Using conditional random

Xem 1-20 trên 21 kết quả Using conditional random
  • The detection of prosodic characteristics is an important aspect of both speech synthesis and speech recognition. Correct placement of pitch accents aids in more natural sounding speech, while automatic detection of accents can contribute to better wordlevel recognition and better textual understanding. In this paper we investigate probabilistic, contextual, and phonological factors that influence pitch accent placement in natural, conversational speech in a sequence labeling setting.

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  • Online forum discussions often contain vast amounts of questions that are the focuses of discussions. Extracting contexts and answers together with the questions will yield not only a coherent forum summary but also a valuable QA knowledge base. In this paper, we propose a general framework based on Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) to detect the contexts and answers of questions from forum threads. We improve the basic framework by Skip-chain CRFs and 2D CRFs to better accommodate the features of forums for better performance.

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  • Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) have been applied with considerable success to a number of natural language processing tasks. However, these tasks have mostly involved very small label sets. When deployed on tasks with larger label sets, the requirements for computational resources mean that training becomes intractable. This paper describes a method for training CRFs on such tasks, using error correcting output codes (ECOC). A number of CRFs are independently trained on the separate binary labelling tasks of distinguishing between a subset of the labels and its complement. ...

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  • This paper presents a joint optimization method of a two-step conditional random field (CRF) model for machine transliteration and a fast decoding algorithm for the proposed method. Our method lies in the category of direct orthographical mapping (DOM) between two languages without using any intermediate phonemic mapping. In the two-step CRF model, the first CRF segments an input word into chunks and the second one converts each chunk into one unit in the target language. In this paper, we propose a method to jointly optimize the two-step CRFs and also a fast algorithm to realize it. ...

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  • Sentence boundary detection in speech is important for enriching speech recognition output, making it easier for humans to read and downstream modules to process. In previous work, we have developed hidden Markov model (HMM) and maximum entropy (Maxent) classifiers that integrate textual and prosodic knowledge sources for detecting sentence boundaries.

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  • Finding allowable places in words to insert hyphens is an important practical problem. The algorithm that is used most often nowadays has remained essentially unchanged for 25 years. This method is the TEX hyphenation algorithm of Knuth and Liang. We present here a hyphenation method that is clearly more accurate. The new method is an application of conditional random fields. We create new training sets for English and Dutch from the CELEX European lexical resource, and achieve error rates for English of less than 0.1% for correctly allowed hyphens, and less than 0.01% for Dutch. ...

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  • This paper presents a semi-supervised training method for linear-chain conditional random fields that makes use of labeled features rather than labeled instances. This is accomplished by using generalized expectation criteria to express a preference for parameter settings in which the model’s distribution on unlabeled data matches a target distribution. We induce target conditional probability distributions of labels given features from both annotated feature occurrences in context and adhoc feature majority label assignment. ...

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  • Discriminative feature-based methods are widely used in natural language processing, but sentence parsing is still dominated by generative methods. While prior feature-based dynamic programming parsers have restricted training and evaluation to artificially short sentences, we present the first general, featurerich discriminative parser, based on a conditional random field model, which has been successfully scaled to the full WSJ parsing data.

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  • In this paper we present a novel approach for inducing word alignments from sentence aligned data. We use a Conditional Random Field (CRF), a discriminative model, which is estimated on a small supervised training set. The CRF is conditioned on both the source and target texts, and thus allows for the use of arbitrary and overlapping features over these data. Moreover, the CRF has efficient training and decoding processes which both find globally optimal solutions.

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  • We present a new semi-supervised training procedure for conditional random fields (CRFs) that can be used to train sequence segmentors and labelers from a combination of labeled and unlabeled training data. Our approach is based on extending the minimum entropy regularization framework to the structured prediction case, yielding a training objective that combines unlabeled conditional entropy with labeled conditional likelihood.

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  • This paper presents a chunking-based discriminative approach to full parsing. We convert the task of full parsing into a series of chunking tasks and apply a conditional random field (CRF) model to each level of chunking. The probability of an entire parse tree is computed as the product of the probabilities of individual chunking results. The parsing is performed in a bottom-up manner and the best derivation is efficiently obtained by using a depthfirst search algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate that this simple parsing framework produces a fast and reasonably accurate parser. ...

    pdf9p bunthai_1 06-05-2013 35 1   Download

  • This paper presents techniques to apply semi-CRFs to Named Entity Recognition tasks with a tractable computational cost. Our framework can handle an NER task that has long named entities and many labels which increase the computational cost. To reduce the computational cost, we propose two techniques: the first is the use of feature forests, which enables us to pack feature-equivalent states, and the second is the introduction of a filtering process which significantly reduces the number of candidate states. ...

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  • Automatic opinion recognition involves a number of related tasks, such as identifying the boundaries of opinion expression, determining their polarity, and determining their intensity. Although much progress has been made in this area, existing research typically treats each of the above tasks in isolation. In this paper, we apply a hierarchical parameter sharing technique using Conditional Random Fields for fine-grained opinion analysis, jointly detecting the boundaries of opinion expressions as well as determining two of their key attributes — polarity and intensity. ...

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  • Collection of research reports best universities honored author. Two. Le Van Dung, a number average convergence theorem for two index array of random elements in Banach spaces with integrable conditions are ... Science (in Latin Scientia, meaning "knowledge "or" understanding ") is the efforts to implement the invention, and increased knowledge of the human understanding of how the operation of the physical world around them.

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  • In this paper we deal with Named Entity Recognition (NER) on transcriptions of French broadcast data. Two aspects make the task more difficult with respect to previous NER tasks: i) named entities annotated used in this work have a tree structure, thus the task cannot be tackled as a sequence labelling task; ii) the data used are more noisy than data used for previous NER tasks. We approach the task in two steps, involving Conditional Random Fields and Probabilistic Context-Free Grammars, integrated in a single parsing algorithm. We analyse the effect of using several tree representations.

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  • In this paper, we present a new method for learning to finding translations and transliterations on the Web for a given term. The approach involves using a small set of terms and translations to obtain mixed-code snippets from a search engine, and automatically annotating the snippets with tags and features for training a conditional random field model.

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  • Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) are a widely-used approach for supervised sequence labelling, notably due to their ability to handle large description spaces and to integrate structural dependency between labels. Even for the simple linearchain model, taking structure into account implies a number of parameters and a computational effort that grows quadratically with the cardinality of the label set. In this paper, we address the issue of training very large CRFs, containing up to hundreds output labels and several billion features.

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  • Statistical machine learning methods are employed to train a Named Entity Recognizer from annotated data. Methods like Maximum Entropy and Conditional Random Fields make use of features for the training purpose. These methods tend to overfit when the available training corpus is limited especially if the number of features is large or the number of values for a feature is large. To overcome this we proposed two techniques for feature reduction based on word clustering and selection.

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  • We proposed a subword-based tagging for Chinese word segmentation to improve the existing character-based tagging. The subword-based tagging was implemented using the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) and the conditional random fields (CRF) methods. We found that the proposed subword-based tagging outperformed the character-based tagging in all comparative experiments. In addition, we proposed a confidence measure approach to combine the results of a dictionary-based and a subword-tagging-based segmentation. ...

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  • In this paper, the roads planning in the resort are taken as an example of application in Genetic Algorithm. Modeling the problem with target function and constraint condition to satisfy the minimum construction cost (which is converged to the minimum total length of roads), the problem is solved by using Genetic Algorithm with random operation in MATLAB.

    pdf4p cathydoll5 27-02-2019 8 0   Download



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