Binding agents

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  • Medicinal chemistry is a discipline at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents (drugs). Compounds used in medical applications are most often organic compounds, which are often divided into the broad classes of small organic molecules and biologics, the latter of which are most often medicinal preparations of proteins. Inorganic and organometallic compounds are also useful as drugs.

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  • It is my great honor and pleasure to introduce this comprehensive book to readers who are interested in carbohydrates. This book contains 23 excellent chapters written by experts from the fields of chemistry, glycobiology, microbiology, immunology, botany, zoology, as well as biotechnology. According to the topics, methods and targets, the 23 chapters are further divided into five independent sections. In addition to the basic research, this book also offers much in the way of experiences, tools, and technologies for readers who are interested in different fields of Glycobiology.

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  • Dynamic Games are mathematical models of the interaction between different agents who are controlling a dynamical system. Such situations occur in many instances like armed conflicts (e.g. duel between a bomber and a jet fighter), economic competition (e.g. investments in R&D for computer companies), parlor games (Chess, Bridge).

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  • Adenovirus can be isolated from HSCT recipients at rates varying from 5 to 18%. Although hemorrhagic cystitis, pneumonia, gastroenteritis, and fatal disseminated infection have been reported, adenovirus infection, which (like CMV infection) usually occurs in the first or second month after transplantation, is often asymptomatic. A role for cidofovir therapy has been suggested, but the efficacy of this agent is unproven. Infections with parvovirus B19 (presenting as anemia or occasionally as pancytopenia) and enteroviruses (sometimes fatal) can occur.

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  • Greenhouse gases such as CO2 and methane are believed to contribute to global warming. Dust is a common problem throughout all mining activities. Dust generated by vehicle traffic can be reduced through a variety of means. Where water resources are not limited, regular watering with mobile water trucks or fixed sprinkler systems is effec- tive. Otherwise the application of surface binding agents, the selection of suitable construction materials and the sealing of heavily used access ways may be more suitable.

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  • Stress protein responses have evolved in part as a mechanism to protect cells from the toxic effects of environmental damaging agents. Oesophageal squamous epithelial cells have evolved an atypical stress response that results in the synthesis of a 53 kDa protein of undefined function named squamous epithelial-induced stress protein of 53 kDa (SEP53).

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  • Genetic deficiency of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP; EC activity leads to a severe selective disorder of T-cell function. Therefore, potent inhibitors of mammalian PNP are expected to act as selective immunosuppressive agents against, for example, T-cell cancers and some autoimmune diseases.

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  • Iron regulatory protein-1 binding to the iron-responsive element of mRNA is sensitive to iron, oxidative stress, NO, and hypoxia. Each of these agents changes the level of intracellular ATP, suggesting a link between iron levels and cellular energy metabolism.

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  • Prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders which cause Creutzfeldt– Jakob disease in humans, scrapie in sheep and bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle. The infectious agent is a protease resistant iso-form (PrP Sc ) of a host encoded prion protein (PrP C ). PrP Sc proteins are characterized according to size and glycoform pattern.

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  • Curcumin, a component of turmeric, has potent antitumor activity against several tumor types. However, its molecular target and mechanism of anti-proliferative activity are not clear. Here, we identified curcumin as a novel antimicrotubule agent. We have examined the effects of curcumin on cellu-lar microtubules and on reconstituted microtubules in vitro.

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  • The Hsp90 molecular chaperone catalyses the final activa-tion step of many of themost important regulatory proteins of eukaryotic cells. The antibiotics geldanamycin and rad-icicol act as highly selective inhibitors of in vivo Hsp90 function through their ability to bindwithin the ADP/ATP binding pocket of the chaperone. Drugs based on these compounds are now being developed as anticancer agents, their administration having the potential to inactivate sim-ultaneously several of the targets critical for counteracting multistep carcinogenesis. ...

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  • Here, we show that recombinant bovine PDE5A1 is pro-teolysedby recombinant caspase-3 inin vitroand transfected Cos-7 cells. In addition, the treatment of PDE5A1-trans-fectedCos-7andPC12cellswithstaurosporine, anapoptotic agent that activates endogenous caspase-3, also induced proteolysis and inactivation of PDE5A1. These findings suggest that there is specificity in the interaction between caspase-3 and PDE5A1 that requires application of an apoptotic stimulus.

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  • When you finish this chapter, you should: Know when an agent has authority to bind a principal to a contract, understand when an agent may be liable on contracts s/he makes for the principal, recognize when an agent’s conduct makes a principal liable for torts committed by the agent.

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  • Taxanes and other microtubule-stabilizing agents comprise an important class of anticancer drugs. It is well known that taxanes act by binding to b-tubulin on the lumenal side of microtubules. However, experimental evi-dence obtained in recent years led to the hypothesis of an external site on the microtubule wall to which taxanes and other microtubule-stabilizing agents could bind before being internalized to their lumenal site.

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  • The benzoacronycine derivative, S23906-1, was character-ized recently as a novel potent antitumor agent through alkylation of theN2 positionof guanines inDNA.We show here that its reactivity towards DNA can be modulated by glutathione (GSH). The formation of covalent adducts between GSH and S23906-1 was evidenced by EI-MS, and the use of different GSH derivatives, amino acids and dipeptides revealed that the cysteine thiol group is absolutely required for complex formation because glutathione disul-fide (GSSG) and other S-blocked derivatives failed to react covalently with S23906-1. ...

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  • Proteinkinases are targets for therapeutic agents designed to intervene in signaling processes in the diseased state. Most kinase inhibitors are directed towards the conserved ATP binding site. Because the essential features of this site are conserved in all eukaryotic protein kinases, it is generally assumed that the same compound will bind in a similar manner to different protein kinases.

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  • Chapter 36 - Third-party relations of the principal and the agent. When you finish this chapter, you should: Know when an agent has authority to bind a principal to a contract, understand when an agent may be liable on contracts s/he makes for the principal, recognize when an agent’s conduct makes a principal liable for torts committed by the agent.

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  • It apparently does this by inhibiting the release of neurotransmitters, chemicals that carry nerve impulses from one neuron to the next. (10) Like many other agents that affect neuron firing, adenosine must first bind to specific receptors on neuronal membranes.

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  • The reality is more complex since the receptor binding profile of clozapine and the newer atypical antipsychotic agents suggests that D2-receptor blockade is not essential for antipsychotic effect. The atypical drugs act on numerous receptors and modulate several interacting transmitter systems. Clozapine is a highly effective antipsychotic. It has little affinity for the D2-receptor compared with classical drugs but binds more avidly to other dopamine subtypes (e.g. D1, D3 and D4). It blocks muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, as do certain classical agents (e.g.

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  • Encounters with Phagocytes Phagocytosis and Inflammation Phagocytosis of microbes is a major innate host defense that limits the growth and spread of pathogens. Phagocytes appear rapidly at sites of infection in conjunction with the initiation of inflammation. Ingestion of microbes by both tissue-fixed macrophages and migrating phagocytes probably accounts for the limited ability of most microbial agents to cause disease.

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