increase reliability, availabili- ty, and scalability are Plug and Play support, I2O support, and net- work and COM+ load balancing. Plug and Play support has been available on Microsoft’s other operating systems, such as Windows 98, but it is now natively available with Windows 2000 Server. In addition, Windows 2000 Server supports I2O hardware. I2O architec- ture, also called Intelligent I/O, is an industry initiative to eliminate I/O bottlenecks and to promote the interoperability of I/O subsys- tems. Finally, Windows 2000 Server integrates Component Load Balancing and Network Load Balancing. Network Load Balancing is primarily responsible for balancing the load of incoming TCP/IP
  8. The Windows 2000 System Administration Migration Path • Chapter 1 13 traffic; whereas Component Load Balancing allows applications to be built, using COM+ components to be distributed across several servers, and is ideal for those applications deemed mission critical. Easier Management and Lower Costs Another key goal of Windows 2000 Server’s design was to simplify system management, ultimately lowering organizations’ overall com- puting costs, also referred to as the total cost of ownership (TCO). Microsoft achieves this goal while providing a set of powerful and complete management services, including: s Integrated directory services s Comprehensive management solutions s Comprehensive file, print, and Web services Integrated Directory Services The Active Directory, which is new to Windows, stores information about the various resources on a network, much as a telephone directory stores information about people and businesses with tele- phones. Active Directory takes this concept a bit further; it not only stores directory information, but also provides the services that make this information available and useful. This is a major design feature of Windows 2000, which seeks to simplify and improve man- agement while reducing the total cost of ownership. Active Directory contributes to Microsoft’s design goals by providing these advan- tages: s Simplified management s Strengthened security s Extended interoperability Active Directory provides a single repository for managing users, groups, and network resources, eliminating redundant tasks by pro- viding a single-point of management. An administrator can easily
  9. 14 Chapter 1 • The Windows 2000 System Administration Migration Path deploy applications, find network resources, and even delegate administrative tasks and privileges easily and quickly. In addition to centralizing management, Active Directory improves security because of its tight integration with various security features, including a number of authentication mechanisms and Internet- secure protocols. Finally, Active Directory serves as a key integra- tion point for application and system integration through such standard interfaces as the Microsoft Management Console (MMC). Windows 2000 Server improves management and lowers overall costs through its directory service by providing a focal point for securing network resources, reducing the number of places where administrators need to manage information, and making it possible to integrate with other systems. Comprehensive Management Solutions Windows 2000 Server includes a broad range of solutions designed to assist administrators. Using the management infrastructure and the many tools provided, administrators can provide a broad range of services both quickly and reliably; they can better manage the network, while increasing server availability through these improve- ments: s Management infrastructure s Change and configuration management s Storage management The management infrastructure of Windows 2000 Server includes the presentation services, among them the Microsoft Management Console (MMC), which provides a consistent user interface. Windows 2000 management infrastructure also includes scripting services, which give administrators the flexibility to auto- mate processes. For example, the Windows Scripting Host (WSH) allows scripts to be run either on the desktop or from the command prompt, using an ActiveX scripting architecture. Windows 2000 includes scripting engines for JavaScript and Visual Basic Script,
  10. The Windows 2000 System Administration Migration Path • Chapter 1 15 and additional languages, such as Perl, TCL, and Python, can be incorporated through the use of third-party scripting engines. Also part of the management infrastructure are the directory service, security services, and group policy services, which are tightly inte- grated with the Active Directory. Finally, terminal services can be used to administer a Windows 2000 Server remotely. Windows 2000 also provides added management solutions by incorporating change and configuration tools such as IntelliMirror, which is designed to lower the total cost of ownership and uses caching and centralized synchronization to mirror network users’ desktop settings as well as applications and data. Table 1.3 outlines the standard Change and Configuration Management features of IntelliMirror. IntelliMirror can also be used in conjunction with the storage management features included in Windows 2000 such as the Hierarchical Storage Management System. This combination, along with data archiving services and the improved backup and recovery utility, makes protecting users and the organizations’ data easier and more manageable. Comprehensive File, Print, and Web Services In addition to the support for disk quotas and volume management, Windows 2000 Server also seeks to improve management and lower costs by providing this broad set of file, print, and Web services: s Improved file system s Faster printing s Integrated Web services The file system that Windows 2000 Server is built upon is a new version of the NT File System (NTFS), which provides added flexibili- ty. Organizations are now able to migrate data to less expensive forms of media through use of Hierarchical Storage Management, yet the migrated data is still available to users because of pointers, which remain in the original location. The Windows 2000 Server file
  11. 16 Chapter 1 • The Windows 2000 System Administration Migration Path Table 1.3 Change and Configuration Management Features IntelliMirror Supporting feature Benefit Theme technologies User Computer Allows environ- My preferences Active Directory, Settings ment settings for follow me. Group Policy, Management users and comput- Offline Folders, ers to be centrally Roaming User defined and man- Profiles, and aged, as well as enhanced supporting mirror- Windows shell. ing of user set- tings to the network. Software Allows software My applications Active Directory, Installation and installations, follow me. Group Policy, Maintenance removal, repairs Windows and updates to be installer service, centrally man- and enhanced aged. This Windows shell. includes applica- tions, service packs, and operat- ing system updates. User Data Allows user data My documents Active Directory, Management to be mirrored to follow me. Group Policy, the network, as Offline Folders, well as local Synchronization caching of net- Manager, work data. enhanced Windows shell and Disk Quotas. system also increases file system and data availability through fea- tures such as Dynamic Volume Management and the distributed file system (Dfs). Both of these reduce downtime, which provides a defi- nite added cost benefit to organizations. Windows 2000 Server also supports the new UniDrive5 driver standard, which makes printing faster while improving its quality.
  12. The Windows 2000 System Administration Migration Path • Chapter 1 17 In addition, the management of printers is simplified because of both Plug and Play support and support for the Internet Printing Protocol (IPP). IPP is an application-level protocol that can be used for distributed printing on the Internet, and it allows the manage- ment of printers through Uniform Resource Locators (URLs). Finally, Windows 2000 Server is packaged with an updated ver- sion of Internet Information Server (IIS). IIS 5.0 makes it easy to share and publish information and documents across a company intranet or on the Internet. IIS is tightly integrated with Active Directory and the Windows 2000 security features, and it supports Active Server Pages (ASPs), Windows Media Services, CPU throttling, and HTTP compression. Comprehensive Internet and Application Server In order to meet the needs of expanding businesses, and to adapt to the explosive growth of the Internet and electronic commerce, Windows 2000 Server offers an improved Internet-aware and appli- cation-enabled operating system. Windows 2000 provides a com- plete set of application development and communication options, to meet the needs of organizations across many networking environ- ments. In order to build and deploy powerful component-based Web applications, Windows includes application, terminal, communica- tions, and networking services. Not only does Internet Information Server provide easier manage- ment of Web sites, but it is also one of the most important Internet technologies incorporated into the operating system. IIS 5.0 was designed to meet all of Microsoft’s objectives by increasing reliability and scalability, simplifying management, and making Windows 2000 Server a viable option as an Internet server. Application Services Windows 2000 Server provides both a platform to deploy applica- tions and integrated application services for custom development. An advantage of Windows 2000 Server over other operating systems
  13. 18 Chapter 1 • The Windows 2000 System Administration Migration Path is the support from the many available independent software ven- dors (ISVs). Already there are thousands of solutions available for Windows 2000, and Microsoft is working closely with vendors to ensure Windows 2000 compatibility. In addition to using the operating system’s broad support available from ISVs, companies can easily build and deploy applications using the Microsoft Component Object Model (COM), which allows program- mers to develop objects that can be accessed by any COM-compliant application. Windows 2000 Server component services include sup- port for load balancing, transactions, advanced data access, and asynchronous communication. Component Services, along with scripts and HTML, can be combined with Active Server Pages to cre- ate dynamic Web applications. Because all the application services are Internet ready, both intranet and Internet applications can be devel- oped and deployed. Table 1.4 outlines the many features available. Table 1.4 Features to Help Build Integrated, Component- based, Web-aware Applications Simplify Application Web-enabled Extend the Reach of Development Applications Applications Common APIs Active Server Pages Terminal services COM+ Network and communi- cation services Microsoft Integrated multimedia Transaction and data networking Services services Microsoft Message Queuing BackOffice Integration Microsoft Visual Studio Other third- party tools
  14. The Windows 2000 System Administration Migration Path • Chapter 1 19 Communications and Networking Services Windows 2000 Server provides standards-based solutions that can be implemented with minimal cost and resources to provide net- work connectivity. Windows 2000 Server provides Virtual Private Network (VPN) support that can allow organizations to securely connect with other partners or allow mobile users to easily con- nect to the network. A VPN basically provides a secure and cost- efficient way to connect mobile users, corporate networks, partners, and organizations to each other utilizing the free public wires already in existence, such as the Internet. Windows 2000 includes dial-up networking, which lets remote users connect through VPN connections, and Remote Access Service (RAS), which offers VPN access over various supported protocols. Windows 2000 supports several VPN protocols, such as Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP), Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP), and IPSec pro- tocol. Figure 1.2 illustrates the way two separate networks are con- nected through the use of a VPN instead of expensive leased lines. In addition to the support for a VPN solution, Windows 2000 pro- vides built-in routing services that provide local area network routing across local and wide-area networks, as well as on the Internet. Finally, Microsoft has recognized the growing need for organiza- tions to integrate data networks with voice services and networks, thus Windows 2000 Server provides integrated multimedia and data networking services. Because Windows adheres to standards, it can quickly take advantage of developing technologies. For example, Windows 2000 Server provides support for such stan- dards as H.323, an approved standard that defines how audiovisu- al conferencing data is transmitted across networks. Table 1.5 lists eight broad communication features provided by Windows 2000 Server, as well as the individual services that make up each
  15. 20 Chapter 1 • The Windows 2000 System Administration Migration Path category. For more information about each feature, Microsoft offers various communication and networking services white papers, avail- able for download from its Web site. Figure 1.2 A VPN can be used to connect two networks using the Internet as the medium for transporting data. Internet Virtual Private Network Logical Equivalent Why the Change? Information technology is one of the fastest-growing industries, if not the fastest. Companies are using new technology successfully to gain a competitive edge, thus creating a chain reaction in which every company must change in order to stay competitive in today’s fast-paced economy. As advances are made, companies are utilizing them to their advantage to increase productivity, lower costs, and provide better services to their customers, ultimately increasing
  16. The Windows 2000 System Administration Migration Path • Chapter 1 21 profits. Even not-for-profit organizations need to change to keep up with demand and to improve their overall performance. If you understand the features and benefits that Windows 2000 Server provides, you can be ready for the challenge of implementing new technologies in your organization. Windows 2000 Server, which includes many new or improved features, is a massive change from the previous generation. Table 1.5 Communication and Networking Features to Help Set Up and Connect Networks Security, Naming and Network Encryption, and Address Quality of Protocols Authentication Management Service Enhanced CHAP, MS-CHAP, Active Directory Differentiated TCP/IP PAP Quality of Service (Diffserv) Point-to- Extensible Dynamic DNS Admission Point Authentication Control Service Protocol Protocol (EAP) (ACS) (PPP) H.323 Smart Card DHCP IEEE 802.1p Support (EAP-TLS) Prioritized LANs IPX/SPX RC4 Encryption Information RSVP Services Locator Service (ILS) AppleTalk RADIUS Client WINS Internet Authentication Service (IAS) RADIUS Server IP Packet Filtering IPX Packet Filtering continued
  17. 22 Chapter 1 • The Windows 2000 System Administration Migration Path Security, Remote Routing Protocols encryption, Access and Gateway and Service and Extensibility Administration Services authenticatio VPN and Open APIs and Ease of Use Network Address Remote Generic Quality Connection Translator (NAT) Access Service of Service (QoS) Manger (RAS) API Administration Kit Internet Group Dial-up Traffic Control Phone Book Management Networking API Administrator Protocol (IGMP) Version 2 Routing Local Policy Connection Information Management Point Services Protocol (RIP) for (LPM) API IP Versions 1 and 2 Open Shortest Routing APIs Plug and Play Path First (OSPF) DNS Proxy Management and User Interface APIs DHCP Relay Agent Microsoft Management Console (MMC) Snap-ins RIP and SAP for Connection IPX Sharing Static Routing Selectable VPN Protocols Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Auto-Dial and Auto-Logon Dial RAS Restartable File Copy
  18. The Windows 2000 System Administration Migration Path • Chapter 1 23 Migrating to Windows 2000 Server Windows 2000 Server provides an abundance of added features and enhancements that will benefit the IT foundation of your organiza- tion. Considering the many added features, as well as the radical structural change largely due to Active Directory, just figuring out where to start in the migration process can be a daunting task. Fortunately, Windows 2000 was designed to operate with earlier ver- sions of Windows NT. Operating in such a mixed environment will not provide you with the complete set of benefits and functionality that Windows 2000 provides; however, this interoperability provides administrators with the flexibility to perform upgrades to servers in increments and to implement certain Windows 2000 services. Organizations will still gain many of the performance and other ben- efits provided by Windows 2000 Server by performing such an incre- mental upgrade; in fact, Microsoft recommends that this is how organizations should migrate to Windows 2000. Microsoft also offers a licensed version of software by Mission Critical Software Inc., which allows you to easily migrate your cur- rent NT Server domains to Windows 2000, using the Domain Migrator. Many organizations will need to run NT 4.0 and Windows 2000 in parallel rather than making the move all at once. The Domain Migrator tool provides support for running both operating systems concurrently, and it also provides rollback capabilities. The Domain Migrator will ease the migration by providing wizards that present a logical path to migration, modeling capabilities that allow you to see what your directory structure will look like, and “prune and graft” technologies that help you reduce the number of domains in your network. Microsoft has also met the needs of those operating with the widely used Novell NetWare by introducing a new Directory Service Migration Tool, which helps migrate NetWare Domain Services (NDS), as well as the older NetWare binderies. The migration tool migrates the NetWare data into an offline database, which then
  19. 24 Chapter 1 • The Windows 2000 System Administration Migration Path allows the administrator to adjust the account information before actually saving it to Active Directory. Getting Ready Migrating to Windows 2000 is a big move that is best accomplished in a series of steps. You should first understand the benefits and feature set of Windows 2000, because these features will enable your organization to better perform its mission. You probably under- stand the benefits of increased reliability, availability, scalability, simplified management, and lower total cost of ownership, but it is the sum of properly implemented features in Windows 2000 Server that enables organizations to realize these benefits to their maxi- mum. Armed with this information, you must take a couple of pre- liminary steps before you begin the migration process, including: s Acquiring management/executive approval s Involving personnel at all levels More than likely, moving to Windows 2000 Server will not be a simple overnight task, but a large project. As is the case with most large projects, gaining the support of upper management and execu- tives is critical. Because of the changes in the Windows 2000 Server networking infrastructure, migration will often require a lot of plan- ning, and possibly several teams. Along with executive sponsorship, a clear statement of purpose should be formulated that will be of assistance later in the planning and deployment phases. Information systems exist to support the organization. Now, more than ever, information technology plays a crucial role in the success of an organization. An understanding of your organization’s short- term and long-term business goals will assist you in the deployment of Windows 2000, because this infrastructure will help your organi- zation reach its goals. An awareness of an organization’s goals is often the responsibility of upper management and executives; there- fore, these people will be of greatest assistance in helping you to align information technology with the goals of the organization.
  20. The Windows 2000 System Administration Migration Path • Chapter 1 25 In addition, personnel at all levels should be involved in the proj- ect from start to finish. Everyone should be educated about the ben- efits that will result from the project. At the least, this will prepare them for the change and ease their transition to the new system. To get them started in the process, discuss not only how the system will benefit the organization, but also how it will benefit them indi- vidually. Many enhanced server and workstation features will improve employee efficiency, including: s Simplified and faster access to data, even for those who must log on from multiple locations or those who work in remote locations s Improved disaster recovery methods that will insure the safety of their data, and possibly their workstations s Reduced number of times they must log on when they roam applications and resources on the network Users will quickly begin to appreciate what this new system will do for them, and they will provide you with the support you need to begin implementing the systems. More important, personnel throughout your organization can provide valuable insight into the present system, and the ways it can be improved. Before beginning the migration process, informing, educating, and seeking the support of the various levels of personnel in your organization will help ensure that your migration to Windows 2000 is a success. Keep in mind that success does not just mean that you were able to deploy Windows 2000 without any major glitches or downtime; a successful Windows 2000 deployment will benefit your users and your organization as a whole. Streamlining Each organization is unique and should devise and plan the com- prehensive migration path that will best suit its specific needs. Before you even begin the planning process, however, there are measures you can take now to help ensure a smooth and easy
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