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Graduation course of English language sector: A study on how to improve english skill for the first year English major students in Hai Phong private university

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Graduation course of English language sector: A study on how to improve english skill for the first year English major students in Hai Phong private university

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My study is about to help the first year English major students at Hai Phong Private University improve their speaking skill to prepare for them to the basic knowledge of speaking skill with higher requirement for the next graders.

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  1. BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG ------------------------------- ISO 9001:2015 KHÓA LUẬN TỐT NGHIỆP NGÀNH: NGÔN NGỮ ANH Sinh viên : Lương Thị Huyền Giảng viên hướng dẫn: Th.S Nguyễn Thị Quỳnh Hoa HẢI PHÒNG - 2019
  2. BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG ----------------------------------- A STUDY ON HOW TO IMPROVE ENGLISH SPEAKING SKILL FOR THE FIRST YEAR ENGLISH MAJOR STUDENTS IN HAI PHONG PRIVATE UNIVERSITY KHÓA LUẬN TỐT NGHIỆP ĐẠI HỌC HỆ CHÍNH QUY NGÀNH: NGÔN NGỮ ANH Sinh viên : Lương Thị Huyền Giảng viên hướng dẫn: Th.s Nguyễn Thị Quỳnh Hoa HẢI PHÒNG - 2019
  3. BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG -------------------------------------- NHIỆM VỤ ĐỀ TÀI TỐT NGHIỆP Sinh viên: Lương Thị Huyền. Mã SV: 1412751113 Lớp: NA1804. Ngành: Ngôn ngữ Anh. Tên đề tài: A study on how to improve english skill for the first year English major students in Hai Phong private university.
  4. NHIỆM VỤ ĐỀ TÀI 1. Nội dung và các yêu cầu cần giải quyết trong nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt nghiệp ( về lý luận, thực tiễn, các số liệu cần tính toán và các bản vẽ). …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. 2. Các số liệu cần thiết để thiết kế, tính toán. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. 3. Địa điểm thực tập tốt nghiệp. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………..
  5. CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN ĐỀ TÀI TỐT NGHIỆP Người hướng dẫn thứ nhất: Họ và tên: Nguyễn Thị Quỳnh Hoa. Học hàm, học vị: Thạc sĩ. Cơ quan công tác: Trường Đại học Dân lập Hải Phòng. Nội dung hướng dẫn: A study on how to improve english speaking skill for the first year English major students in Hai Phong private university. Người hướng dẫn thứ hai: Họ và tên:............................................................................................. Học hàm, học vị:................................................................................... Cơ quan công tác:................................................................................. Nội dung hướng dẫn:............................................................................ Đề tài tốt nghiệp được giao ngày … tháng ….. năm ….. Yêu cầu phải hoàn thành xong trước ngày …. tháng ….. năm …… Đã nhận nhiệm vụ ĐTTN Đã giao nhiệm vụ ĐTTN Sinh viên Người hướng dẫn Lương Thị Huyền Th.s Nguyễn Thị Quỳnh Hoa Hải Phòng, ngày ...... tháng........năm 20.. Hiệu trưởng GS.TS.NGƯT Trần Hữu Nghị
  6. CỘNG HÒA XÃ HỘI CHỦ NGHĨA VIỆT NAM Độc lập - Tự do - Hạnh phúc PHIẾU NHẬN XÉT CỦA GIẢNG VIÊN HƯỚNG DẪN TỐT NGHIỆP Họ và tên giảng viên: ................................................................................................... Đơn vị công tác: ........................................................................ .......................... Họ và tên sinh viên: .......................................... Chuyên ngành: ............................... Nội dung hướng dẫn: .......................................................... ........................................ ............................................................................................................................ Tinh thần thái độ của sinh viên trong quá trình làm đề tài tốt nghiệp .............................................................................................................................................. ...... .............................................................................................................................................. ...... .............................................................................................................................................. ...... .............................................................................................................................................. ...... .............................................................................................................................................. ...... .............................................................................................................................................. 1. Đánh giá chất lượng của đồ án/khóa luận (so với nội dung yêu cầu đã đề ra trong nhiệm vụ Đ.T. T.N trên các mặt lý luận, thực tiễn, tính toán số liệu…) ...... .............................................................................................................................................. ...... .............................................................................................................................................. ...... .............................................................................................................................................. ...... .............................................................................................................................................. ...... .............................................................................................................................................. 3. Ý kiến của giảng viên hướng dẫn tốt nghiệp Được bảo vệ Không được bảo vệ Điểm hướng dẫn Hải Phòng, ngày … tháng … năm ...... Giảng viên hướng dẫn (Ký và ghi rõ họ tên) QC20-B18
  7. CỘNG HÒA XÃ HỘI CHỦ NGHĨA VIỆT NAM Độc lập - Tự do - Hạnh phúc PHIẾU NHẬN XÉT CỦA GIẢNG VIÊN CHẤM PHẢN BIỆN Họ và tên giảng viên: .............................................................................................. Đơn vị công tác: ........................................................................ ..................... Họ và tên sinh viên: ...................................... Chuyên ngành: .............................. Đề tài tốt nghiệp: ......................................................................... .................... 1. Phần nhận xét của giáo viên chấm phản biện ...... .......................................................................................................................................... ...... .......................................................................................................................................... ...... .......................................................................................................................................... ...... .......................................................................................................................................... ...... .......................................................................................................................................... ...... .......................................................................................................................................... ...... .......................................................................................................................................... 2. Những mặt còn hạn chế .......................................................................................................................................... ...... .......................................................................................................................................... ...... .......................................................................................................................................... 3. Ý kiến của giảng viênchấm phản biện Được bảo vệ Không được bảo vệ Điểm hướng dẫn Hải Phòng, ngày … tháng … năm ...... Giảng viênchấm phản biện (Ký và ghi rõ họ tên) QC20-B19
  8. TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................................................ v PART I: INTRODUCTION ................................................................................ 1 1.Rationale .......................................................................................................... 1 2. Aims of the study and the scope of the study .................................................. 1 3.The scope of the study ...................................................................................... 2 4.Methods of study .............................................................................................. 2 5. Design of the study .......................................................................................... 3 PART II. DEVELOPMENT ............................................................................. 4 CHAPTER I: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND ......................................... 4 1.Definition of speaking skill .............................................................................. 4 2.What is speaking skill ....................................................................................... 7 3. Types of speaking ............................................................................................ 8 3.1.Form-focused speaking ................................................................................. 8 3.2 Meaning-focused speaking ............................................................................ 8 3.3.Opportunities to improve fluency .................................................................. 8 4.Relationship between speaking and three other skills ...................................... 9 4.1. Relationship between speaking and listening .............................................. 9 4.2 Relationship between speaking and reading .................................................. 9 5.The purpose of speaking skills ....................................................................... 10 6.Activities to improvestudent’s speaking skill ................................................. 11 6.1Information-gap activities ............................................................................ 11 6.2.Dialogues and role-plays ............................................................................. 11 6.3.Activities using pictures .............................................................................. 12 6.4. Using games ............................................................................................... 13 7. Characteristics of a successful speaking activity ........................................... 14 7.1. Learners talk a lot ....................................................................................... 14 7.2. Participation is even ................................................................................. 14 7.3. Motivation is high ..................................................................................... 14 7.4. Language is of an acceptable level ........................................................... 14 i
  9. CHAPTER 2: METHODLOGY .................................................................... 15 1. The reality of learning and teaching English speaking skill for the first year English major students at HP ............................................................................ 15 1.1 The teaching staff ........................................................................................ 15 1.2 The student .................................................................................................. 15 1.3 English teaching and learning condition at Hai Phong Private University .. 16 2.The survey questionaires ................................................................................ 17 2.1 The design of the survey questionaires ........................................................ 17 2.2. The data analysis ........................................................................................ 18 2.2.1. The students’ English learning time ........................................................ 18 2.2.2 Which skill is the most difficult................................................................ 19 2.2.3 The students’ attitude toward learning English speaking.......................... 19 2.2.4 The students’ perceived importance of English speaking ......................... 20 2.2.5 The students’ frequency of speaking English in class time ...................... 21 2.2.6 The students’ impression on the English lessons ...................................... 22 2.2.7 The result from students’ opinions on the current teaching method ......... 23 2.2.8 The students’ time to take part in extra-activities ..................................... 25 2.Findings and discussion of findings ............................................................... 25 CHAPTER 3 : SOME SUGGESTED TO IMPROVE ENGLISH SPEAKING SKILL ......................................................................................... 27 1.Teaching methods to improve speaking skills ................................................ 27 3. The language game ........................................................................................ 34 3.1 Advantages of language games ................................................................... 34 3.3.Work group and pair group ......................................................................... 38 4.Telephone conversations ................................................................................ 38 5. Applicibility of Internet in studying speaking ............................................... 39 6. Picture ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................... 7. TV and Video ................................................................................................ 40 8. Speaking English to yourself ......................................................................... 41 ii
  10. 9. Take part in English club ............................................................................... 41 10. Watch your favorite English videos ............................................................ 41 11. Watch English movies and TV shows ......................................................... 42 12. Check grammar with online English tests ................................................... 42 13. Read e-books, articles, magazines every day............................................... 42 14. Write an English essay ................................................................................ 42 15. Chat English anywhere ................................................................................ 42 16. Practice reflexes by practice ........................................................................ 43 17. Hang man game ........................................................................................... 46 PART III: CONCLUSION ............................................................................. 49 LIST OF REFERENCES................................................................................ 50 SURVEY QUESTIONAIRE ........................................................................... 51 iii
  11. LIST OF CHARTS Chart 5 : Students’frequency of speaking English in class time ........................ 22 Chart7 : The students’ opinions on the current teaching method ....................... 24 iv
  12. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In the process of doing the graduation paper, I have received a lot of help, assistance, guidance, encouragement and idea contribution from my teachers, family and friends. My great gratitude goes to my supervisor Nguyen Thi Quynh Hoa (M.A) for her enthusiastic guidance, very helpful ideas and instructions for the preparation and her corrections during the completion of this graduation paper. Secondly, I would like to express my sincere thanks to Ms. Tran Thi Ngoc Lien (MA), the Dean of Foreign Language Department and all the teachers at Haiphong Private University for the precious and useful lessons in my study process that helped me a lot during graduation time. It woult be a mistake if I didn’t mention the first year English major at Hai Phong Private University who took part in my survey questionnaire enthusiastically. Thanks to their participation, I had data survey, analysis and gave the appropriate solutions. Last but not least, I would like to give my heartfelt thanks to my family, my friends who always, encourage and inspirit me to complete this graduation paper. Hai Phong, February, 2019 Student Luong Thi Huyen v
  13. PART I: INTRODUCTION 1. Rationale Nowadays, it can’t bedenied that English is becoming the common tounge of our global village. Whether you live and work in an English speaking country or need English for travelling and fun, English is the passport to the success and a deeper understanding of our quickly changing word. Therefore, learning English is very important and necessary because mastering English is the best and the shortest way for us to have a great deal of opportunities to reach the goals of life. The English learner, from elementary pupils to students, from workers to government employers study English with the interest and enthusiam. However, for Vietnamese students, espeacially the 1st year English major students, they have a lot of dificulties in learning and practising English speaking skill. They often fall into confusion when speaking English because lack of knowledge, confidence, and the good learning method as well. Besides, the learning passive environment with the same and boring lessons without the interesting extra- activities prevent them from practising and improving English. That is the main reason why they don’t get the effective result in learning English, especially the English speaking skill. Due to the reasons above, I have made a sketry presentation on some effective method of studying English with the hope that this can help the first year English major students at Hai Phong Private University will study English better in the near future. Moreover, one of my suggested method is to study English speaking through extra- activities. That is the reason why I have decided to choose the research with the title “ How to improve English speaking skill for the first year English major students at Hai Phong Private University’’. 2. Aims of the study and the scope of the study - Aims of the study My study is about to help the first year English major students at Hai Phong Private University improve their speaking skill to prepare for them to the 1
  14. basic knowledge of speaking skill with higher requirement for the next graders. To sumarize the above, my study is aimed at: - Covering background knowledge of speaking - Finding out reality of teaching and learning English at HaiPhong Private University. - Finding out appropriate techiniques for teaching speaking lessons which draw students’s attention into the lesson. The students will feel interested, enjoyable and funny when they come into the speaking lesson. Some good techniques, especially the extra- activities will be given out inorder to improve their speaking skill. It should be noted that this paper shouldn’t be considered exclusive to English major students at Hai Phong Private university. Infact, the fundamental concepts and result of this paper can be applied to most English learners. 3.The scope of the study There are so many different material resources and researchers that require a lot of time and effect while my personal experien ce is limited. Therefore, this study can only foucs on study some effective techniques in studying English speaking skill, especially through the extra- activities for the first year English major students at Hai Phong Private University. I hope that this study is a good reference material for the English major as well as all students who wish to get the higher speaking skill. 4.Methods of study To finish this study, I myself carry out some following methods. - Researching on reference books and websites. - Attending English speaking periods at English non- major classes at Hai Phong Private University. - Interviewing and conducting the survey questionaires for the first year English major students at Hai Phong Private University with a point to find out their recognizations, attitudes of the matter and the difficulities they encounter when practising English speaking skill. 2
  15. - Basing on my personal experience from my under graduating time in the university through speaking skil at class. 5. Design of the study A table of contents with pages numbers in which they are presented with help readers have a clear overview of the research proposal. It also helps readers find the part they need more easily and quickly. The study contains of three parts: Part I: The introduction are literature review, aims, scope, methodsand the design of the study. Part II: The development are three chapters: - The first chapter is Literature Review which provides readers the overview of speaking skill through the extra- activities. - The second chapter is the Survey Questionaire for the first year English nonmajor students. This chapter refers to the analysis and the findings obatained from the survey questionaires and evaluations from students, interviewing teachers to find out the necessary informations and the discussion of the findings from the survey. - The third chapter focuses on suggesting applicable techniques to teach and practisning English speaking skill fo rthe first year English non- major students. Part III is the conlusion which sumarized all the presented informations 3
  16. PART II. DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER I: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND Firstly, to master the techniques of studying speaking skill, especially for the first year English major students of Hai Phong Privste University, it is imposible not to mention the concept of speaking. 1.Definition of speaking skill Different people use the term “ speaking” in different ways, which can cause much confusion. Speaking a foreign language ususally seems much harder than learning to write and and read, especially to the first year English non- major students. Often the most important problems peple have with forein language is that they can not speak their thinkings and their ideas as well. In fact, it is likea vicious circle: they make mistakes, they become afraid of speaking and thus they never get the practise which would be able to correct their mistakes. Most of the beginning learners do not understand axactly “ what is speaking?”. We only regard speaking sd a simple, easy process that involves speaking the words, the ideas…by speaking out what they think without the correct. So, we had better start by making sure that we are thinking about the same thing when we use this term. As the first step, it would be use ful to undersytand “what is speaking”. According to the Oxford Pocket dictionary of Current English 2009 “ Speaking is the action of conveying information or expressing ones thoughts and feelings in spoken language. And speaking used to indicate the degree of accuracy intended in a statement or the point of view from which it is made.” In the book “ Developing speaking skill” of David Scheter, published on 1999, there is a definition that: “ Speaking is to uuter words or articulate sounds, as human beings to express thoghts by words, as the organs may be so obstructed that a man may not be able to speak”. Meanwhile in the book “ Collins Cobuild English for avanced learner 4th edition, published in 2007 4
  17. definites that “ Speaking is the activitiey of giving speechs and talks, to indicate the opinion you are giving”. “ Speaking is also understood is the productive skill in the oral mode. It, like the oral skills, is more complicated than it seems at first and involves more than just pronouncing words” ( In the website Lingua Link Library, Version 3.5, published on CD.ROMby SIL International 1998). Speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing and receiving and process information (Brown, 1994; Burns & Joyce, 1997). Its form and meaning are dependent on the context in which it occurs, including the participants themselves, their collective experiences, the physical environment, and the purposes for speaking. It is often spontaneous, open-ended, and evolving. However, speaking is not always unpredictable. Language functions (or patterns) that tend to recur in certain discourse situations (e.g., declining an invitation or requesting time off from work), can be identified and charted (Burns &Joyce, 1997). For example, when a salesperson asks "May I help you?" the expected discourse sequence includes a statement of need, response to the need, offer of appreciation, acknowledgement of the appreciation, and a leave-taking exchange. Speaking requires that learners not only know how to produce specific points of language such as grammar, pronunciation, or vocabulary (linguistic competence), but also that they understand when, why, and in what ways to produce language (sociolinguistic competence). Finally, speaking has its own skills, structures, and conventions different from written language (Burns & Joyce, 1997; Carter & McCarthy, 1995; Cohen, 1996). A good speaker synthesizes this array of skills and knowledge to succeed in a given speaking act. According to Chaney (1998), speaking is the process of making and sharing meaning by using verbal and non-verbal symbols in different contexts. Brown (1994) and Burns and Joyce (1997) defined speaking as an interactive process of making meaning that includes producing, receiving, and processing information. 5
  18. Bygate (1987) defined speaking as the production of auditory signals to produce different verbal responses in listeners. It is regarded as combining sounds systematically to form meaningful sentences. Eckard and Kearny (1981), Florez (1999), Howarth (2001), and Abd El Fattah Torky (2006) defined speaking as a two–way process including a true communication of opinions, information, or emotions. This top-down view regards the spoken texts as the collaboration between two or more people in the shared time and the shared context. Whilst Pendidikan Nasional stated, based on Competence Based Curriculum speaking is one of the four basic competences that the students should gain well. It has an important role in communication. (Departmen Pendidikan Nasional, 2004 p.1). In carrying out speaking, students face some difficulties; one of them is about language its self. In fact, most of students get difficulties to speak even though they have a lot of vocabularies and have written them well. The problems are afraid for students to make mistakes. While Wallace (1978) stated that oral practice (speaking) becomes meaningful to students when they have to pay attention to what they are saying. Thus, the students can learn better on how to require the ability to converse or to express their ideas fluently with precise vocabularies and good or acceptable pronunciation. Speaking ability is the students’ ability in expressing their ideas orally, which is represented by the scores of speaking. Speaking is only an oral trail of abilities that it got from structure and vocabulary, Freeman (in Risnadedi, 19 2001) stated that speaking ability is more complex and difficult than people assume, and speaking study like study other cases in study of language, naturalize many cases to language teachers. In conclusion,speaking skill is always considered as a domain of language and linguistic proper. Therefore, Clark and Clark (in Nunan, 1991, p.23) stressed, “speaking is fundamentally an instrument act”. Speakers talk in order to have some influences on their listeners. It is the result of teaching learning process. Students’ skill in conversation is mainly aimed at in terms of teaching speaking 6
  19. skill, it becomes vitally aspect in language teaching and learning success if language functions as a system for conveying meaning, as Nunan (1991, p.39) states that the successful in speaking is measured through someone’s ability to carry out a conversation in the language. 2.What is speaking skill Speaking is the productive skill in the oral mode. It, like the other skills, is more complicated than it seems at first and involves more than just pronouncingwords. There are three kinds of speaking situations in which we find ourselves:  Interactive  Partially interactive  Non-interactive Interactive speaking situations include face-to-face conversations and telephone calls, in which we are alternately listening and speaking, and in which we have a chance to ask for clarification, repetition, or slower speech from our conversation partner. Some speaking situations are partially interactive, such as when giving a speech to a live audience, where the convention is that the audience does not interrupt the speech. The speaker nevertheless can see the audience and judge from the expressions on their faces and body language whether or not he or she is being understood. Some few speaking situations may be totally non-interactive, such as when recording a speech for a radio broadcast. Here are some of the micro-skills involved in speaking. The speaker has to:  Pronounce the distinctive sounds of a language clearly enough so that people can distinguish them. This includes making tonal distinctions.  Use stress and rhythmic patterns, and intonation patterns of the language clearly enough so that people can understand what is said.  Use the correct forms of words. This may mean, for example, changes in the tense, case, or gender.  Put words together in correct word order. 7
  20.  Use vocabulary appropriately.  Use the register or language variety that is appropriate to the situation and the relationship to the conversation partner.  Make clear to the listener the main sentence constituents, such as subject, verb, object, by whatever means the language uses.  Make the main ideas stand out from supporting ideas or information.  Make the discourse hang together so that people can follow what you are saying. 3. Types of speaking In speaking class, according to Burns, A & Joyce, H. (1997), students must be exposed to three key items: 3.1.Form-focused speaking Form-focused instruction, that is, attention to details of pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, and so forth… When learners begin speaking in another language, their speaking will need to be based on some form-focused learning. An effective way to start is to base speaking on some useful, simple memorized phrases and sentences. These may be greetings, simple personal description, and simple questions and answers. As their proficiency and experience in the language develop, most of these sentences and phrases may be re-analyzed and incorporated into the learners‟ system of knowledge of the language. Language use based on memorization can be the starting point for more creative use of the language. 3.2 Meaning-focused speaking Meaning-focused instruction, that is, opportunities to produce meaningful spoken messages with real communicative purposes. In addition to form-focused speaking, language learners should be exposed to and given chances to practice and use meaning-focused communication, in which they must both produce and listen to meaningful oral communication. 3.3.Opportunities to improve fluency 8
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