Composition and scoping

Xem 1-20 trên 20 kết quả Composition and scoping
  • Certain restrictions on possible scopings of quantifiednoun phrases in natural language are usually expressed in terms of formal constraints on binding at a level of logical form. Such reliance on the form rather than the content of semantic interpretations goes against the spirit of compositionality. I will show that those scoping restrictions follow from simple and fundamental facts about functional application and abstraction, and can be expressed as constraints on the derivation of possible meanings for sentences rather than constraints of the alleged forms of those meanings. ...

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  • Data reported in this paper are provided by Thomson Reuters ScholarOne Manuscripts™.* ScholarOne’s customer base is reflective of the global scholarly publishing community, representing journals of all sizes and scopes, from high Impact Factor international titles to select niche, society, or regional journals. The aggregate dataset for analysis includes submissions, acceptances, rejections, and time-to-decision for 4,200 journals published by over 365 societies, publishers, and university presses. This encompasses over 3 million submissions during the analysis period 2005–2010.

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  • Aims and Scope of the Series The fundamental questions arising in mechanics are: Why?, How?, and How much? The aim of this series is to provide lucid accounts written by authoritative researchers giving vision and insight in answering these questions on the subject of mechanics as it relates to solids. The scope of the series covers the entire spectrum of solid mechanics.

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  • The material presented is intended to serve as a basis for a critical study of the fun damentals of elasticity and several branches of solid mechanics, including advanced mechanics of materials, theories of plates and shells, composite materials, plasticity theory, finite element, and other numerical methods as well as nanomechanics and biomechanics.

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  • It is important to note from press reports that the government is setting up a Central Listing Authority (CLA) which would oversee issues and listing at the stock exchanges and monitor use of issue proceeds. This only means that the Capital Issue Control which was abolished in the wake of liberalization would be making a comeback albeit with a different name and scope. This should be construed as an acknowledgement of the misuse of the freedom by corporates and the intermediaries. It is also being reported that norms for inter-corporate investments and loans, which were...

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  • Because competition can improve quality and drive down costs, governments should foster com- petition and diversity in the supply of health ser- vices and inputs, particularly drugs, supplies, and equipment. This could include, where feasible, private supply of health care services paid for by governments or social insurance.

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  • The scope of the series covers the entire spectrum of solid mechanics. Thus it includes the foundation of mechanics; variational formulations; computational mechanics; statics, kinematics and dynamics of rigid and elastic bodies; vibrations of solids and structures; dynamical systems and chaos; the theories of elasticity, plasticity and viscoelasticity; composite materials; rods, beams, shells and membranes; structural control and stability; soils, rocks and geomechanics; fracture; tribology; experimental mechanics; biomechanics and machine design.

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  • Market and banking supervisors and regulators are in the process of stepping up their monitoring of the ETF market. Work is underway nationally and internationally on assessing how recent innovations in this area can add to financial system risks, what incentives underpin them, and what potential flaws there might be in current risk practices. The interaction of ETF regulatory frameworks with recent innovations as well as the scope for regulatory arbitrage across regions and markets is also being examined.

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  • Physical units can be specific to the kind of resource recorded (tonnes, cubic meters, hectares, number of units) or common to a range of resources. In this case, a unit-equivalent needs to be found. For example, material flow accounts which are currently the main basis for resource-efficiency analysis record 'everything' in tonnes. Another solution is to use carbon or energy unit-equivalents, as in UNFCCC reporting. The Ecological Footprint Accounts propose surface area as a general unit-equivalent. These solutions are obviously incomplete (e.g.

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  • Clearly, a straightforward implication of wages being determined by sectoral conditions would be that industry-level contracts offer little scope for adjustments of individual wages to firm-specific demand shocks, even if the latter are of permanent nature. However, as demonstrated in Section 2.2, industry-level contracts do not necessarily provide an obstacle to the adjustment of wages to local conditions, as recent decentralisation tendencies in Germany have introduced the option of making such wage adjustments.

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  • The ecosystem accounting framework presented here is being tested in the context of an open Europe taking stock of its relations to the rest of the world. Because ecosystem accounts are deep-rooted into monitoring databases, implementation presently focuses on physical accounts. Monetary valuations, the adjustment of national accounts aggregates for income and final consumption, and the calculation of ecological debts, are foreseen in subsequent steps within the same logical framework.

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  • • Marketing requirements document (MRD). This is the busi- ness or marketing team’s analysis of the world. The goal is to explain what business opportunities exist and how a project can exploit those opportunities. In some organizations, this is a reference document to help decision makers in their think- ing. In other organizations, it is the core of project definition and everything that follows derives strongly from it. MRDs help to define the “what” of a project. • Vision/scope document.

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  • Where do we start? One of the problems in comprehending a massive product such as the Oracle database is the difficulty of getting a good sense of how the product works without getting lost in the details of implementing specific solutions. This book aims to solve this problem by giving you a thorough grounding in the concepts and technologies that form the foundation of the Oracle Database Server.

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  • Ecosystem accounts are being developed as part of the System of Environmental-Economic Accounts which aims at supplementing the UN System of National Accounts with information on the environment and natural capital. The purpose is to broaden the scope of the variables taken into account in policymaking in order to improve understanding of the interdependence and interactions between the economy and the environment.

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  • Three in Ten Charities Tied to a Religious Organization. The 2002 and 2003 Current Population Surveys indicate that people commonly volunteer in religious organizations. We asked charities if they were currently collaborating or partnering with a religious organization. About 29 percent said that they were. Charities That Partner with Religious Organizations Have Greater Scope of Volunteer Use. We wanted to know if the charities with ties to religious organizations differed in important ways from the 71 percent that did not report this kind of tie.

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  • This paper discusses computational compositional semantics from the perspective of grammar engineering, in the light of experience with the use of Minimal Recursion Semantics in DELPH - IN grammars. The relationship between argument indexation and semantic role labelling is explored and a semantic dependency notation (DMRS) is introduced. approach prevents us from over-committing on the basis of the information available from the syntax. One reflection of this are the formal techniques for scope underspecification which have been developed in computational linguistics. ...

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  • Textile industry is a leading industry for most countries, such as China, Singapore, UK, Bangladesh, Italy, Turkey etc. But, environmental pollution is one of the main results of this industry. Parralel to usage of huge amounts of water ad chemicals, the textile dyeing and finishing industry is one of the major polluters among industrial sectors, in the scope of volume and the chemical composition of the discharged effluent (Pagga & Brown, 1986).

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  • Outline Objects and Classes OOP Concepts Encapsulation Aggregation/Composition Inheritance & Polymorphism Some useful Java classes Exception Handling, I/O Readings & Exercise Discussion .

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  • A major focus of current work in distributional models of semantics is to construct phrase representations compositionally from word representations. However, the syntactic contexts which are modelled are usually severely limited, a fact which is reflected in the lexical-level WSD-like evaluation methods used. In this paper, we broaden the scope of these models to build sentence-level representations, and argue that phrase representations are best evaluated in terms of the inference decisions that they support, invariant to the particular syntactic constructions used to guide composition.

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  • This paper describes a 'Logical Form' target language for representing the literal meaning of English sentences, and an intermediate level of representation ('Quasi Logical Form') which engenders a natural separation between the compositional semantics and the processes of scoping and reference resolution. The approach has been implemented in the SRI Core Language Engine which handles the English constructions discussed in the paper.

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