Structures in texts

Xem 1-20 trên 274 kết quả Structures in texts
  • This paper describes a reader-based experiment on lexical cohesion, detailing the task given to readers and the analysis of the experimental data. We conclude with discussion of the usefulness of the data in future research on lexical cohesion. Cohesive ties between items in a text draw on the resources of a language to build up the text’s unity (Halliday and Hasan, 1976). Lexical cohesive ties draw on the lexicon, i.e. word meanings.

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  • In this paper, we provide an account of how to generate sentences with coordination constructions from clause-sized semantic representations. An algorithm is developed and various examples from linguistic literature will be used to demonstrate that the algorithm does its job well. 1 Introduction The linguistic literature has described numerous coordination phenomena (Gleitman, 1965; Ross, 1967; Neijt, 1979; Quirk et al., 1985; van Oirsouw, 1987; Steedman, 1990; Pollard and Sag, 1994; Carpenter, 1998).

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  • We are interested in the nature of content structures in terms of which it would be possible to account for reasoning processes in understanding natural language texts. One of the most crucial problems here at the present time is: how and by which mechanisms these reasoning processes are controlled and directed.

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  • This paper proposes a supervised learning method for detecting a semantic relation between a given pair of named entities, which may be located in different sentences. The method employs newly introduced contextual features based on centering theory as well as conventional syntactic and word-based features. These features are organized as a tree structure and are fed into a boosting-based classification algorithm. Experimental results show the proposed method outperformed prior methods, and increased precision and recall by 4.4% and 6.7%. ...

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  • This paper investigates the automatic identification of aspects of Information Structure (IS) in texts. The experiments use the Prague Dependency Treebank which is annotated with IS following the Praguian approach of Topic Focus Articulation. We automatically detect t(opic) and f(ocus), using node attributes from the treebank as basic features and derived features inspired by the annotation guidelines. We show the performance of C4.5, Bagging, and Ripper classifiers on several classes of instances such as nouns and pronouns, only nouns, only pronouns. ...

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  • Text generation programs need to be designed around a theory of text organization. This paper introduces Rhetorical Structure Theory, a theory of text structure in which each region text generators, we must first have a suitable theory of text organization. attributes: 1. c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s : applicable to every kind of text; 2. functionality: informative in terms of how text achieves its effects for the writer;

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  • This paper shows first the problems raised by proper names in natural language processing. Second, it introduces the knowledge representation structure we use based on conceptual graphs. Then it explains the techniques which are used to process known and unknown proper names. At last, it gives the performance of the system and the further works we intend to deal with.

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  • This book presents a fluid mechanics perspective to the dynamics of fronts and vortices and their interaction with waves in geophysical flows. It provides a basic physical background for modeling coherent structures in a geophysical context, and it gives essential information on advanced topics such as spontaneous wave emission and wavemomentum transfer in geophysical flows. Based on a set of lectures by leading specialists, this text is targeted at graduate students, researchers and engineers in geophysics and environmental fluid mechanics. ...

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  • Topic models have been successfully applied to many document analysis tasks to discover topics embedded in text. However, existing topic models generally cannot capture the latent topical structures in documents. Since languages are intrinsically cohesive and coherent, modeling and discovering latent topical transition structures within documents would be beneficial for many text analysis tasks.

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  • The way in which discourse features express connections back to the previous discourse has been described in the literature in terms of adjoining at the right frontier of discourse structure. But this does not allow for discourse features that express ezpectations about what is to come in the subsequent discourse. After characterizing these expectations and their distribution in text, we show how an approach that makes use of substitution as well as adjoining on a suitably defined right frontier, can be used to both process expectations and constrain discouse processing in general. ...

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  • Text mining and data harvesting algorithms have become popular in the computational linguistics community. They employ patterns that specify the kind of information to be harvested, and usually bootstrap either the pattern learning or the term harvesting process (or both) in a recursive cycle, using data learned in one step to generate more seeds for the next.

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  • Aggregating different pieces of similar information is necessary to generate concise and easy to understand reports in technical domains. This paper presents a general algorithm that combines similar messages in order to generate one or more coherent sentences for them. The process is not as trivial as might be expected. Problems encountered are briefly described. 1 Motivation Aggregation is any syntactic process that allows the expression of concise and tightly constructed text such as coordination or subordination.

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  • We use a reliably annotated corpus to compare metrics of coherence based on Centering Theory with respect to their potential usefulness for text structuring in natural language generation. Previous corpus-based evaluations of the coherence of text according to Centering did not compare the coherence of the chosen text structure with that of the possible alternatives.

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  • This book is designed to revise and consolidate grammar points at the level of Council of Europe Framework (CEF)Bl and B2. It assumes that some basic points have been covered. These can be practised in Macmillan English Grammar In Context Essential. The practice material includes a wide range of topics to reflect both everyday language use and the kinds of subjects learners might be studying in schools or colleges.

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  • Suitable for intermediate to advanced learners of English, Collins COBUILD Business Vocabulary in Practice provides comprehensive coverage of today’s business vocabulary in a clear, easy-to-use format. The text has been illustrated with thousands of examples of real English from the Bank of English, to help students write, speak, and understand English better.

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  • The second edition of First Steps in Academic Writing , by Ann Hogue, provides high-beginning to low-intermediate students with essential tools to master basic academic writing. The text's time-proven approach integrates paragraph organization, sentence st

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  • This book has been written to help teachers develop an understanding of those aspects of English that are especially relevant when teaching learners who speak other languages. It provides an overview of the forms, structures and functions that frequently occur in English and need to be known by learners. The word ‘grammar’ is used here to describe not only how words and sentences fit together, but also how English is structured at other levels of the language, including sounds, vocabulary and texts....

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  • This third editon has been intensively augmented and revised to include the latest developments in this rapidly expanding field. The intensified search for oil and gas, the catastrophic flooding of coastal regions and the demands for transportation, bridges, submerged tunnels and waterways have led to the continuing innovation of new technology which isnowavailable for use on more conventional projects as well as those at the frontiers. This text is intended as a guide and reference for practicing engineers and constructors for use in the marine environment.

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  • Three other programmes come within the scope of this report: the Junior Certificate School programme (JCSP), introduced in 1996; the Transition Year programme, introduced in 1984 and mainstreamed in 1994; and the Leaving Certificate Applied programme (LCA), introduced in 1995. Each is aimed at a particular cohort of students and has specific objectives appropriate to these, but all share an emphasis on the development of language skills, from the basic literacy of reading and writing to the critical literacy required for analysing and interpreting texts....

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  • A comprehensive treatment focusing on the creation of efficient data structures and algorithms, this text explains how to select or design the data structure best suited to specific problems. It uses C++ as the programming language and is suitable for second-year data structure courses and computer science courses in algorithmic analysis.

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