Water and wastes

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  • In the present study, the fish bone powder has been extracted by boiling the fish filleting waste with water and 2% sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH) about 30 min at 80-90 ºC boiling temperature. This study aimed to determine the nutritional composition of three different fish bone powder extracted with water and an alkaline solution. The nutritional composition of Grouper (Epinephelus diacanthus), Emperor (Letrinus fraenatus) and White snapper (Pristipomoides filamentosus) fish bone power extracted by two treatment method showed statistical significant difference (P < 0.05).

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  • No part of this publication may be reproduced in any material form (including photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means and whether or not transiently or incidentally to some other use of this publication) without the written permission of the copyright holder except in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing...

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  • Economic development, population growth, and environmental pollution evolving in many parts of the world are placing great demands on existing resources of fresh water and reflecting a "water crisis". Resource management, efficient utilization of the water resources, and above all water purification are all alternatives to resolve the water crisis. Purification approaches include traditional approaches that have lasted for several centuries without major modifications as well as new innovative approaches....

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  • Carbon  sectors  is  forecast  to  exceed  growth  in  the more  established  Environmental  sector, where  many technologies (for example in Water and Waste Treatment) are already mature.   The Renewable Energy and Emerging Low Carbon sectors currently show a much flatter growth than  previously  forecast  for  the  period  2012  to  2015.  It  is  anticipated  that  as  economic  uncertainty  is  reduced and investment funds start to flow, these growth forecasts will rise once again.

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  • Research Reports IWMI’s mission is to improve the management of land and water resources for food, livelihoods and environment. In serving this mission, IWMI concentrates on the integration of policies, technologies and management systems to achieve workable solutions to real problems—practical, relevant results in the field of irrigation and water and land resources.

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  • We are giving increasing prominence to environmental ‘performance indicators’ as complements to traditional emission limits. Emission data can be normalised for the scale of process operation and/or environmental burden to generate performance data that are valuable in targeting regulatory effort at the most important environmental issues. Performance indicators can address not only emissions (to air, water and waste) but also raw material use (including water and energy).

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  • Hydrodynamic cavitation is a technology for the conservation of soil and water and waste water treatment due to its simple reactor design and capacity in large‐ scale operation. When fluid’s local pressure reaches a level lower than the saturation vapour’s pressure at environment temperature, cavitation bubbles begin to grow and together with fluid flow are driven to the points with high pressure where they are quickly collapsed.

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  • Today water discharges from industries are the major causes of water pollution resulting in destabilized ecosystems. Hence, it is necessary to monitor the levels of these pollutants as well as develop technologies for the treatment of waste water. Hence, the present study was attempted to analyse the commonly occurring heavy metals in water and organisms in two stations, Musiri and Mukkombu of the River Cauvery.

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  • Quantification of mass flows in production lines and waste treatment lines, as well as quantification of energy consumption at a factory is always challenges in cleaner production and pollution control decision making. The case study has conducted at a representative steel making complex in Vietnam, simulating the material flows of water and waste streams, and energy balance (EB) for water production and wastewater treatment processes, by using STAN (subSTance flow ANalysis) and SANKEY software, respectively.

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  • The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the physico-chemical properties of tannery waste water of Kanpur and Unnao area and its impact on the fresh water quality. The result revealed that 10.05 and 9.15 for pH, 14.89 and 11.43 for EC, 16500 and 9500 for TDS, 1290 and 1160 for total hardness, 1456 and 1434 for alkalinity and 3124 and 1160 for chloride, DO absent, 1248 and 896 for BOD, 3154 and 2857 for COD and 68.01 and 38.60 for total Cr in tannery waste water samples of both sites respectively.

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  • The inspiration for Building Systems for Interior Designers came when I tried to teach interior design students about all the ways buildings support our activities and physical needs—without an adequate textbook. I needed an approach that supported the special concerns of the interior designer, while connecting those issues to the work of the rest of the building design team.

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  • Every year in the U.S. factories release over 3 million tons of toxic chemicals into the land, air and water. This hazardous waste causes us to lose over 15 million acres of land every year, it leads to respiratory complications and other health problems and it makes our rivers and lakes too polluted for us to swim in and drink.

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  • The detection of pharmaceutical residues remained elusive until instruments such as liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry became commonplace in environmental laboratories. The documentation of the occurrence of pharmaceutical residues and endocrine disrupting chemicals in water resources has raused questions about their long-term effects in the ecosystem and their potential effects on human health.

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  • Hydraulic conductivity is the most important property of geological formations as the flow of fluids and movement of solutes depend on it. Among fluids, water and contaminant migration beneath, the ground surface have become critical for water resource development, agriculture, site restoration and waste disposal strategies.

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  • Today there is not a single aspect of the world that can escape the scrutiny of environmental analysis, and business activities stand at the crux of many issues. Some of the issues that today’s executives need to understand to be environmentally literate include: air, water, and land pollution; the production and disposal of hazardous wastes; solid waste disposal; chemical and nuclear spills and accidents; global warming and the greenhouse effect; ozone depletion; deforestation and desertification; biodiversity, and overpopulation.

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  • Water contamination weakens or destroys natural ecosystems that support human health, food production, and biodiversity. Studies have estimated that the value of ecosystem services is double the gross national product of the global economy, and the role of freshwater ecosystems in purifying water and assimilating wastes has been valued at US$ 400 billion (2008$) (Costanza et al. 1997). Freshwater ecosystems are among the most degraded on the planet, and have suffered proportionately greater species and habitat losses than terrestrial or marine ecosystems (Revenga et al. 2000).

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  • In this book, papers pertaining to resource management for sustainable agricultural development are presented in four parts divided into ten chapters. Part I discusses the usage of water and waste management for sustainable agricultural development including aspects like irrigation management to prevent soil and ground water salinization, production of solid fuel from oil palm waste, sustainable ecomaterials and biorefinery from agroindustrial waste, nonpoint pollution from agriculture and livestock activities on surface water....

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  • The second domain, environmental pollutants, encompasses exposures that might bring about chronic conditions or exacerbate these conditions. We include in this domain air, water, and other toxic pollutants. For example, repeated exposure to toxic waste sites may result in malignancies later in life (American Cancer Society, 2002), which in turn may lead to functional decline (Teno et al., 2001; Michael et al., 2000). Thus, exposure to water contamination or toxic wastes is likely to affect health status, particularly though cumulated effects in the lifecourse.

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  • Water supply and sanitation are amongst the most basic requirements of life. For the past 50 to 150 years people living in Europe, America and a few capital cities elsewhere around the globe have come to take for granted the provision of a virtually limitless supply of clean, safe water and the seemingly effortless removal of all human wastes ‘out of sight and out of mind’.

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  • A further example of process redesign for manufacturability is Boeing’s Point of Use system for chemical materials. This enables the storage of materials where the production process utilizes them, as opposed to the previous system which utilized centralized chemical disbursement centers that entailed frequent machinist travel over substantial distances and greater overall chemical usage and waste. Generally, point of use efforts enable the storage of materials where the production process utilizes them.

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