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Bài giảng Computer architecture: Part VI

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Bài giảng Computer architecture: Part VI

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Nội dung Text: Bài giảng Computer architecture: Part VI

  1. Part VI Input/Output and Interfacing July 2004 Computer Architecture, Input/Output and Interfacing Slide 1
  2. About This Presentation This presentation is intended to support the use of the textbook Computer Architecture: From Microprocessors to Supercomputers, Oxford University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-19-515455-X. It is updated regularly by the author as part of his teaching of the upper- division course ECE 154, Introduction to Computer Architecture, at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Instructors can use these slides freely in classroom teaching and for other educational purposes. Any other use is strictly prohibited. © Behrooz Parhami Edition Released Revised Revised Revised Revised First July 2003 July 2004 July 2005 July 2004 Computer Architecture, Input/Output and Interfacing Slide 2
  3. VI Input/Output and Interfacing Effective computer design & use requires awareness of: • I/O device types, technologies, and performance • Interaction of I/O with memory and CPU • Automatic data collection and device actuation Topics in This Part Chapter 21 Input/Output Devices Chapter 22 Input/Output Programming Chapter 23 Buses, Links, and Interfacing Chapter 24 Context Switching and Interrupts July 2004 Computer Architecture, Input/Output and Interfacing Slide 3
  4. 21 Input/Output Devices Learn about input and output devices as categorized by: • Type of data presentation or recording • Data rate, which influences interaction with system Topics in This Chapter 21.1 Input/Output Devices and Controllers 21.2 Keyboard and Mouse 21.3 Visual Display Units 21.4 Hard-Copy Input/Output Devices 21.5 Other Input/Output Devices 21.6 Networking of Input/Output Devices July 2004 Computer Architecture, Input/Output and Interfacing Slide 4
  5. Section 21.1: Introduction Section 21.3 Section 21.4 Section 21.2 Section 21.5: Other devices Section 21.6: Networked I/O July 2004 Computer Architecture, Input/Output and Interfacing Slide 5
  6. 21.1 Input/Output Devices and Controllers Table 3.3 Some input, output, and two-way I/O devices. Input type Prime examples Other examples Data rate (b/s) Main uses Symbol Keyboard, keypad Music note, OCR 10s Ubiquitous Position Mouse, touchpad Stick, wheel, glove 100s Ubiquitous Identity Barcode reader Badge, fingerprint 100s Sales, security Sensory Touch, motion, light Scent, brain signal 100s Control, security Audio Microphone Phone, radio, tape 1000s Ubiquitous Image Scanner, camera Graphic tablet 1000s-106s Photos, publishing Video Camcorder, DVD VCR, TV cable 1000s-109s Entertainment Output type Prime examples Other examples Data rate (b/s) Main uses Symbol LCD line segments LED, status light 10s Ubiquitous Position Stepper motor Robotic motion 100s Ubiquitous Warning Buzzer, bell, siren Flashing light A few Safety, security Sensory Braille text Scent, brain stimulus 100s Personal assistance Audio Speaker, audiotape Voice synthesizer 1000s Ubiquitous Image Monitor, printer Plotter, microfilm 1000s Ubiquitous Video Monitor, TV screen Film/video recorder 1000s-109s Entertainment Two-way I/O Prime examples Other examples Data rate (b/s) Main uses Mass storage Hard/floppy disk CD, tape, archive 106s Ubiquitous Network Modem, fax, LAN Cable, DSL, ATM 1000s-109s Ubiquitous July 2004 Computer Architecture, Input/Output and Interfacing Slide 6
  7. Simple Organization for Input/Output Interrupts CPU Main memory Cache System bus I/O controller I/O controller I/O controller Graphics Disk Disk Network display Figure 21.1 Input/output via a single common bus. July 2004 Computer Architecture, Input/Output and Interfacing Slide 7
  8. I/O Organization for Greater Performance Interrupts CPU Main memory Cache Memory bus Bus Bus adapter adapter AGP PCI bus Intermediate buses / ports Bus I/O bus adapter I/O controller I/O controller I/O controller I/O controller Graphics display Network Disk Disk CD/DVD Figure 21.2 Input/output via intermediate and dedicated I/O buses (to be explained in Chapter 23). July 2004 Computer Architecture, Input/Output and Interfacing Slide 8
  9. 21.2 Keyboard and Mouse July 2004 Computer Architecture, Input/Output and Interfacing Slide 9
  10. Keyboard Switches and Encoding Key cap c d e f Spring 8 9 a b (a) Mechanical switch with a plunger 4 5 6 7 Conductor-coated membrane Contacts 0 1 2 3 (b) Membrane switch (c) Logical arrangement of keys Figure 21.3 Two mechanical switch designs and the logical layout of a hex keypad. July 2004 Computer Architecture, Input/Output and Interfacing Slide 10
  11. Pointing Devices July 2004 Computer Architecture, Input/Output and Interfacing Slide 11
  12. How a Mouse Works y roller x roller Mouse pad y axis Photosensor detects Ball touching the rollers crossing of grid lines x axis rotates them via friction (a) Mechanical mouse (b) Optical mouse Figure 21.4 Mechanical and simple optical mice. July 2004 Computer Architecture, Input/Output and Interfacing Slide 12
  13. 21.3 Visual Display Units Deflection coils Electron beam 1K lines Pixel info: Electron brightness, gun color, etc. y x Sensitive 1K pixels Frame buffer screen per line (a) Image formation on a CRT (b) Data defining the image Figure 21.5 CRT display unit and image storage in frame buffer. July 2004 Computer Architecture, Input/Output and Interfacing Slide 13
  14. How Color CRT Displays Work RGB RGB RGB RGB RGBRGB Direction of Direction of Direction of blue beam green beam red beam Shadow mask RGB Faceplate (a) The RGB color stripes (b) Use of shadow mask Figure 21.6 The RGB color scheme of modern CRT displays. July 2004 Computer Architecture, Input/Output and Interfacing Slide 14
  15. Flat-Panel Displays Column pulses Column pulses Row lines Address pulse Column (data) lines Column (data) lines (a) Passive display (b) Active display Figure 21.7 Passive and active LCD displays. July 2004 Computer Architecture, Input/Output and Interfacing Slide 15
  16. Other Display Technologies July 2004 Computer Architecture, Input/Output and Interfacing Slide 16
  17. 21.4 Hard-Copy Input/Output Devices Document (face down) Detector: Filters Lens charge-coupled device (CCD) Mirror Light beam A/D converter Light source Scanning software Mirror Image file Figure 21.8 Scanning mechanism for hard-copy input. July 2004 Computer Architecture, Input/Output and Interfacing Slide 17
  18. Character Formation by Dot Matrices oooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooo oo oooo oo ooo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo ooooooooo oo o o oo oo oo o oo oo oo o o oo oo o o oo oo ooooo o o oo oo o o o o oo oo o o o o oo oo o o o o oo oo o o o o oo oo o o o o oo oo o o o o oo oo o o o o oo oo ooooo o o oo oo o o oo oo o o oo oo o o oo oo o o oo oo oooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooo o oo oo oo oo oo oo oooo oo ooo o oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo o oo oo ooooooooo oo oo oooooo oo o oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo o oo oo o oo oo o oo oo oo oo oo oo o oo oo o oo oo o oo oo o oo oo o oo oo o oo oo o oo oo o oo oo o oo oo oo oo oo oo o oo oo o oo oo o oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oooooo oo o oo oo Same dot matrix size, oo oo oo oo oo oo oo ooo oo oo oo ooo oo oooo ooooooooooooooooo oo oooo oooooooooooooo but with greater resolution ooooooooooooooooo oooooooooooooo Figure 21.9 Forming the letter “D” via dot matrices of varying sizes. July 2004 Computer Architecture, Input/Output and Interfacing Slide 18
  19. Simple Dot-Matrix Printer Mechanism July 2004 Computer Architecture, Input/Output and Interfacing Slide 19
  20. Common Hard-Copy Output Devices Cleaning of excess toner Corona wire Sheet of for charging paper Fusing of toner Paper movement Rotating Heater drum Print head assembly Light from Rollers optical Print system head Ink Print head movement Toner supply Sheet of Ink droplet paper (a) Ink jet printing (b) Laser printing Figure 21.10 Ink-jet and laser printers. July 2004 Computer Architecture, Input/Output and Interfacing Slide 20
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