Using shared secret keys, it is possible to calculate Integrity check values
from a message to achieve integrity. The integrity check value should depend
on all bits of the plaintext. Should any bits of the message be changed between
the sender and recipient, the recipient would calculate a diﬀerent integrity check
value. An adversary modifying a message might as well modify the check value
too, but without knowledge of the secret key she cannot duplicate the correct in-
tegrity check value.
Introduction to SmartEvent Intro
SmartEvent Intro lets you use SmartEvent features with one Security Gateway Software Blade. A Security
Management Server can host 1 SmartEvent Intro server.
SmartEvent Intro has these modes:
IPS mode - shows events from the IPS blade
DLP mode - shows events from the DLP blade
Application Control mode - shows events from the Application Control blade
In modern agriculture, farmers continuously face a battle to achieve products in high yields
and better quality to feed an ever increasing world population (Stetter & Lieb, 2000). The
optimization of agriculture techniques demands, along with other requirements, the
application of crop protection agents to control a variety of diseases and pests, among which
are weeds. Weeds compete with crops for nutrients, water, and physical space, may harbor
insect and disease pests, and are thus capable of greatly undermining both crop quality and
A large majority of the Wisconsin household population is non-Hispanic white (86%), according to
estimates from the 2008 Family Health Survey. Six percent of the population is non-Hispanic black
or African American, and 5 percent is Hispanic or Latino. One percent of the population is non-
Hispanic American Indian, 1 percent is non-Hispanic Asian, less than 0.5 percent is non-Hispanic
other, and 1 percent is composed of non-Hispanic members of two or more racial groups (Figure 9).
There are varied possibilities for investment in real assets. One of the most
liquid segments, which is accessible through the financial markets, is the
commodity market. As well as precious metals, investors also focus on industrial
and agricultural raw materials. It is relatively easy for investors to inform them-
selves about these homogenous markets. However, in this study we want to
concentrate on real assets that are mainly not traded on financial markets but
for which fund solutions or direct investment vehicles are dominant.
In today’s networked economy the goal is the availability and productive use of informa-
tion. The marketplace will not tolerate the cost and inconvenience of proprietary and
competing technologies. Customer demands and competition drive companies to the
higher efficiencies that networking provides. Competitors are driven to work together on
open standards in order to enable networking: sharing resources and knowledge to create
new opportunities and enable new services.
The primary purpose of this study is to measure the level of disproportionate impact
between credit scores and race/ethnicity, and credit scores and socioeconomic status.
Disproportionate impact is defined as the bivariate relationship between credit scores and
the independent variable of interest, such as race/ethnicity or income. That is, for purposes
of measuring the level of disproportionate impact, no attempt is made to control for possible
confounding variables, or factors that might explain a disproportionate impact should one