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Abstract of the PHD thesis: Factors affecting application of good agricultural practices for vegetable farming in VietNam

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Abstract of the PHD thesis: Factors affecting application of good agricultural practices for vegetable farming in VietNam

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Therefore, the author selects the theme: “Factors affecting application of the good agricultural practices for vegetable farming in Vietnam” to verify supposition and assess the significance of factors affecting GAP application by vegetable producers in order to give recommendations for maintaining and expanding the application of GAP in vegetable farming in Vietnam.

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  1. COMPLETED IN THE NATIONAL ECONOMICS UNIVERSITY MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING NATIONAL ECONOMICS UNIVERSITY ----------------*********---------------- Scientific instructors: 1. Đỗ Thị Hải Hà (Assoc. Prof.) 2. Đỗ Thị Ngọc Huyền (Ph.D.) Reviewers: ABSTRACT OF THE Ph.D. THESIS 1: on FACTORS AFFECTING APPLICATION OF 2: GOOD AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES FOR VEGETABLE FARMING IN VIETNAM 3: Author: NGUYỄN THỊ HỒNG TRANG The thesis has been presented and defended to the PhD Committee of the National Economics University Speciality: Economics management (Management science) At (time), (date)... Code: 62340410 The thesis is available at: - National Library of Vietnam - Library of the National Economics University HANOI 2016
  2. INTRODUCTION theme: “Factors affecting application of the good agricultural practices for vegetable 1. Necessity of the research farming in Vietnam” to verify supposition and assess the significance of factors affecting GAP application by vegetable producers in order to give recommendations for Food safety is a very important issue in socio-economic development. According to maintaining and expanding the application of GAP in vegetable farming in Vietnam. the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, 2003), vegetables are essential components of a health diet. In Vietnam, vegetable production has significant 2. Objective contribution to ensure national food security, agricultural economics growth, rural (1) Interpretation of theory and practice of GAP and the factors affecting GAP development and poverty alleviation. Vegetables are high-risk foods and the public has application in vegetable farming. deep concern about the issue of food hygiene and safety for vegetable products. Food (2) Analysis of actual situation of GAP application for vegetable farming in Vietnam. safety assurance in the fruit and vegetable production in countries around the world has (3) Determination and significance evaluation of factors affecting GAP application been accomplished through good agricultural practices (GAP). by vegetable producers in Vietnam. The factors include ones relating to: (1) vegetable GAP stakeholders include governments, food retailing industries, farmers and producers, (2) customers and (3) the government. consumers (FAO, 2003). From concept of production (supply), farmers use GAP to (4) Recommendations towards maintenance and expansion of GAP application for promote economic benefits, conserve natural resources and maintain cultural and social vegetable farming in Vietnam. values. From concept of demand, consumers’ concern (including food processing and retailing industries) is food quality and safety and process of good agricultural practices 3. Questions in food production (FAO, 2003). Governments set national food quality standards and (1) What are factors affecting GAP application by vegetable producers in Vietnam? control the compliance as well as support to meet food quality standards. What is role of each factor? There are many researches on GAP application in agrifood production in general and (2) What should the government do to maintain and expand GAP application in safe vegetable production in particular. These researches focused on two ways: (1) vegetable farming? Internal and external factors affecting GAP application; and (2) Role of government in (3) What should vegetable farmers do to maintain and expand GAP application? GAP promotion. Some researches used qualitative methods to determine factors affecting application of food safety standards in general and GAP in particular. Some (4) What shoud customers do to maintain and expand GAP application in vegetable other researches used quantitative methods to quantify significance of these factors. farming? However, most of researches done in Vietnam focused on state management for 4. Scope agrifood quality and safety control and agrifood value chain. New researches only - Subjects of the research: factors affecting GAP application by vegetable producers, described current status and proposal of measures to improve state management for including: (1) vegetable producers, (2) customers and (3) the government. agrifood quality and safety, policy measures to promote safe agrifood chains. - Content: role of each factor affecting GAP application for vegetable farming. Researches on implementation of VietGAP standard for vegetable production emphasized on situation and proposed measures to promote VietGAP- vegetable - Venue: Vegetable farms (enterprise, cooperative, farmer group, household) in production. There are not any significance assessment of factors affecting application of vegetable areas in 26 cities/provinces located in 7 agricultural ecoregions in Vietnam. good agricultural practices by vegetable producers. Therefore, the author selects the 3 4
  3. - Timing: Secondary data collected in 2011-2015, primary data collected from Data collected from quantitative research was described, analyzed by Excel and interviews in 8 months 2014 and surveys conducted from January to April 2015. STATA. The thesis used non-linear and ordered logistic regression models to assess the 6. Methodology significance of the factors affecting GAP application by vegetable producers. Approach 7. Scientific contributions The thesis approach is factors affecting GAP application in Vietnam from the The thesis contributes to clarify factors affecting GAP application by vegetable perspective of vegetable producers. producers in Vietnam, including 3 factor groups: (1) producers; (2) customers; and (3) government. The thesis methodology includes a combination of two methods: (1) qualitative and (2) quantitative: The thesis aimed to identify and assess the significance of each factor affecting GAP application in safe vegetable production. Qualitative From the research results, to maintain and expand GAP application in vegetable Qualitative method aimed to identify the factors affecting GAP application by farming in Vietnam, the thesis proposes some solutions to the government in national vegetable producers in Vietnam in order to test and screen variation of initial study strategy, management policy and support, enforcement and control of GAP application model. in vegetable production and marketing. Besides, the thesis gives some recommendations The method used techniques of in-deep interviews. Interview forms were conducted for vegetable producers, as well as commercial customers, industries and consumers to with 4 officials working in state management agencies of vegetable food safety and 6 raise awareness and capacity of GAP application in vegetable production and marketing. vegetable vegetable producers applying or not applying GAP. Interview results were CHAPTER 1. OVERVIEW OF RESEARCHES aggregated, analyzed, accordingly scales of variation were amended and selected in the research model. 1.1. Foreign studies Quantitative The researches show that there are two basic groups of factors that affect GAP application by agrifood producers: (1) endogenous factors such as characteristics of Quantitative method aimed to quantify results of qualitative studies and test the producer (2) exogenous factors such as regulations on food safety, requirements of the supposition, determine significance of factors on GAP application by vegetable market, strategic partnership between stakeholders in agrifood production chain. The producers. researches focus on two main directions: (1) Research group on both endogenous and Quantitative research was conducted through a survey with questionnaires for exogenous factors affecting GAP application; and (2) research group on role of vegetable producers in Vietnam, using convenience sampling method. Wishing to governments on GAP application. collect over 110 replies, survey forms were sent to 200 vegetable producers (applying or 1.1.1. Researches on both endogenous and exogenous factors affecting GAP not applying GAP) located in 46 provinces/cities of 7 agricultural ecoregions in application Vietnam. These researches analyzed endogenous and exogenous factors affecting GAP The author collected 130 replies from 200 vegetale producers, equivalent to 66%, no application for agriculture in general and for vegetable farming in particular in order to reply from 70 other producers. The replies were from producers located in 26 ensure food safety and environmental friendly production practices. Such researches provinces/cities, mainly in Hanoi (33 producers) and Hochiminh City (26 producers). 5 6
  4. include ones by Sriwichailamphan et al. (2008), Zhou and Jin (2009), Jayasinghe- Due to the specific characteristics of Vietnam as an agricultural country in period of Mudalige (2005), Holleran et al. (1999) and Hobbs (2003). transition to the market economy, the Prime Minister (2012) has issued a number of Researches on exogenous factors affecting GAP application, strategic partnership policies to support the application of good agricultural practices in agriculture, forestry between stakeholders in agrifood production chain, include ones by Wannamolee and aquaculture. Besides, many programs and projects funded by the government or (2008), Mushobozi (2010), Jiao et al. (2010), Henson and Northen (1998). international organizations have also supported GAP application in safe vegetable production areas nationwide. The government planned concentrated production areas for At this approach, researches applied qualitative methods to identify factors affecting implementation of GAP-based safe vegetable production projects. Some policies application of food safety standards in general and GAP in particular. Several studies supported GAP application with: (1) infrastructure; (2) training for producers; (3) used quantitative methods to quantify significance of each factor. guidance, funds for VietGAP certification; (4) application of new technologies; (5) trade 1.1.2. Studies on government role for GAP application promotion; (6) credit; (7) tax and others. In addition, the Ministry of Agriculture and Other approach was from role of government in food safety control in general, such Rural Development (2015) assigned duties of food safety inspection, monitoring and as researches by Brown (1997), Gorter and Swinnen (1994), Crutchfield et al. (1997), audit to vegetable production chain under jurisdiction of the Ministry of Agriculture and Buzby (2003), Henson and Caswell (1999), Ogus (1994), Henson and Heasman (1998) Rural Development. and GAP application in particular, such as researches by Hanak et al. (2002), It is assumed that the GAP application is affected by factors related to vegetable Wannamolee (2008), Srimanee and Routray (2011). producers, customers and the government, the author focuses on a number of factors The above approaches to GAP have tight relationship, many researches used affecting GAP application by vegetable producers. What are the factors that actually qualitative methods to identify factors affecting application of food safety control in affect GAP application by vegetable producers? What is the role of each factor? What is general and GAP in particular. Some other researches used quantitative methods, the role of the Government to GAP application in vegetable production? What should regression models to assess the significance of factors affecting GAP application. The vegetable producers, customers and the Government do to maintain and expand GAP researches show that these factors are related to producers, customers and government. application in vegetable production? The thesis “Factors affecting application of good agricultural practices for vegetable farming in Vietnam” will answer these questions. 1.2. Local studies Local studies on GAP application only focused on actual situation and proposal of solutions to promote safe vegetable production. General objective of the local studies CHAPTER 2. RATIONALE AND PRATICE OF GOOD AGRICULTURAL was to promote GAP application as to ensure long-term benefits for producers, PRACTICES AND FACTORS AFFECTING APPLICATION OF GOOD consumers and society as a whole. However, there were some solutions without strong AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES FOR VEGETABLE FARMING scientific basis. According to the author, to come up with the solutions, the studies 2.1. Good agricultural practice (GAP) should include significance assessment of factors affecting GAP application by 2.1.1. Concept and role of GAP vegetable producers through qualitative and quantitative analysis. In Vietnam, there are not yet any specific studies about the factors that affect GAP application by vegetable Good agricultural practices (GAP) are practices that address environmental, producers or significance assessment of these factors. economic and social sustainability for on-farm processes and result in safe and quality food and non-food agricultural products. (FAO COAG 2003 GAP paper). In simple 7 8
  5. language, GAP stands on four pillars: economic viability, environmental sustainability, General requirements of VietGAP for vegetable farming social acceptability and food safety and quality (Mushobozi, 2010). According to the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (2014), general In this research, the following definition on Good Agricultural Practices by the requirements of VietGAP for vegetable farming are principles, procedures for Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (2012) will be applied: production, harvesting and post-harvest handling for produce quality, food safety and Good Agricultural Practices – GAP are standards / criteria set by an traceability. Basic GAP includes 10 criteria including principles, procedures that organization, a country, a group of countries as guidelines for producers to producers must follow to have safe crops. Producers must keep records and assure food quality and safety, traceability, environmental protection, health, documentation in the form of field/farmer’s diary documents, farming management and social welfares for workers. profiles. 2.1.2. GAP standards for vegetable farming 2.1.3. International experiences in GAP application and lessons for Vietnam 2.1.2.1. EurepGAP in Europe and GlobalGAP 2.1.3.1. GAP in Japan 2.1.2.2. AseanGAP in ASEAN 2.1.3.2. GAP in Thailand 2.1.2.3. SALM certification and MS-GAP in Malaysia Other industrial countries 2.1.2.4. Q-GAP in Thailand 2.2. Factors affecting GAP application 2.2.1. Producer-related factors 2.1.2.5. JGAP in Japan 2.2.1.1. Producer’s awareness of financial benefits from GAP application 2.1.2.6. ChinaGAP in China 2.2.1.2. Producer’s awareness of competitiveness benefits from GAP application 2.1.2.7. VietGAP for fresh fruits and vegetables and Basic GAP for vegetable 2.2.1.3. Producer’s awareness of reputation benefits from GAP application production in Vietnam 2.2.1.4. Producer’s awareness of pressure from customers Good agricultural practices for fresh fruits and vegetables in Vietnam 2.2.1.5. Producer’s production area 2.2.1.6. Distance from farm to nearest big city centre The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (2008) defined VietGAP as 2.2.1.7. Producer’s website principles and procedures for production, harvesting and post-harvest handling to ensure food safety, produce quality, social welfare, health for producers and consumers, 2.2.2. Customer-related factors environment protection and product traceability. 2.2.2.1. Customer’s requirement of GAP application VietGAP for production of fresh fruits and vegetables which was based on 2.2.2.2. Customer as household AseanGAP (Good agricultural practices in ASEAN countries), EurepGAP (Good 2.2.2.3. Customer as school, collective kitchen agricultural practices in Europe) or GlobalGAP (Global Good agricultural pratices) and 2.2.2.4. Customer as supermarket, retailer FRESHCARES (Good agricultural practices in Australia) is intended to facilitate the 2.2.2.5. Customer as trader trade of fruit and vegetables in ASEAN and the world, towards the establishment of 2.2.2.6. Customer as wholesale market sustainable agriculture in Vietnam. VietGAP includes 12 criteria. 2.2.2.7. Customer as processor 9 10
  6. 2.2.3. Government-related factors Independent variable group 1 (attention variable) The Government may promote GAP application through: Vegetable producer-related factors 1.1. Producer’s awareness of financial benefits * Management from GAP application 1.2. Producer’s awareness of competitiveness * Support benefits from GAP application 1.3. Producer’s awareness of reputation benefits Government-related factors affecting GAP application include: from GAP application 1.4. Producer’s awareness of pressure from 2.2.3.1. Planning for safe crop production areas customers 2.2.3.2. Government support to GAP application 1.5. Producer’s production area 1.6. Distance from farm to nearest big city 2.2.3.3. Official control to GAP application by crop producers 1.7. Producer’s website 2.3. Research model and scale Independent variable group 2 (attention 2.3.1. Setting up research model variable) Customer-related factors Initial research model is shown in the diagram below: 2.8. Customer’s requirement of GAP application Dependent variable The author refered to establishment of research model and selection of scale for 2.9. Customer as household GAP application by vegetable independent and dependent variables in the research of Deng et al. (2010); Zhou and Jin 2.10. Customer as school, collective kitchen producers 2.11. Customer as supermarket, retailer (2009); Sriwichailamphan et al (2008); Jayasinghe-Mudalige (2005). 2.12. Customer as trader Proposed analysis model is Ordered Logistic regression model to evaluate the 2.13. Customer as wholesale market 2.14. Customer as processor critical level of independent variables affecting dependent variable, where: - Dependent variable (centre variable): GAP application by vegetable producers Independent variable group 3 (attention - Independent variable group 1 (attention variable): Producer-related factors variables) Government-related factors - Independent variable group 2 (attention variable): Customer-related factors 3.15. Planning of safe crop production areas - Independent variable group 3 (attention variable): Government-related factors 3.16. Support with technical infrastructure 3.17. Support with agricultural material inputs 3.18. Support with trainings 3.19. Support with internal audit 3.20. Support with certification Source: Author’s compilations 3.21. Support with trade promotion 3.22. GAP audit to producers Diagram 2.1: Research model of factors affecting GAP application by vegetable producers 11 12
  7. CHAPTER 3. ACTUAL SITUATION OF GAP APPLICATION AND FACTORS The export of vegetable was not considerable. The main reasons include non- AFFECTING GAP APPLICATION FOR VEGETABLE FARMING IN compliance with food safety requirements of importing countries, uneven quality, VIETNAM DURING 2011-2015 irregular supply; producers have not either formed concentrated vegetable production 3.1. Actual situation of GAP vegetable production and marketing in Vietnam area or applied advanced technology for quality control and maintenance. 3.1.1. Situation of GAP vegetable production in Vietnam 3.1.3. Difficulties in GAP vegetable production and marketing Up to December 2015, vegetable production area nationwide was about 887.800 ha, GAP application in vegetable farming faced difficulties in both production and Mekong delta is the largest area, accounting for 34,3% (http://www.mard.gov.vn, marketing. January 2016). During 2011-2015, total vegetable production had a relatively stable 3.2. Actual situation of factors affecting GAP application by crop producers in increase from 13,633 million tons in 2011 to 15,7 million tons in 2015. According to the Vietnam Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (2015), 1.530 producers applied GAP in 3.2.1. Producer production area of 12.687,34 ha. 3.2.1.1. Classification of vegetable producers However, VietGAP certified production area was 3.327 ha only, accounting for 0,4% According to the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (2012), producers total production area. Total VietGAP certified producers were 820 in 46 provin/cities may be enterprise, cooperative, farmer group, association (including many members or nationwide (http://vietgap.gov.vn, 9 October 2015). Vegetable producers in Vietnam are households); farmer, household (one member or household) producing / handling in forms of enterprise, cooperative, farmer group, household. The maintenance and fishery, horticultural and livestock products in accordance with VietGAP standard. expansion of VietGAP application in vegetable farming face many difficulties and challenges. Models of VietGAP safe vegetable production include: (1) cooperative; (2) farmer- to-trader linkage; and (3) private company or household (Nguyễn Lê Minh Triết, 2013). 3.1.2. GAP vegetables marketing in Vietnam 3.2.1.2. Outcome of the survey on producer-related factors According to the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (2015), some marketing types of GAP vegetables in domestic market include: 3.2.2. Customer - Marketing by producers themselves. Outcome of the survey on customer-related factors - Marketing by wholesale traders in wholesale markets. 3.2.3. Government - Marketing by collectors of post-harvest vegetables. 3.2.3.1. Government management to GAP application in vegetable farming in Vietnam - Marketing by contracts: cooperatives, enterprises, farmer groups signing purchase Strategies, policies, plans for GAP application in vegetable farming in Vietnam contracts for marketing in supermarket, shops. Enforcement of GAP application in in vegetable farming in Vietnam - Marketing in stable customers: industrial kitchen, kindergartens’ and schools’ * Planning for safe vegetable production areas canteen. * Support to GAP application * GAP certification 13 14
  8. Audit to safe vegetable production (10) Support with technical infrastructure 3.2.3.2. Outcome of the survey on the Government-related factors (11) Support with agricultural material inputs 3.2.3.3. Difficulties in state management of GAP application in vegetable farming in (12) Support with trainings Vietnam (13) Support with internal audit (14) Support with certification CHAPTER 4. ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING GAP APPLICATION BY (15) Support with trade promotion VEGETABLE PRODUCERS IN VIETNAM (16) GAP audit to producers 4.1. Qualitative analysis of factors affecting GAP application by vegetable 4.2. Quantitative analysis of factors affecting GAP application by vegetable producers in Vietnam producers in Vietnam 4.1.1. Producer-related factors 4.2.1. Selection of ordered logit model and measurement scale of variables 4.1.2. Customer-related factors Data collection results showed that: Among 130 producers, 42 producers did not 4.1.3. Government-related factors apply GAP, 13 were applying VietGAP-oriented standards, 75 were VietGAP certified Qualitative research results show that factors having considerable significance to and still applying. GAP application by vegetable producers include: The thesis uses ordered logit model to test relationship between dependent and Producer-related factors: independent variables because dependent variable GAP is measured in ordered scale. (1) Producer’s awareness of financial benefits from GAP application Regression model: (2) Producer’s awareness of competitiveness benefits from GAP application -cut1+Z.β P (GAP=1) = 1 / (1+ e ) (3) Producer’s awareness of reputation benefits from GAP application Where P (GAP=1): Probability of GAP application by producer Customer-related factors: -cut2+Z.β -cut1+Z.β P (GAP=2) = 1 / (1+ e ) - 1 / (1+ e ) (4) Customer’s requirement of GAP application Where P (GAP=2): Probability for producers applying VietGAP-oriented standards (5) Customer as household -cut2+Z.β (6) Customer as school, collective kitchen P (GAP=3) = 1 - 1 / (1+ e ) (7) Customer as supermarket, retailer Where P (GAP=3): Probability for producers being VietGAP certified and still applying VietGAP (8) Customer as processor cut1: Value of status changing from no GAP application to VietGAP-oriented Government-related factors: application (9) Planning of safe crop production areas 15 16
  9. cut2: Value of status changing from VietGAP-oriented application to VietGAP- (6) Customer as supermarket, retailer - Sthi certified and still applying (7) Customer as processor - Cbien β: Coefficients to be estimated (8) Planning of safe crop production areas - Vung Z: Independent variables (9) Support with agricultural material inputs - Vtu (10) Support with internal audit - Gsat 4.2.2. Outcome of the regression model (11) Support with certification - Cnhan Outcome of the regression analysis show the the factors affecting GAP application by vegetable producers in Vietnam include: (12) Support with trade promotion - Tmai (1) Producer’s awareness of financial benefits from GAP application (13) GAP audit to producers - Ksoat (2) Customer’s requirement of GAP application Factors having insignificance to GAP application by vegetable producers in Vietnam include: (3) Customer as household (1) Producer’s production area - Dtich (4) Customer as supermarket, retailer (2) Distance from farm to nearest big city centre - Kcach (5) Customer as processor (3) Producer’s website - Web (6) Government support with agricultural material inputs (4) Producer’s awareness of pressure from customers - Khang (7) Government support with internal audit (5) Customer as school, collective kitchen - Thoc (8) Government support with certification (6) Customer as trader - Tlai (9) Government support with trade promotion (7) Customer as wholesale market - Cho 4.3. Outcome of the supposition testing (8) Support with technical infrastructure - Kthuat Outcome of qualitative and quantitative analysis show that: (9) Support with trainings - Dtao The factors having considerable significance to GAP application by vegetable producers in Vietnam include: (1) Producer’s awareness of financial benefits from GAP application - Lnhuan (2) Producer’s awareness of competitiveness benefits from GAP application - Ctranh (3) Producer’s awareness of reputation benefits from GAP application - Dtieng (4) Customer’s requirement of GAP application - Khycau (5) Customer as household - Hogd 17 18
  10. CHAPTER 5. GOVERNMENT STRATEGY, ORIENTATION AND SOLUTIONS ensuring the production area of 1.2 million hectares, with an output of about 20 million FOR MAINTENANCE AND EXPANSION OF GOOD AGRICULTURAL tons, of which 170 thousand hectares in the Northwest, 270 thousand hectares in the Red PRACTICES APPLICATION IN VEGETABLE FARMING IN VIETNAM River Delta, 120 thousand hectares in the North Central coast, 80 thousand hectares in 5.1. Government viewpoints and orientation till 2020 and vision to 2030 for GAP the South Central coast, 110 thousand hectares in the Central Highlands, 120 thousand application hectares in the Southeast, 330 thousand hectares in the Mekong delta. 5.1.1. Government viewpoints and overall strategy for agriculture development till - Vegetable production will be oriented to improved quality, food safety, forming 2020 and vision to 2030 concentrated vegetable production areas, applying advanced technology, VietGAP, organic farming. According to the Prime Minister (2012), overall strategy for agriculture development till 2020 and vision to 2030 include: 5.1.3. Government orientation for GAP application - Agriculture development must ensure must improve productivity, quality, The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (2012) approved orientation for competitiveness, efficiency and sustainability. GAP application, including: - Agriculture development must be based on innovative thinking, market access, 5.1.3.1. Promotion of GAP application application of science, technology, efficient use of land, water, qualified human 5.1.3.2. Orientation for GAP application resources, adaptability to climate change, protection of ecological environment in order As a small production scale, GAP application faced many difficulties, it should to effectively exploit advantages of local natural conditions. persevere with guidance of GAP application in accordance with market requirements - Agriculture development must have close links with storage, processing industries and specific conditions of each locality as follows: and markets; land accumulation, forming concentrated commercial production areas. - Compulsory requirements for application of technical standards of food safety - Agriculture development must be linked with labor restructuring in agriculture, conditions during production. These technical standards will be set up in accordance rural development, population movement, qualified human resources in order to meet with basic requirements of VietGAP in order to ensure food safety during production; the requirements of commercial agriculture, forestry and fisheries at advanced technical producers may assess the conformity themselves and declare safe products for local levels. market in compliance with Food Safety Law. - Agriculture development must have policies to ensure high mobilization of social - Encouraging application of all GAP criteria as follows: and natural resources, such as land, forests, sea and labor; benefits from international + GlobalGAP will be applied to special products with high economic value (mainly integration and Government supports. dragon fruit, mango ...) and under contracts requiring GlobalGAP certified. 5.1.2. Vegetable farming development plan till 2020 and vision to 2030 + Other GAP (4C, UTZ Certified, Rain Forest…) will mainly applied to industrial According to the Prime Minister (2012), vegetable farming development plan till crops intended for export such as tea, coffee, cacao, pepper through PPP projects, big 2020 and vision to 2030: enterprises, corporations in coordination with farmers in production, GAP certification - Vegetable production area will be about 400 thousand ha, increasing the use of land and marketing; to 2.5 to 3 times, increasing the area of winter crops and increasing crops on other lands, + VietGAP will be applied to fresh vegetables, fruits, tea, rice for local consumption 19 20
  11. or export; upgraded step by step to VietGAP for international recognition. Government measures to 5.1.3.3. Solutions encourage GAP application Management + Legislation In coming time, agencies under the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Producer objective + Enforcement: Tổ chức thực hiện: Planning of production - Input - Food safety should guide producers: - Traceability areas, support with technical - Production - Producers having contracts requiring VietGAP or other GAPs certified will infrastructure; agricultural - Ouput - Environment input; trainings; internal audit, protection continue to apply respective GAP standards in line with requirements of those contracts certification, trade promotion - Economic benefits or importing countries; + Audit - Producers applying VietGAP or other GAPs without stable market shares, should support farmers to keep on with GAP application, prevent farmers from old farming Source: Author’s proposal method and actively seek markets for products; 5.2.1.1. Strategy, policy, plan for GAP application in vegetable farming - Producers not yet applying VetGAP or other GAPs, should organize production in (1) Support to production and marketing of GAP vegetables compliance with technical standards to have safe food for domestic market and in compliance with Food Safety Law. Producers should consider appropriate GAP, timing (2) Regulations on production and marketing of safe vegetables and certification scale in line with market requirements and purchase contracts. 5.2.1.2. Enforcement of GAP application in vegetable farming 5.2. Proposed measures for maintenance and expension of GAP application by (1) Planning of safe crop production areas vegetable producers in Vietnam (2) Support with agricultural material inputs Based on actual situation, Government viewpoint and orientation of GAP application (3) Support with internal audit in vegetable farming in Vietnam, the author proposed some measures for maintenance (4) Support with certification and expansion of GAP application in vegetable farming in 3 groups: (5) Support with trade promotion 5.2.1. Government’s measures (6) Communication on GAP for consumer guidance and orientation to GAP vegetables Government measures include management and support from input, in-process and output of production to ensure food safety, traceability, environment protection, (7) Requirement of safe vegetables used by commercial and industrial customers producer’s health and welfare. (8) Support with technical infrastructure, trainings for managers and farmers Diagram 5.1: Government role in encouraging GAP application (9) Support with credit, taxation 5.2.1.3. GAP audit to vegetable producers - Audit to producer’s compliance with the procedures for VietGAP certification should be conducted regularly by many stakeholders such as state management agencies, producers themselves and community. 21 22
  12. - The authorities should make regular communication on food safety with the 5.2.3.2. Customer community, good performance of GAP certified producers. GAP certified producers will Customers should actively seek information on GAP vegetables in order to be aware receive favorable responses from customes. Producers will be motivated by customers to that the use of GAP safe vegetables will bring long-term benefits for themselves, their promote quality assurance and food safety. families and the whole community. - The authorities should publish producers non-compliant with food safety CONCLUSION regulations and apply strict sanctions upon detection of unsafe vegetable production and The researches related to GAP application in agriculture in general and vegetable marketing. production in particular focused on two main research directions: (1) researches on two - The authorities should conduct regular and ad-hoc inspections to raise producers’ groups of endogenous and exogenous factors affecting GAP application such as awareness on compliance with GAP standards. researches by Sriwichailamphan et al (2008), Zhou and Jin (2009), Jayasinghe-Mudalige - Local authorities should update number of VietGAP producers because the number (2005); and (2) researches on roles of governments in GAP application such as is small in each locality. The data collected will assist central competent authorities to researches by Hanak et al (2002), Wannamolee (2008), Srimanee and Routray (2011). amend national budget for supporting new VietGAP producers with good performance. In context of Vietnam, apart from issuance and enforcement of food safety - The Government should assign clear tasks, responsibilities of inspection and audit legislation, the Government plays an important role in supporting GAP application. to avoid duplication within competent authorities under a Ministry or among Ministries. Assuming the producer, customer and Government-related factors affect GAP 5.2.2. Producer’s measures application, the thesis identified and assessed the significance of each factor affecting GAP application by vegetable producers. The access to the factors affecting the GAP (1) Compliance promotion of vegetable producers application was from viewpoint of vegetable producers. (2) Setting up food quality and safety management system and internal audit The research shows that the factors having considerable significance to GAP (3) Marketing of safe products on website application include: (1) producer-related factors: awareness of financial, competitiveness (4) Connection of producers in form of safe vegetable association and reputation benefits from GAP application; (2) customer-related factors: customer’s requirement of GAP application, especially customers as households, supermarkets, 5.2.3. Customer’s measures retailers and processors; (3) Government-related factors: planning of safe crop 5.2.3.1. Commercial and industrial customers production areas, supports with agricultural material inputs, internal audit, certification, - The customers should require field/farmer’s diary documents and GAP certification trade promotion, GAP audit to producers. The factors that do not affect GAP application because they are willing to pay higher for quality and safe products. Customers play a include producer’s awareness of pressure from customers, vegetable farming area, decisive role on producer’s operations. Customers should ask for stricter requirements of geographical location and website, customers as collective kitchen, trader, wholesale food quality and safety, producers will apply and strictly follow GAP standards. market, support with technical infrastructure and trainings. - Furthermore, due to the fact that higher certification fee caused higher price of Based on research results, to maintain and expand GAP application in vegetable products, some commercial and industrial customers who do not require GAP farming in Vietnam, the thesis proposes a number of measures for the Government in certification should conduct audit to GAP application and producers’ internal audit. 23 24
  13. management and support policies, enforcement, audit to GAP application and marketing of GAP vegetables. This is the first research on determination and significance assessment of the factors affecting GAP application by vegetable producers in Vietnam. Coming researches may analyze application of good agricultural practices in other industry such as primary production and processing of fruits, pork, chicken, fishery products… or factors affecting value chain of safe vegetables; customer’s awareness and behavior for safe vegetable products. 25

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