Measurement and stochastic

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  • After four centuries a quote from Galileo Galilei is still the most effective way to introduce a Metrology book: “Measure what is measurable, and make measurable what is not so”. Every human activity needs an objective measurement and every global process should be supported by a common standard. There are several handbooks, tutorials and journals that focus on the basic concepts of metrology, the uncertainty theory and the international reference standards. Moreover, the engineering literature is awash with measurement methods for each specific field.

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  • We present a new approach to stochastic modeling of constraintbased grammars that is based on loglinear models and uses EM for estimation from unannotated data. The techniques are applied to an LFG grammar for German. Evaluation on an exact match task yields 86% precision for an ambiguity rate of 5.4, and 90% precision on a subcat frame match for an ambiguity rate of 25. Experimental comparison to training from a parsebank shows a 10% gain from EM training.

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  • The content of Strategies, operations and safety in airline industry: Part 1 includes: a financial history and analysis of the U.S. airline industry, airline operations control: a new concept for operations recovery, outsourcing strategies of full-service airlines: an application of two theoretical perspectives, the pricing strategy of Ryanair, measuring and benchmarking airport efficiency: an application of data envelopment analysis and stochastic frontier analysis.

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  • This research monograph concerns the design and analysis of discrete-time approximations for stochastic differential equations (SDEs) driven by Wiener processes and Poisson processes or Poisson jump measures. In financial and actuarial modeling and other areas of application, such jump diffusions are often used to describe the dynamics of various state variables. In finance these may represent, for instance, asset prices, credit ratings, stock indices, interest rates, exchange rates or commodity prices.

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  • Changing time, timely change, change creating time, time measuring changeÐthe themes of this book are change and time in various per- mutations and combinations. The book also deals with nonlinearity, chaos, randomness, and stochastic models, the use of computers to study complicated systems of di¨erential equations, systems theory, complemen- tarity, the importance of formal models, methods from physics and mathe- matics for the analysis of cognitive systems, and interdisciplinarity, among other topics.

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  • This Report addresses in considerable detail the consequences of hot particles on and near the skin, in the eye, ear, respiratory system, and gastrointestinal tract. Limits for exposures from hot particles are recommended. If exposures are maintained below the recommended limits, few, if any, deterministic biological effects are expected to be observed, and those effects would be transient in nature. If effects from a hot-particle exposure are observed, the result is an easily treated medical condition involving an extraordinarily small stochastic risk.

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  • Measurement of efficiency started with Farrell (1957) who, following Debreu (1951) and Koopmas (1951), proposed a division of efficiency into two components: technical efficiency, which represents a firm’s ability to produce a maximum level of output from a given level of inputs, and allocative efficiency, which is the ability of a firm to use inputs in optimal proportions, given their respective prices and available technology. The combination of these two measures yields the level of economic efficiency.

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  • V an isometry, as in the theorem of Plancherel, is not just a weighted L2-norm on some measure space. This is due to the fact that the back transformation Z has a different expression on each branch, and this is caused by the ramification of the domain. It is not clear to us how one could find a family of generalized eigenfunctions leading to a spectral representation of A.

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  • The second question requires that we build an understanding of how the policy instrument effects production and productive efficiency. Our approach is similar to recent stochastic frontier analyses with panel data (Cornwell et al. (1990), Kumbhakar (1990)), which allow intercepts and some coefficients of the production function to vary between firms and over time.

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  • This document includes: Measurement of efficiency, Mathematical programming models: the non-parametric approach, Stochastic frontier models: the parametric approach.

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  • This paper discusses the supervised learning of morphology using stochastic transducers, trained using the ExpectationMaximization (EM) algorithm. Two approaches are presented: first, using the transducers directly to model the process, and secondly using them to define a similarity measure, related to the Fisher kernel method (Jaakkola and Haussler, 1998), and then using a Memory-Based Learning (MBL) technique. These are evaluated and compared on data sets from English, German, Slovene and Arabic. ...

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  • A number of metrics for automatic evaluation of machine translation have been proposed in recent years, with some metrics focusing on measuring the adequacy of MT output, and other metrics focusing on fluency. Adequacy-oriented metrics such as BLEU measure n-gram overlap of MT outputs and their references, but do not represent sentence-level information. In contrast, fluency-oriented metrics such as ROUGE-W compute longest common subsequences, but ignore words not aligned by the LCS.

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  • This paper compares different measures of graphemic similarity applied to the task of bilingual lexicon induction between a Swiss German dialect and Standard German. The measures have been adapted to this particular language pair by training stochastic transducers with the ExpectationMaximisation algorithm or by using handmade transduction rules. These adaptive metrics show up to 11% F-measure improvement over a static metric like Levenshtein distance.

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  • In some computer applications of linguistics (such as maximum-likelihood decoding of speech or handwriting), the purpose of the language-handling component (Language Model) is to estimate the linguistic (a priori) probability of arbitrary natural-language sentences.

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  • For a given finite positive measure on an interval I ⊆ R, a multiple stochastic integral of a Volterra kernel with respect to a product of a corresponding Gaussian orthogonal stochastic measure is introduced. The Volterra kernel is taken such that the multiple stochastic integral is a multiple iterated stochastic integral related to a parameterized Hermite polynomial, where parameter depends on Gaussian distribution of an underlying one-dimensional stochastic integral.

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  • This paper uses data from the National Surveys‟ data from the Living Standards Measurement Study and the Integrated Surveys on Agriculture for Mali of 2014 to analyze socio-economic, pedological and climate determinants of producers‟ technical efficiency in Mali. To do so, a stochastic production frontier was estimated for each crop category and the full sample.

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  • This paper measures the cost inefficiency of Vietnamese commercial banks from 2011 to 2014. Stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) is used to estimate the cost frontier. The average cost inefficiency of the whole banking system is 7.36% under intermediation approach. Findings show that state-owned banks and banks with bigger size are more efficient than joint stock or smaller ones. Negative relationships are found between efficiency and deposit-to-loan ratio as well as bank‟s age.

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  • The Partially-Observed Boolean Dynamical System (POBDS) signal model is distinct from other deterministic and stochastic Boolean network models in removing the requirement of a directly observable Boolean state vector and allowing uncertainty in the measurement process, addressing the scenario encountered in practice in transcriptomic analysis.

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  • The Stochastic Process Model (SPM) represents a general framework for modeling the joint evolution of repeatedly measured variables and time-to-event outcomes observed in longitudinal studies, i.e., SPM relates the stochastic dynamics of variables (e.g., physiological or biological measures) with the probabilities of end points (e.g., death or system failure).

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  • The paper aims to enrich previous findings for an emerging banking industry such as Vietnam, reporting the difference between the parametric and nonparametric methods when measuring cost efficiency. The purpose of the study is to assess the consistency in issuing policies to improve the cost efficiency of Vietnamese commercial banks.

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