Industrial Safety and Health for Goods and Materials Services - Chapter 6

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Industrial Safety and Health for Goods and Materials Services - Chapter 6

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Quản lý an toàn và sức khỏe được thực hiện thông qua một lãnh đạo mạnh mẽ cung cấp các nguồn lực, động lực, ưu tiên, và trách nhiệm để đảm bảo sự an toàn và sức khỏe của lực lượng lao động. Lãnh đạo này liên quan đến việc thiết lập hệ thống để đảm bảo cải tiến liên tục và duy trì một sức khỏe và an toàn tập trung trong khi tham dự vào mối quan tâm sản xuất. Quản lý giác ngộ hiểu được giá trị trong việc tạo, bồi dưỡng một nền văn hóa an...

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Nội dung Text: Industrial Safety and Health for Goods and Materials Services - Chapter 6

  1. 6 Safety and Health Management The safety and health program needs to be professionally managed. (Courtesy of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.) 6.1 SAFETY AND HEALTH MANAGEMENT Management of safety and health is accomplished through a strong leadership that provides the resources, motivation, priorities, and accountability for ensuring the safety and health of the workforce. This leadership involves setting up systems to ensure continuous improvement and maintaining a health and safety focus while attending to production concerns. Enlightened managers understand the value in creating and fostering a strong safety culture within their organization. Safety should be a priority so that it is a value of the organization as opposed to a mundane duty. Integrating safety and health concerns into the everyday management of the organ- ization, just like production, quality control, and marketing allows for a proactive approach to accident prevention and demonstrates the importance of working safety in the entire organization. You can increase worker protection, cut business costs, enhance productivity, and improve employee morale. Worksites participating in OSHA’s voluntary protection programs (VPP) have reported OSHA-verified lost workday cases at rates 60%–80% lower than their industry averages. For every $1 saved on medical or insurance compensation costs (direct costs), an additional $5–$50 are saved on indirect costs, such as repair to equipment or materials, retraining new workers, or production delays. ß 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
  2. During 3 years in the VPP, a Ford plant noted a 13% increase in productivity, and a 16% decrease in scrapped product that had to be reworked. Bottom line, safety does pay off. Losses prevented go straight to the bottom line profit of an organization. With today’s competitive markets and narrow profit margins, loss control should be every manager’s concern. Management actions include the following: . Establishing a safety and health policy . Establishing goals and objectives . Providing visible top management leadership and involvement . Ensuring employee involvement . Ensuring assignment of responsibility . Providing adequate authority and responsibility Ensuring accountability for management, supervisors, and rank and file . employees . Providing a program evaluation 6.1.1 SAFETY HEALTH POLICY AND By developing a clear statement of management policy, you help everyone involved with the worksite understand the importance of safety and health protection in relation to other organizational values (e.g., production vs. safety and health). A safety and health policy provides an overall direction or vision while setting a framework from which specific goals and objectives can be developed. 6.1.2 GOALS OBJECTIVES AND Companies should make general safety and health policy specific by establishing clear goals and objectives, and make objectives realistic and attainable by aiming at specific areas of performance that can be measured or verified. Some examples are as follows: have weekly inspections and correct hazards found within 24 h, or train all employees about hazards of their jobs, and specific safe behaviors (use of job safety analysis sheets) before beginning work. 6.1.3 VISIBLE TOP MANAGEMENT LEADERSHIP Values and goals of top management in an organization tend to get emulated and accomplished. If employees see the emphasis that the top management puts on safety and health, they are more likely to emphasize it in their own activities. Besides following set safety rules themselves, managers can also participate in plant-wide safety and health inspections, personally stopping activities or conditions that are hazardous until the hazards can be corrected, assigning specific responsibilities, par- ticipating in or helping to provide training, and tracking safety and health performance. 6.1.4 ASSIGNMENT RESPONSIBILITY OF Everyone in the workplace should have some responsibility for safety and health. Clear assignment helps avoid overlaps or gaps in accomplishing activities. ß 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
  3. Safety and health is not the sole responsibility of the safety and health professional. Rather, it is everyone’s responsibility, while the safety and health professional is a resource. 6.1.5 PROVISION AUTHORITY OF Any realistic assignment of responsibility must be accompanied by the needed authority and by having adequate resources. This includes appropriately trained and equipped personnel as well as sufficient operational and capital funding. 6.1.6 ACCOUNTABILITY Accountability is crucial to helping managers, supervisors, and employees under- stand that they are responsible for their own performance. Reward progress and punish when appropriate. Supervisors are motivated to do their best when manage- ment measures their performance, ‘‘what gets measured is what gets done.’’ Take care to ensure that measures accurately depict accomplishments and do not encourage negative behaviors such as not reporting accidents or near misses. Accountability can be established in safety through a variety of methods: Charge backs—Charge accident costs back to the department or job, or . prorate insurance premiums. Safety goals—Set safety goals for management and supervision (e.g., . accident rates, accident costs, and loss ratios). Safety activities—Conduct safety activities to achieve goals (e.g., hazard . hunts, training sessions, safety fairs, etc., activities that are typically deve- loped from needs identified based on accident history and safety program deficiencies). 6.1.7 PROGRAM EVALUATION Once your safety and health program is up and running, you will want to assure its quality, just like any other aspect of your company’s operation. Each program goal and objective should be evaluated in addition to each of the program elements, for example, management leadership, employee involvement, worksite analysis (accident reporting, investigations, surveys, pre-use analysis, hazard analysis, etc.), hazard prevention and control, and training. The evaluation should not only identify accomplishments and the strong points of the safety and health program, but also identify weaknesses and areas where improvements can be made. Be honest and identify the true weaknesses. The audit can then become a blueprint for improvements and a starting point for the next year’s goals and objectives (Figure 6.1). 6.2 SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS The need for health and safety programs in the workplace has been an area of controversy for some time. Many companies feel that written safety and health programs are just more paperwork, a deterrent to productivity, and nothing more ß 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
  4. FIGURE 6.1 Monitoring and evaluation are keys to assuring effectiveness. (Courtesy of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.) than another bureaucratic way of mandating safety and health on the job. But over a period of years, data and information have been mounting in support of the need to develop and implement written safety and health programs. To effectively manage safety and health, a company must pay attention to some critical factors that were mentioned in Section 6.1. These factors are essential to manage safety and health on worksites. The written safety and health program is of primary importance in addressing these critical factors. Have you ever wondered how your company is doing in comparison with a company without a safety and health professional and a viable safety and health program? Well, wonder no more. In research conducted by the Lincoln Nebraska Safety Council in 1981, the following conclusions were based on a comparison of responses from a survey of 143 national companies. All conclusions have a 95% confidence level or more. Table 6.1 is an abstraction of results from that study. It seems apparent from the previous research that in order to have an effective safety program, at a minimum, an employer must . Have a demonstrated commitment to job safety and health . Commit budgetary resources . Train new personnel . Insure that supervisors are trained . Have a written safety and health program . Hold supervisors accountable for safety and health . Respond to safety complaints and investigate accidents . Conduct safety audits Other refinements can always be part of the safety and health program, which will help in reducing those workplace injuries and illnesses. They are as follows: more worker involvement (e.g., joint labor=management committees), incentive or recog- nition programs, getting outside help from a consultant or safety association, and setting safety and health goals. ß 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
  5. TABLE 6.1 Effectiveness of Safety and Health Program Findings Fact Statement Findings 1 Do not have separate budget for safety 43% more accidents 2 No training for new hires 52% more accidents 3 No outside sources for safety training 59% more accidents No specific training for supervisors 4 62% more accidents 5 Do not conduct safety inspections 40% more accidents 6 No written safety program compared with companies that have written 106% more accidents programs 7 Those using canned programs are not self-generated 43% more accidents 8 No written safety program 130% more accidents 9 No employee safety committees 74% more accidents 10 No membership in professional safety organizations 64% more accidents 11 No established system to recognize safety accomplishments 81% more accidents Did not document=review accident reports and reviewers did not have 12 122% more accidents safety as part of their job responsibility 13 Did not hold supervisor accountable for safety through merit salary 39% more accidents reviews 14 Top management did not actively promote safety awareness 470% more accidents A decrease in occupational incidents that result in injury, illness, or damage to property is enough reason to develop and implement a written safety and health program. 6.3 REASONS FOR A COMPREHENSIVE SAFETY PROGRAM The three major considerations involved in the development of a safety program are as follows: 1. Humanitarian—Safe operation of workplaces is a moral obligation imposed by modern society. This obligation includes consideration for loss of life, human pain and suffering, family suffering, and hardships. 2. Legal obligation—Federal and state governments have laws charging the employer with the responsibility for safe working conditions and adequate supervision of work practices. Employers are also responsible for paying the costs incurred for injuries suffered by their employees during their work activities. 3. Economic—Prevention costs less than accidents. This fact is proven con- sistently by the experience of thousands of industrial operations. The direct cost is represented by medical care, compensation, etc. The indirect cost of 4–10 times the direct cost must be calculated, as well as the loss of wages to employees and the reflection of these losses on the entire community. ß 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
  6. These three factors are reason enough to have a health and safety program. It is also important that these programs be formalized in writing, since a written program sets the foundation and provides a consistent approach to occupational health and safety for the company. There are other logical reasons for a written safety and health program. Some of them are as follows: . It provides standard directions, policies, and procedures for all company personnel. It states specifics regarding safety and health and clarifies misconceptions. . . It delineates the goals and objectives regarding workplace safety and health. It forces the company to actually define its view of safety and health. . . It sets out in black and white the rules and procedures for safety and health that everyone in the company must follow. It is a plan that shows how all aspects of the company’s safety and health . initiative work together. . It is a primary tool of communications of the standards set by the company regarding safety and health. 6.4 BUILDING A SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM The length of such a written plan is not as important as the content. It should be tailored to the company’s needs and the health and safety of its workforce. It could be a few pages or a multiple page document. However, it is advisable to follow the KISS principle (Keep It Simple, Stupid). To ensure a successful safety program, three conditions must exist: management leadership, safe working conditions, and safe work habits by all employees. The employer must Let the employees know that he=she is interested in safety on the job by . consistently enforcing and reinforcing safety regulations. . Provide a safe working place for all employees; it pays dividends. . Be familiar with federal and state laws applying to your operation. . Investigate and report all OSHA recordable accidents and injuries. This information may be useful in determining areas where more work is needed to prevent such accidents in the future. . Make training and information available to the employees, especially in such areas as first aid, equipment operation, and common safety policies. . Develop a prescribed set of safety rules to follow, and see that all employ- ees are aware of these rules. The basic premise of this chapter is that all employers should establish a workplace safety and health program to assist them in compliance with OSHA standards and the General Duty Clause of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHACT) of 1970 (Section 5(a)(1)). Each employer should set up a safety and health program to manage workplace safety and health to reduce injuries, illnesses, and fatalities by a systematic approach to safety and health. The program should be appropriate to conditions in the workplace, such as the hazards to which employees ß 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
  7. are exposed and the number of employees there. The primary guideline for employ- ers to develop an organized safety and health program are as follows: . Employers are advised and encouraged to institute and maintain in their establishments a program, which provides systematic policies, procedures, and practices that are adequate to recognize and protect their employees from occupational safety and health hazards. Effective program includes provisions for the systematic identification, evalu- . ation, and prevention or control of general workplace hazards, specific job hazards, and potential hazards that may arise from foreseeable conditions. Although compliance with the law, including specific OSHA standards, is . an important objective, an effective program looks beyond specific require- ments of law to address all hazards. This effectively will seek to prevent injuries and illnesses, whether or not compliance is at issue. . Extent to which the program is described in writing is less important than how effective it is in practice. As the size of a worksite or the complexity of a hazardous operation increases, however, the need for written guidance also increases to ensure clear communications of policies and priorities and consistent and fair application of rules. The primary elements that should be addressed within this program are manage- ment leadership and employee participation, hazard identification and assessment, hazard prevention and control, information and training, and evaluation of program effectiveness. 6.4.1 MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT AND Management commitment and employee involvement are complementary. Manage- ment commitment provides the motivating force and the resources for organizing and controlling activities within an organization. In an effective program, management regards workers’ safety and health as a fundamental value of the organization and assigns as much importance to it as other organizational issues. Employee involve- ment provides the means through which workers develop and=or express their own commitment to safety and health protection, for themselves and for their fellow workers. Management must state clearly a worksite policy on safe and healthful work and working conditions, so that all personnel with responsibility at the site and personnel at other locations with responsibility for the site understand the priority of safety and health protection in relation to other organizational values. Management must establish and communicate a clear goal for the safety and health program and objectives for meeting that goal, so that all members of the organization understand the results desired and the measures planned for achieving them. There needs to be visible top management involvement in implementing the program, so that the management’s commitments are taken seriously. Employees must be encouraged to be involved in the structure and operation of the program and in decisions that affect their safety and health, so that their insight and energy help to achieve the safety and health program’s goals and objectives. ß 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
  8. Management should assign and communicate responsibility for all aspects of the program so that managers, supervisors, and employees in all parts of the organization know what performance is expected of them. Adequate authority and resources must be provided to responsible parties, so that assigned responsibilities can be met. Managers, supervisors, and employees must be held accountable for meeting their responsibilities, so that essential tasks will be performed. Ensure that managers understand their safety and health responsibilities, as described previously, so that the managers will effectively carry out those responsibilities. Review program operations at least annually to evaluate their success in meeting the goals and objectives, so that deficiencies can be identified and the program and=or the objectives can be revised when they do not meet the goal of effective safety and health protection. Management commitment and leadership provides a policy statement that should be signed by the top person in your company. Safety and health goals and objectives are also included to assist you with establishing workplace goals and objectives that demonstrate your company’s commitment to safety. An enforcement policy is provided to outline disciplinary procedures for violations of your company’s safety and health program. This enforcement policy should be communicated to everyone at the company. Establish the program responsibilities of managers, supervisors, and employees for safety and health in the workplace and hold them accountable for carrying out those responsibilities; provide managers, supervisors, and employees with the authority, access to relevant information, training, and resources they need to carry out their safety and health responsibilities; and identify at least one manager, supervisor, or employee to receive and respond to reports about workplace safety and health conditions and, where appropriate, to initiate corrective action. The safety and health program should contain the following to demonstrate management commitment and leadership: . Policy statement: goals established, issued, and communicated to employees . Program revised annually . Participation in safety meetings and inspections; agenda item in meetings . Commitment of resources is adequate . Safety rules and procedures incorporated into jobsite operations . Management observes safety rules Assignment of responsibility identifies the responsibilities of management officials, supervisors, and employees. Emphasis on responsibility to safety and health is more creditable if everyone is held accountable for their safety and health performance as related to established safety and health goals. The assignment of responsibility should include the following aspects: . Safety designee on site should be knowledgeable and accountable. Supervisors’ (including foremen) safety and health responsibilities should . be understood. . Employees should be aware of and adhere to safety rules. ß 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
  9. The employer must allow employees to establish, implement, and evaluate the program. The employer must regularly communicate with employees about work- place safety and health matters; provide employees with access to information relevant to the program; provide means for employees to become involved in hazard identification and assessment, prioritizing hazards, training, and program evaluation; establish means for employees to report job-related fatalities, injuries, illnesses, incidents, and hazards promptly and to make recommendations about appropriate ways to control those hazards; and provide prompt responses to such reports and recommendations. The employer must not discourage employees from making reports and recommendations about fatalities, injuries, illnesses, incidents, or hazards in the workplace, or from otherwise participating in the workplace safety and health program. 6.4.2 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION ASSESSMENT AND The employer must systematically identify and assess hazards to which employees are exposed and assess compliance with the General Duty Clause and OSHA standards. The employer must conduct inspections of the workplace; review safety and health information; evaluate new equipment, materials, and processes for hazards before they are introduced into the workplace; and assess the severity of identified hazards and rank those hazards that cannot be corrected immediately according to their severity. Identification of hazards includes those items that can assist you with identifying workplace hazards and determining what corrective action is necessary to control them. These items include jobsite safety inspections, accident investigations, safety and health committees, and project safety meetings. To accomplish the identification of hazards, the following items should be addressed: . Periodic site safety inspection program involves supervisors . Preventative controls in place [personal protective equipment (PPE), main- tenance, engineering controls] . Action taken to address hazards . Safety committee, where appropriate . Technical references available . Enforcement procedures implemented by management The employer must carry out an initial assessment, and then as often thereafter as necessary ensure compliance, usually, at least once every 2 years. When safety and health information or a change in workplace conditions indicates that a new or increased hazard may be present, then the employer should conduct a reassessment. The employer should investigate each work-related death, serious injury or illness, or incident (near miss) having the potential to cause death or serious physical harm. The employer should keep records of the hazards identified and their assessment and the actions the employer has taken or plans to take to control those hazards. These will ß 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
  10. be positives if OSHA were to inspect the workplace. It shows good faith effort and commitment to safety and health. Worksite analysis involves a variety of worksite examinations, to identify not only existing hazards but also potential hazards. Unawareness of a hazard that stems from failure to examine the worksite is a sure sign that safety and health policies and=or practices are ineffective. Effective management actively analyzes the work and worksite, to anticipate and prevent harmful occurrences. Worksite analysis is to assure all hazards are identified. This can be accomplished by the following: . Conducting comprehensive baseline worksite surveys for safety and health and periodic comprehensive update surveys . Analyzing planned and new facilities, processes, materials, and equipment . Performing routine job hazard analyses Providing for regular site safety and health inspection, so that new or previously missed hazards and failures in hazard controls are identified, is critical to worksite analysis. So that employee insight and experience in safety and health protection may be utilized and employee concerns may be addressed, a reliable system for employees is to be provided, without fear of reprisal, to notify management personnel about conditions that appear hazardous and to receive timely and appropriate responses; and encourage employees to use the system. All accidents and near miss incidents should be investigated, so that their causes and means for their prevention are identified. Analysis of injury and illness trends over time should be undertaken, so that patterns with common causes can be identified and prevented. 6.4.3 HAZARD PREVENTION AND CONTROL The requirements of the General Duty Clause and OSHA standards are to be met. If immediate compliance is not possible, the employer must devise a plan for prompt compliance, which includes setting priorities and deadlines and tracking progress in controlling hazards. Note: Any hazard identified by the employer’s hazard identifi- cation and assessment process that is covered by an OSHA standard or the General Duty Clause must be controlled as required by that standard or that clause, as appropriate. Control means to reduce exposure to hazards in accordance with the General Duty Clause or OSHA standards, including providing appropriate supple- mental and=or interim protection, as necessary, to exposed employees. Prevention and elimination are the best forms of control. Hazard prevention and controls are triggered by a determination that a hazard or potential hazard exists. Where feasible, hazards are prevented by effective design of the jobsite or job. Where it is not feasible to eliminate them, they are controlled to prevent unsafe and unhealthful exposure. Elimination or controls should be done in a timely manner, once a hazard or potential hazard is identified. ß 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
  11. Procedures are to be established for the purpose, using the following measures, so that all current and potential hazards, however detected, are corrected or con- trolled in a timely manner: . Engineering techniques where feasible and appropriate . Procedures for safe work which are understood and followed by all affected parties, as a result of training, positive reinforcement, correction of unsafe performance, and, if necessary, enforcement through a clearly communi- cated disciplinary system . Provision of PPE . Administrative controls, such as reducing the duration of exposure Facility and equipment maintenance is to be provided, so that hazardous breakdown is prevented. Plan and prepare for emergencies, and conduct training and drills as needed, so that the response of all parties to emergencies will be second nature. Establish a medical program that includes availability of first aid on site and of physician and emergency medical care nearby, so that harm will be minimized if any injury or illness does occur. 6.4.4 INFORMATION TRAINING AND The employer must ensure that each employee is provided with information and training in the safety and health program, and each employee exposed to a hazard is provided with information and training in that hazard. Note: Some OSHA standards impose additional, more specific requirements for information and training. This rule does not displace those requirements. Safety and health information means the establishment’s fatality, injury, and illness experience; OSHA 300 logs; workers’ compensation claims; nurses’ logs; the results of any medical screening=surveillance; employee safety and health com- plaints and reports; environmental and biological exposure data; information from prior workplace safety and health inspections; MSDSs; the results of employee symptom surveys; safety manuals and health and safety warnings provided to the employer by equipment manufacturers and chemical suppliers; information about occupational safety and health provided to the employer by trade associations or professional safety or health organizations; and the results of prior accident and incident investigations at the workplace. The employer must provide information and training in the following subjects: . Nature of the hazards to which the employee is exposed and how to recognize them . What is being done to control these hazards . What protective measures the employee must follow to prevent or minimize exposure to these hazards . Provisions of applicable standards (Figure 6.2) ß 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
  12. FIGURE 6.2 Make sure all workers are trained in appropriate safety and health aspects of their job. (Courtesy of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.) The employer must provide initial information and training as follows: . For new employees, before initial assignment to a job involving exposure to a hazard. . Employer is not required to provide initial information and training for which the employer can demonstrate that the employee has already been adequately trained. . Employer must provide periodic information and training as often as necessary to ensure that employees are adequately informed and trained, and when safety and health information or a change in workplace condi- tions indicates that a new or increased hazard exists. Safety and health training addresses the safety and health responsibilities of all personnel concerned with the site, whether salaried or hourly. It is often most effective when incorporated into other training about performance requirements and job practices. Its complexity depends on the size and complexity of the worksite, and the nature of the hazards and potential hazards at the site. ß 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
  13. It must be ensured that all employees understand the hazards to which they may be exposed and how to protect themselves and others from exposure to these hazards, so that employees accept and follow established safety and health procedures. Ensure that they understand those responsibilities and the reasons for them, including the following, so that supervisors will carry out their safety and health responsibilities effectively: . Analyzing the work under their supervision to identify unrecognized poten- tial hazards . Maintaining physical protections in their work areas . Reinforcing employee training on the nature of potential hazards in their work and on needed protective measures, through continual performance feedback and, if necessary, through enforcement of safe work practices The employer must provide all employees who have program responsibilities with the information and training necessary for them to carry out their safety and health responsibilities. 6.4.5 EVALUATION OF PROGRAM EFFECTIVENESS The employer’s basic obligation is to evaluate the safety and health program to ensure that it is effective and appropriate to workplace conditions. The employer must evaluate the effectiveness of the program as often as necessary to ensure program effectiveness or at least once every 2 years. The employer must revise the program in a timely manner to correct deficiencies identified by the program evaluation. 6.4.6 MULTIEMPLOYER WORKPLACES Multiemployer worksite means a workplace where there is a host employer and at least one contract employer. Host employer means an employer who controls conditions at a multiemployer worksite. The host employer’s responsibilities are to . Provide information about hazards, controls, safety and health rules, and emergency procedures to all employers at the workplace. . Ensure that safety and health responsibilities are assigned as appropriate to other employers at the workplace. The responsibilities of a contract employer are to . Ensure that the host employer is aware of the hazards associated with the contract employer’s work and what the contract employer is doing to address them. Advise the host employer of any previously unidentified hazards that the . contract employer identifies at the workplace. ß 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
  14. Contract employer is an employer who performs work for a host employer at the host employer’s workplace. A contract employer does not include an employer who provides incidental services that do not influence the workplace safety and health program, whose employees are only incidentally exposed to hazards at the host employer’s workplace (e.g., food and drink services, delivery services, or other supply services). 6.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF AN OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM A review of research on successful safety and health programs reveals a number of factors, which comprise these programs. Strong management commitment to health and safety and frequent, close contacts between workers, supervisors, and manage- ment on health and safety are the two most dominant factors in good health and safety programs. Other relevant factors include workforce stability, stringent house- keeping, training emphasizing early indoctrination and follow-up instruction, and special adaptation of conventional health and safety practices to enhance their suitability to the workplace. 6.5.1 FACTORS AFFECTING SAFETY HEALTH AND The factors affecting safety and health are as follows: 1. Management factors a. Management commitment as reflected by management involvement in aspects of the health and safety program in a formal way and employers’ resources committed to employers’ health and safety program b. Management adherence to principles of good management in the utiliza- tion of resources (people, machinery, and materials), supervision of employees, and production planning and monitoring c. Designated health and safety personnel reporting directly to the top management 2. Motivational factors a. Humanistic approach to interacting with employees b. High levels of employee=supervisor contact c. Efficient production planning 3. Hazard control factors a. Effort to improve the workplace b. Continuing development of the employees c. Clean working environment d. Regular, frequent inspections 4. Illness and injury investigations and recordkeeping factors a. Investigation of all incidents of illness and injury as well as non-lost-time accidents b. Recording of all first aid cases ß 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
  15. 6.6 SUMMARY As can be seen, it is critical to have an organized approach to occupational safety and health. The outcomes to effectively manage a company’s safety and health initiative results in many positives, which include less carnage and suffering, but also a better bottom line because of reduced accidents, better productivity, better morale, and a decrease in the cost of doing business. A listing of the components that comprise a successful health and safety program are as follows: . Health and safety program management . Inspections and job observations . Illness and injury investigations . Task analysis . Training . Personal protection Communication=promotion of health and safety . . Personal perception . Off-the-job health and safety This is only a representative list that could be either expanded or consolidated depending upon the unique needs of your company. Health and safety programs should be tailored to meet individual requirements. A sample written safety and health program can be found in Industrial Safety and Health for Infrastructure Services. ß 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
  16. ß 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


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