Macroscopic mechanical

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  • Fracture mechanics is the field of mechanics concerned with the study of the propagation of cracks in materials. It uses methods of analytical solid mechanics to calculate the driving force on a crack and those of experimental solid mechanics to characterize the material's resistance to fracture.In modern materials science, fracture mechanics is an important tool in improving the mechanical performance of materials and components.

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  • René Descartes gives few philosophical arguments to directly support his rejection of forms in favor of mechanisms . Moreover, the scattered reasons he offers in his corpus are cryptic and hard to unpack. Hence I will draw on Descartes’ intellectual context to reconstruct his reasoning and shed light on his historic elimination of Scholastic Aristotelian substantial forms from the physical world.

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  • Over the past decade, there has been a vast explosion in new information relating to the art and science of dermatology as well as fundamental cutaneous biology. Furthermore, this information is no longer of interest only to the small but growing specialty of dermatology. Scientists from a wide variety of disciplines have come to recognize both the importance of skin in fundamental biological processes and the broad implications of understanding the pathogenesis of skin disease. As a result, there is now a multidisciplinary and worldwide interest in the progress of dermatology....

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  • There are several differences between bamboo and wood. In bamboo, there are no rays or knots, which give bamboo a far more evenly distributed stresses throughout its length. Bamboo is a hollow tube, sometimes with thin walls, and consequently it is more difficult to join bamboo than pieces of wood. Bamboo does not contain the same chemical extractives as wood, and can therefore be glued very well [Jassen 1995].

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  • Progress of thermodynamics has been stimulated by the fi ndings of a variety of fi elds of science and technology. In the nineteenth century, studies on engineering problems, effi ciency of thermal machines, lead to the discovery of the second law of thermodynamics. Following development of statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics allowed us to understand thermodynamics on the basis of the properties of constituent molecules.

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  • The committee was tasked to determine the best instrumentation and procedures for measuring BFD (see Box S-1). To do this, it reviewed technical specifications, viewed demonstrations of the operation and use of current and prospective systems, and evaluated factors such as human handling variability, process transparency, and software variability judgment. The committee found that given the current clay variation, a measurement precision (standard deviation) of 0.5 mm is sufficient; instruments featuring greater precision add little practical value to the testing process.

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  • In this paper, an optimized homogenization method using uniaxial tensile tests to estimate material parameters in the micromechanical model of a heat treated DC04 steel is introduced. The method is based on a representative element model for the macroscopically homogeneous material.

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  • Article introduces the Fast-Fourier transformation method (FFT) and an approximation method to calculate the conductivity of compound-inclusion composites in two-dimensional space. The approximation compares favorably with the numerical results for a number of periodic and random models over a range of volume proportions of phases, but divers at large volume proportions of the included phases when the interactions between the inclusions are more pronounced.

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  • Particular expressions of upper and lower estimates for the macroscopic elastic bulk modulus of random cell tetragonal polycrystalline materials are derived and computed for a number of practical crystals. The cell-shape-unspecified bounds, based on minimum energy principles and generalized polarization trial fields, appear close to the simple bounds for specific spherical cell polycrystals.

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  • The maximum entropy principle has been earlier used to derive the Bose Einstein(B.E.), Fermi Dirac(F.D.) & Intermediate Statistics(I.S.) distribution of statistical mechanics. The central idea of these distributions is to predict the distribution of the microstates, which are the particle of the system, on the basis of the knowledge of some macroscopic data. The latter information is specified in the form of some simple moment constraints.

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  • Nanoscale physics, nowadays one of the most topical research subjects, has two major areas of focus. One is the important field of potential applications bearing the promise of a great variety of materials having specific properties that are desirable in daily life. Even more fascinating to the researcher in physics are the fundamental aspects where quantum mechanics is seen at work; most macroscopic phenomena of nanoscale physics can only be understood and described using quantum mechanics. The emphasis of the present volume is on this latter aspect....

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  • Various mesoscopic systems have their own unique characteristics, some of which are of importance due to bridging function over classical and quantum mechanics. It is quite natural that human beings living in macroscopic world could hardly grasp the phenomena occurring in the microscopic world in an intuitive manner. This situation offers a vital sense in the "observation" problem necessarily accompanied with the classical means. The fundamental core of the argument between Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen and Bohr starting in 1935 actually lies in this point.

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