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Kinh nghiệm đưa đối thoại văn hoá vào hoạt động ngoại giao của ông cha ta trong lịch sử

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Kinh nghiệm đưa đối thoại văn hoá vào hoạt động ngoại giao của ông cha ta trong lịch sử

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Bài viết nghiên cứu xướng họa thơ văn sau đối đầu quân sự dưới thời tiền Lê; tranh biện, đối thoại trên bàn hội nghị để đòi đất ở biên cương dưới thời nhà Lý; đưa nội dung đối thoại văn hóa vào các hoạt động ngoại giao, nhà Trần tranh thủ kéo dài thời kỳ hòa hoãn với nhà Nguyên, chuẩn bị tốt hơn cho việc đánh thắng đạo quân xâm lượng hung hãn nhất thời đại.

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Nội dung Text: Kinh nghiệm đưa đối thoại văn hoá vào hoạt động ngoại giao của ông cha ta trong lịch sử

/ N '<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> KINH NGHIEM DUA DOI THOAI VAN HOA<br /> • •<br /> VAO HOAT DONG NGOAI GIAO CUA<br /> • • •<br /> ONG CHA TA TRONG LICH SlT<br /> PHAM XUAN NAM<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> su, ong cha ta thud ay ma tieu bieu la<br /> V di chien thang lay ICfng cua Ngo<br /> Quyen tren song Bach Dang nam<br /> 938, ach do ho hdn 1000 nam cua phong<br /> nhUng minh quan, hien tu6ng, anh hiing<br /> hao kiet, tri thUc uyen bac thuoc cac trieu<br /> kien phUdng BSc d nu6c ta da cham dUt. Tijf Tien Le, Ly, Tran, Le, Nguyin, Tay Sdn<br /> do, cac vUdng trieu Viet Nam thdi trung dai luon biet chu dong sU dung linh boat, dung<br /> deu mong muo'n tap trung siic de xay dung luc, dung ndi nhieu hinh thiic doi thoai van<br /> va phat trien quoc gia phong kien doc lap. hoa trong hoat dong ngoai giao de hoa giai<br /> Ben canh nhiem vu do'i noi, cac vUdng trieu khong it mau thuan nay sinh trong quan<br /> nay khong the khong thUdng xuyen cham he v6i Trung Hoa. Chinh dieu do da gop<br /> phan quan trong nang cao sUc manh tong<br /> lo de'n linh vUc doi ngoai v6i cac nUdc lang<br /> hdp cua dan toe, gianh lai va giii viing doc<br /> gieng, ma tru6c het va chii ye'u la v6i Trung<br /> lap, chu quyen va toan ven lanh tho quoc<br /> Quo'c. Bdi tie'p sau Han - Dudng, cac trieu<br /> gia, tranh thu dieu kien hoa binh de nhan<br /> dai To'ng, Nguyen, Minh, Thanh lan lUdt<br /> dan dUdc yen on lam an sinh song.<br /> thay nhau tri vi tai dat nUdc Trung Hoa<br /> rong 16n van luon tU cho minh co quyen doi Co the noi, kinh nghiem dUa doi thoai<br /> hoi cac nu6c nho d xung quanh, trong do c6 van hoa vao boat dong ngoai giao cua ong<br /> nu6c ta, phai than phuc, trieu cong va cha ta trong lich sit nu6c nha thdi trung dai<br /> nhan saeh phong ciia ho. The nhUng, do la het siic da dang va phong phu. 0 day,<br /> tham vong banh tru6ng chi pho'i, nhieu khi trong pham vi cua mot bai viet ngan, chung<br /> ho vAn khong thoa man vdi viec dap Ung toi chi tap trung phan tich mot so' sU kien<br /> nhiing doi hoi tren. Trai lai, ho luon rinh noi bat sau:<br /> chd cd hoi de lan chiem dat dai hoae cho<br /> quan tran xuo'ng xam lUdc hong lai bien I. XI/6NG HOA THO VAN SAU DOI<br /> nu6c ta thanh quan huyen ciia "Thien DAU QUAN s i r D U 6 I T H O I T I E N LE<br /> trieu" nhu trUdc.<br /> Theo sd saeh, cong cuoc xay dUng quo'c<br /> Vi the, cung vdi nhufng chien cong hien gia thong nhat ciia nha Dinh sau "loan 12<br /> hach "pha cUdng dich" tren mat tran quan sU quan" dien ra chUa dUdc bao lau thi<br /> <br /> <br /> • GS.TS. Vien Si( hoc<br /> Rghien cmi Lich 5i!r. so 11.2009<br /> <br /> Dinh Tien Hoang va ngUdi con trai trUdng Dau nam 981, dai quan To'ng theo hai<br /> bi Do Thich giet hai. Trieu than dua Dinh dUdng thuy, bo ao at tien vao Dai Co Viet.<br /> Toan mdi 6 tudi len lam vua. NhUng quan xam lUdc To'ng bi quan dan ta<br /> dudi sU lanh dao ciia Le Hoan danh cho tan<br /> Nhan sU bie'n do ci Hoa Lu, Tong Thai<br /> tac. Tudng chi huy giae la H i u Nhan Bao<br /> Tong nghe theo Idi tau ciia vien tri Ung<br /> bi chem chet. Nhieu tUdng khac cua chiing<br /> Chau (Quang Tay) la Hau NTian Bao cho<br /> bi bat song, giai ve Hoa Lu.<br /> dieu dong binh ma sang xam lUdc nUdc ta<br /> hong bie'n "Giao Chau thanh quan huyen" Chap nhan that bai, nha To'ng bai binh.<br /> ciia nha Tong. TrUdc hoa ngoai xam dang Le Hoan nhanh chong cii sti sang To'ng cau<br /> den gan, quan si va mot so' quan trong phong de lap lai bang giao giula hai nu6c.<br /> trieu Dinh suy ton Thap dao Tudng quan<br /> Nam 986, vua To'ng sai Ly Nhudc<br /> Le Hoan len lam vua de ong to chUc va<br /> Chuyet va Ly Giae mang che saeh sang<br /> lanh dao cuoc khang chien. Dung luc do,<br /> phong Le Hoan lam An Nam do ho Tinh<br /> vua To'ng sai Lu Da To'n dUa thu sang doi<br /> Hai quan Tiet do sii kinh trieu quan hau.<br /> Le Hoan phai dau hang.<br /> Khac vdi giong dieu ngao man nUdc 16n<br /> V6i Idi le vila ngao man ve van hoa vcfa<br /> lan trUdc, lan nay che saeh phong ciia Tong<br /> de doa ve quan sU nhan danh "thien trieu",<br /> Thai Tong da phai thita nhan Le Hoan co<br /> bUc thu cua vua To'ng co doan viet: "Giao<br /> "tu each gom nghia diing, bam tinh von<br /> Chau cua ngUdi d xa cuo'i trdi, thuc la ngoai<br /> trung thuan, dUdc long ngUdi trong nUdc...<br /> nam coi. NhUng phan thita cua td chi, vi<br /> Vifa roi Dinh Toan dUdng tuoi tre thd,<br /> nhu ngon ehan ngon tay cua than ngUdi,<br /> khong biet yen v6. NgUdi la tam phiic cho<br /> tuy chi mgt ngon bi dau, bac thanh nhan<br /> than, giii quyen coi quan Iii, hieu lenh ban<br /> lai khong nghi de'n hay sao? Cho nen phai<br /> phat, uy ai deu gom... Nen xiing chdc dijfng<br /> md long ngu to'i cua ngUdi, de thanh giao<br /> d i u coi xa, cung dU hang chu hau ton quy"<br /> cua ta triim toa, ngUdi co theo chang?...<br /> (2).<br /> Dan cua ngUdi bay nhay (y noi ngUdi hdang<br /> da) con ta co ngUa xe; dan ngUdi uo'ng miii Vua Le Dai Hanh nhan che, thet dai sd<br /> con ta thi co cdm rUdu de thay doi phong gia rat hau. Lai dem bon Quach Quan<br /> tuc ciia nude ngUdi; dan ngUdi bat toe con Bien, Trieu Phung Huan la nhiing tu6ng<br /> ta thi CO ao mu; dan ngUdi noi tieng chim giae To'ng bi bat 5 n a m trUdc tra cho ve, the<br /> con ta thi c6 Thi, ThU de day le cho dan hien long khoan dung va thiJc tinh mong<br /> ngUdi... NgUdi co theo ve hay khong, chd muo'n hoa hieu.<br /> mau chuo'c lay toi. Nay ta dang chinh don<br /> Nam sau, nha To'ng lai sai Ly Giae sang<br /> xe CO quan linh, truyen hieu lenh chieng<br /> nu6c ta. Khi Ly Giae de'n chiia Saeh Giang<br /> trong. Ne'u chiu theo giao hoa, ta se tha toi<br /> (3), vua Le sai thien sU Phap Thuan (4) gia<br /> cho, ne'u trai menh, ta se sai quan danh.<br /> lam ngUdi coi song ra don. Giae hay noi van<br /> Theo hay chong, lanh hay giii, tU ngUdi xet<br /> thd. Nhan tha'y hai con ng6ng bdi tren mat<br /> lay" (1).<br /> nude, Giae iing khau ngam:<br /> Vi mud'n nha To'ng hoan binh, Le Hoan<br /> Nga nga liCdng nga nga,<br /> sai sU mang thu sang Tong, noi thac la thu<br /> ciia Dinh Toan thinh cau vua To'ng cho no'i Ngiidng dien hUdng thien nha.<br /> ngoi cha. Vua To'ng khong nghe. (Ngong ngong hai con ngong,<br /> Kinh nghiem dua doi thoai van hoa...<br /> <br /> Ngiia mat nhin ehan trdi). Idn cila dan toe ta thdi bay gid. Tren cd sd<br /> thang Idi a'y, nhd Tien Le dd chu dong<br /> Phap Thuan dang cam cheo, doc noi<br /> rang: ehuyen tii doi ddu quan sii sang doi thoai<br /> vdn hoa vdi nhd To'ng de cung co'quan he<br /> Bach mao pho luc thuy, bang giao hoa binh giiia hai nildc. Vd<br /> Hong trao bdi thanh ba. nhiing cuoc xii&ng hoa thct vdn cua hai nhd<br /> sii niidc Dgi Co Viet thdi Le Dgi Hdnh vdi<br /> (Nude luc pho long trang,<br /> sii gia Tdng dd md ddu cho mgt truyen<br /> Cheo hong song xanh bdi) (5). thdng iing ddi tao nhd, mem mong ve ngon<br /> tii nhiing vdi hdm y rdt sdu xa trong lich sii<br /> Giae lay lam la, khi ve de'n sU quan, lam<br /> ngoai giao Viet Nam.<br /> thd gili tang, trong do co nhQng cau:<br /> II. TRANH BIEN, DOI THOAI TREN<br /> Hanh ngg minh thi tdn thinh du,<br /> BAN H O I NGHI DE DOT DAT 6 BIEN<br /> Nhat than nhi do sif Giao Chdu... C U O N G D U C I I T H O I NHA LY<br /> <br /> Thien ngoai hiCu thien Ung vien chieu, TU sau chie'n thang 981, nhd co thUc lUc<br /> Khe ddm ba tinh kien thiim thu. manh lai biet khon kheo trong hoat dong<br /> doi ngoai, nha Tien Le va tie'p do ba trieu<br /> (May gap thdi binh dudc giiip mUu, vua dau tien ciia nha Ly nhin chung da giii<br /> Mot minh hai lUdt sii Giao Chau... dUdc quan he bang giao hoa binh vdi nha<br /> To'ng trong gan 100 nam.<br /> Ngoai trdi lai co trdi soi niia.<br /> Nhung tif khoang dau nhutng nam 70<br /> Song lang khe dam bong nguyet thau)<br /> ciia the ky XI, thi tinh the da doi khac. Liic<br /> (6).<br /> do d nude ta, sau khi Ly Thanh Tong mat,<br /> Su Phap Thuan dem bai thd nay dang Ly Nhan Tong len ngoi khi con be. Noi bo<br /> len vua Le. Vua cho goi sU Khuong Viet (7) hoang gia va trieu dinh Ly xuat hien mot<br /> de'n xem. Khuong Viet noi: "Thd nay ton be so' mau thuan phe phai, khien ben ngoai<br /> ha khong khac gi vua Tong". Vua khen y nhom ngo. Tinh hinh Trung Quo'c ciing co<br /> thd, tang cho rat hau. PQii Ly Giae tii biet sU bie'n ehuyen. Phia Bac, nha To'ng phai<br /> ra ve, vua sai sU Khuong Viet lam bai tu! doi pho vdi sU uy hiep ciia hai nudc Lieu va<br /> dUa tien, trong do co cau rSng: Ha. 0 trong nUdc, phong trao nong dan noi<br /> day khap ndi. Trudc tinh hinh do, To'ng<br /> Nguyen tUOng thdm y vi hien ciiOng,<br /> Than Tong da cha'p thuan nhiing de nghi<br /> Phdn minh tau ngd hodng. cai each goi la "Tan phap" cua te tUdng<br /> (Xin dem tham y vi Nam cUdng, VUdng An Thach de phan nao hoa hoan cac<br /> mau thuan ben trong. Con do'i vdi ben<br /> Tau vua toi to tUdng) (8). ngoai. Than Tong cung nghe theo Idi tau<br /> Cd the noi, tU cho vua quan nha To'ng tU cua VUdng An Thach "cat 700 dam da't Ha<br /> cho minh la nUdc van minh co thien chiic di Dong bie'u nUdc Lieu" n h i m tam giii yen<br /> khai hoa cho cac nudc man di xung quanh bac thiiy va quay xuong phia Nam danh<br /> de'n cho ho phai ne trong gia tri van h6a Dai Viet vdi y do "danh lay nUdc ye'u de doa<br /> Viet ro rang la mot thang Idi tinh than to nUdc manh" (9).<br /> Rghien ciiru Lich sit, so 11.2009<br /> <br /> Theo doi sat am mUu va hanh dong dUdc mot ganh nang tren vai... Do'i vdi ta,<br /> ehuan hi chie'n tranh xam lUdc cua ke thu, vua To'ng to ve kinh ne. Do'i vdi To'ng, vua<br /> Ly ThUdng Kiet vdi cUdng vi la phu quo'c Ly van tie'p tuc giao hieu" (12).<br /> Thai uy da tau vdi vua Ly Nhan Tong:<br /> Nam 1081, Ly Nhan Tong sai sd bo sang<br /> "Ngoi ddi dich de'n, sao bang danh trUdc de<br /> To'ng cong phUdng vat va xin Dgi tang<br /> be gay miii nhon cua no" (10). Dudc vua<br /> kinh. Vua To'ng het siic lam vifa long vua<br /> ehuan y, cuo'i nam 1075, Ly ThUdng Kiet va<br /> Ly.<br /> Ton Dan dem 10 van quan chu dong tien<br /> cong trUdc sang da't To'ng. Toan bo cac can Nhan sU thong hieu vdi nha To'ng dUdc<br /> cii quan sU va hau can ma nha To'ng xay khoi phuc, nam 1083, vua Ly sai Dao Tong<br /> dung tai cac chau Kliam, Liem, Ung Nguyen tdi hoi nghi Vinh Binh dat van de<br /> (Quang Dong, Quang Tay) de ehuan bi tien doi To'ng tra lai hai dong Vat Ac, Vat<br /> hanh xam lUdc nUde ta deu bi pha huy Dudng ma cac tu trUdng Nung Tdng Dan va<br /> nghiem trong. Muc tieu tien cong hoan Niing Tri Hoi da dem nop de theo To'ng vao<br /> thanh thang Idi, Ly ThUdng Kiet rut quan nhiing nam 1057, 1064 va dUde To'ng doi<br /> ve lap phong tuyen doc song Cau san sang thanh cac chau Thuan An, Quy Hoa. Hoi<br /> don danh dich, vi biet the nao chiing cUng nghi khong di de'n ke't qua. Giiia nam 1084,<br /> keo sang phuc thu. vua Ly lai sai Lang trung binh bo Le Van<br /> Thinh dSn dau phai bo Dai Viet tdi Vinh<br /> Dau nam 1077, vua To'ng sai Quach<br /> Binh tiep tuc ban viec bien cUdng. Ben<br /> Quy, Trieu Tiet mang dai quan sang danh<br /> To'ng, vien do tuan kiem Ta Giang la<br /> ta. Miii tien cong chu yeu ciia chiing bi<br /> Thanh Trac diing dau phai bo.<br /> ehan lai d song NhU Nguyet (11). Nhieu<br /> tran chie'n da'u gay go ac liet da dien ra. Tai hoi nghi, Le Van Thinh noi ro rang<br /> Quan To'ng bi thiet hai nang ne. Quan ta hai chau Thuan An, Quy Hoa vo'n la da't<br /> Cling gap khong it kho khan. Vat Ac, Vat Dudng cua nUdc ta bi cac tii<br /> Trudc tinh hinh do, Ly ThUdng Kiet chu trUdng la'y trom dem nop cho To'ng. Mot<br /> dong dat va'n de dieu dinh n h i m sdm ke't phai vien To'ng noi: "Nhiing da't ma quan<br /> thuc chie'n tranh. Quach Quy lien nhan Idi nha vua da danh lay, thi dang tra cho Giao<br /> giang hoa, rut quan ve nu6c. Quan To'ng Chi. Con nhiing da't ma cac ngudi coi giii lai<br /> riit lui de'n dau, Ly Thudng Kiet cho quan mang nop de theo ta, thi kho ma tra lai".<br /> chiem lai da't de'n da'y. Cac chau Quang Le Van Thinh tra Idi: "Da't thi co chu. Cac<br /> Lang, Mon, To Mau, Tu Lang dUde quan ta vien coi giii mang nop va trdn di, thi da't ay<br /> nhanh chong thu hoi. Cdn chau Quang thanh vat an trom cua chu. Su chu giao cho<br /> Nguyen, hai nam sau (1079) nha Tong ma tu y lay trom da khong tha thd dudc,<br /> cung phai tra no't cho nha Ly. ma trom cua hay tang trii thi phap luat<br /> ciing khong cho phep. Huo'ng chi nay chiing<br /> Chie'n tranh nam 1077 ke't thuc, nha<br /> lai dem da't la'y trom dang, de lam nhd ban<br /> To'ng khong dat dUdc muc dich du dinh la<br /> so saeh nha vua" (13).<br /> thon tinh Dai Viet. Chung chi tam thdi<br /> chiem dUdc mot so' vung da't nhUng roi phai TrUdc lap luan sic ben cua Le Van<br /> tra lai het. Trong khi do, phia Tong bi thiet Thinh to ro sU viing tin vao le phai cua dan<br /> ngUdi, ton cua ra't Idn. Vi the, "tra xong dat toe minh, Thanh Trac da tau gian ve trieu<br /> Quang Nguyen, vua Tong coi nhu da trut rang Le Van Thinh khong ddi da't Vat Ac,<br /> Kinh nghiem dira doi thoai van hoa...<br /> <br /> Vat Duong niia, va xin vua To'ng giang sU toan ven lanh tho quo'c gia Dai Viet. Bi<br /> chieu theo Idi Thanh Trac de nghi (14). De duo'i ly, nhung do long tham banh trUdng<br /> ho trd cho cuoc dam phan tren ban hoi lanh tho chi pho'i, nen vien quan cam dau<br /> nghi, Le Van Thinh da gui mot bdc thu cho phai bo nha To'ng da gid thu doan ta'u trinh<br /> vien kinh lUdc Que Chau liic do la Hung xuyen tac ve de nghi ciia Le Van Thinh vdi<br /> Ban. Thu viet: "Thanh Trac da noi se vach vua To'ng de vua To'ng co "can cd" khong<br /> dai gidi d phia nam mUdi tam xd sau nay: trao tra het nhiing da't ma ke gian da la'y<br /> ThUdng Dien, Ha Loi, On Nhuan, Anh, trom cua nha Ly trao cho nha To'ng.<br /> Dao, Vat DUdng, Vat Ac, Ke Thanh, Cdng, Ket qud Id, viec doi dat cua phdi bo nhd<br /> Luc, Tan, Nham, Dong, Canh, Tu, Ky, Ky, Ly thong qua cuoc ddm phdn ngoai giao,<br /> Huyen va noi nhiing xU a'y deu thuoc trong do bao hdm. cd do'i thoai vd ddu tranh<br /> Trung Quo'c. vdn hoa, dd gidnh diiOc thdng lgi nhiing<br /> Ke boi than tieu tii nay chi biet dung chiia trgn ven.<br /> menh thi nghe chU khong dam tranh cha'p Danh gia ve t h i n g Idi tren, sii gia Phan<br /> (15). Nhung nhiing da't a'y, ma ho Nung da Huy Chu cho ring: "Viec bien gidi ci ddi Ly<br /> nop, deu thuoc Quang Nguyen. dUdc nha To'ng tra lai da't ra't nhieu. Bdi vi<br /> Nay, may gap thanh trieu ban bo' hang trudc do thi c6 oai t h i n g tran, ngUdi trung<br /> van chinh lenh khoan hong. Sao lai chuong chau hoang sd, du lam cho nha To'ng phai<br /> mieng da't day da soi, lam chudng nay, ma phuc, sau thi sii t h i n ban bac, Idi le thung<br /> khong tra lai nude toi, de giup ke ngoai dung, cang them kheo leo..., lam cho Idi<br /> than" (16). tranh bien cua Trung Quo'c phai khuat, ma<br /> the'lUc cua Nam giao dUdc manh" (18).<br /> Ro rang, trong thu gUi Hung Ban, Le<br /> III. DUA NOI DUNG DOI THOAI<br /> Van Thinh da diing Idi le mem mong,<br /> VAN HOA VAO CAC HOAT DONG<br /> nhUng van giii viing lap trUdng doi nha NGOAI GIAO, NHA TRAN TRANH<br /> To'ng tra da't Vat Ac, Vat Dudng cho ta. THIJ KEO DAI THOI KY HOA HOAN<br /> Tuy nhien, do thu di td lai giiia Vinh V6l NHA NGUYEN, CHUAN BI TOT<br /> Binh (Quang Tay) va Bien Kinh thdi a'y HON CHO VIEC D A N H THANG DAO<br /> khong de dang va thong suo't, nen cuo'i QUAN XAM L U O C HUNG HAN NHAT<br /> ciing vua To'ng da quyet dinh theo Idi xin td THOI TRUNG DAI<br /> dau cua Thanh Trac, ma khong cha'p nhan Sau nha Ly, nha Tran phai lan lUdt<br /> Idi de nghi ciia Le Van Thinh trong thU gUi dUdng dau vdi ba trieu dai d Trung Quo'c:<br /> cho Hung Ban. Nha To'ng tra lai cho nha Nam To'ng, Nguyen va dau Minh. Trong ba<br /> Ly. 6 huyen la Bao Lac, Luyen, Mieu, Dinh, trieu dai a'y, nha Nguyen la do'i thii ghe<br /> Phong, Can va 2 dong Tuc, Tang. NhUng gdm hdn ca. Day la thdi ky dan toe ta trai<br /> hai dong Vat Ac, Vat Dudng van bi nha qua nhiing thii thach Idn lao, dong thcfi<br /> Tdng giii lai (17). ciing gianh dUdc ciing chie'n cong oanh liet,<br /> Nhu vay, nhiJng ly le ma Le Van Thinh nhiing thing Idi ngoai giao quan trong,<br /> dUa ra trong cuoc tranh bien trUc tie'p tren trong do co sU gop phan khong nhd cua ca<br /> ban hoi nghi Vinh Binh thi do'i phUdng da'u tranh va do'i thoai van hoa.<br /> khong the bac bo dUdc. Sifc manh ciia Luc ba'y gid, sau gan nda the ky dem<br /> nhiing ly le a'y bat nguon tif y thUc bao ve quan di chinh phuc nhieu nUdc, cac chua<br /> Rghien ciiru Lich 5i3r, so 11.2009<br /> <br /> Mong Co (19) da thanh lap dUdc mgt de Co. Sd bg ta da thoa thuSn dUdc vdi phia<br /> quo'c rgng menh mong td bd Thai Binh Mong Co la ba nam trieu co'ng mgt lan.<br /> Dudng de'n bd bien Hlc Hai.<br /> Thdi gian nay, sau khi Mong Kha chet<br /> Nam 1252, chua mdi ciia Mong Co la (1259), giiia hai anh em Hot Ta't Liet va<br /> Mong Kha sai em la Ho't Ta't Liet va tUdng Aric Buke no ra ngi chien de tranh ngoi<br /> Nggt LUdng Hdp Thai danh chiem nude Dai han. Vi the Mong Co' phai tam ngiing eugc<br /> Ly (Van Nam, Trung Quo'c). Nam 1257, tie'n cong Nam To'ng va to ve xoa diu Dai<br /> Mong Co md eugc tien cong td nhieu phia Viet. Nam 1260, Ho't Ta't Liet len lam vua.<br /> nhim tieu diet trieu Nam To'ng. Dao quan Nam sau (1261), vdi nien hieu Trung<br /> cua Nggt LUdng Hdp Thai d Van Nam dUdc Thong thd hai, y da sai sd mang chieu thu<br /> lenh danh chiem Dai Viet, roi tif dd md mgt sang trieu Tran du ring: "Quan lieu sT thd<br /> miii vu hdi danh vao sUdn phia Nam cua An Nam, pham mii, ao, le nhae, phong tuc<br /> Nam To'ng de pho'i hdp vdi cac dao quan td deu can cd theo le cii ciia nUdc minh, khong<br /> phia Bac danh xuo'ng. phai thay doi... Ngoai ra da ran bao bien<br /> TrUdc khi tien quan vao Dai Viet, Nggt tudng d Van Nam khong dUde tU tien dem<br /> Ludng Hdp Thai da nhieu lan sai sU sang quan lan cUdp ndi cUdng gidi, qua'y nhieu<br /> du vua Tran Thai Tong dau hang. Khong dan chung. Quan lieu s! thd nUde ngUdi<br /> he run sd, vua Tran da ra lenh to'ng giam hay yen on lam an nhU cii" (22). Cung nam,<br /> ta't ca cac ten sU giae. Chd mai khong tha'y vua Mong Co phong vua T r i n lam An Nam<br /> sd trd ve, dau nam 1258, Hdp Thai cho quo'c vUdng.<br /> quan theo luu vifc song Hong tien xuo'ng<br /> NhUng chi it nam sau, khi tinh hinh ngi<br /> xam lUdc nUdc ta. Sau tran ehan danh dich<br /> bg Mong Co da on dinh: Aric Buke dau<br /> d Binh Le Nguyen (Vinh Phiic), de bao toan<br /> hang Ho't Ta't Liet (1264) va Hdt Ta't Liet<br /> lUc lUdng trieu dinh quyet dinh rut khoi<br /> rdi do ve Yen Kinh (sau doi la Dai Do va<br /> Thang Long. NhUng chi hdn 10 ngay sau,<br /> doi quo'c hieu la Nguyen), thi y lien bgc 16<br /> quan ta da md eugc tien cong manh liet vao<br /> ro am mUu thon tinh Dai Viet. Thang 10-<br /> Dong Bg Dau (phia tren cau Long Bien<br /> 1267, Hdt Ta't Liet da gUi chieu thU ddi<br /> ngay nay). Quan dich thua to phai thao<br /> trieu Tran phai thUc hien 6 dieu: "Quan<br /> chay ve Van Nam (20).<br /> trudng de'n chau, con em sang lam con tin,<br /> Mac du viia bi tha't bai trong eugc xam ke bien dan so', xua't quan dich, nap phu<br /> lUdc thu nha't vao dau nam 1258, vai thang thue, dat dat 16 hoa xi'ch (darugatri) de<br /> sau Nggt LUdng Hdp Thai lai sai hai sd de'n thd'ng tri" (23).<br /> du Tran Thai Tong sang chau chua Mong<br /> Co. Vdi khi the cua ngifdi chien thing, vua Td do, Dai Viet bude vao mgt thdi ky<br /> Tran sai troi hai sU Mong Co, duoi ve. Sau quan he ngoai giao ra't khd khan, phUc tap<br /> dd, mgt phan de tranh sU Mong Co sang vdi nha Nguyen (24). Cac thu tif qua lai<br /> saeh nhieu, mgt phan suy xet ky thifc lUc giiia hai ben trong thdi ky nay deu tap<br /> cua Mong Co va cua Nam To'ng, Tran Thanh trung ban cai gilng co ve ngi dung cua hai<br /> Tong (21) da quyet dinh dat quan he bang td chieu ndi tren.<br /> giao vdi Mong Co. Le Tan - vi tUdng tai gidi, Ho't Ta't Liet co' Id nhiing Idi hda ton<br /> diing cam d Binh Le Nguyen - dUdc cd d i n trgng phong tuc tap quan va cUdng gidi Dai<br /> dau sd bg de'n Thiem Tay gap chua Mong Viet da ghi trong td chieu nam 1261, trong<br /> Kinh nghiem dira ddi thoai van hda..<br /> <br /> khi y luon nhic di nhic lai 6 dieu quy dinh cho ve lam dan dinh, mgt long co'ng hien<br /> cua "tien de", traeh vua An Nam khong thien trieu, khdng cd mUu dd gi khac..."<br /> that long quy phu va thue bach vua Tran (26).<br /> phai dich than sang chau. Cd lan, phia Ching nhiing kien quyet cU tuyet viec<br /> Nguyen con traeh cd vua Tran nhan chie'u giup quan cho nha Nguyen danh Chiem<br /> ma khong lay va tie'p sd kh6ng theo le Thanh, ma trUde dd Tran Nhan Tong cdn<br /> vUdng nhan. gui quan va chie'n thuyen giup Chiem<br /> Trai lai, cac vua Tran thi het sdc de cao Thanh cho'ng lai ke thu chung.<br /> td chie'u nam 1261, dung ngay Idi hda cua Viec Ho't Ta't Liet giii chie'u thu sang ta<br /> Ho't Tat Liet de dat y vao the khong di "ndi<br /> va cac vua T r i n gdi thu bieu tra Idi, ve<br /> Idi roi lai nu6't Idi". Ching han, trong thU<br /> hinh thiic dd la sU trao doi nhiing cdng diep<br /> gdi vua Nguyen vao nam 1272, vua Trin<br /> ngoai giao giiia Nguyen va Dai Viet. NhUng<br /> viet: "Nude tdi thd phung thien trieu da<br /> ve ngi dung thi nhiing chie'u thu va thU<br /> dUdc phong tudc vUdng, ha khdng phai la<br /> bieu a'y the hien ro ca tinh cha't da'u tranh<br /> vUdng nhan hay sao? Sd thien trieu de'n lai<br /> va do'i thoai giiia nhiing gia tri van hda<br /> xUng la vUdng nhan, neu dai ngang le thi<br /> khac nhau.<br /> sd nhuc trieu dinh. Huong chi nUdc toi<br /> trudc dd nhan dUdc chieu [chieu nam 1261] TU cho liic dau td ve tdn trgng ao mu, le<br /> bao cd theo tuc cii. Pham nhan chie'u cU de nhae, phong tuc cua Dai Viet, den cac chie'u<br /> yen ndi chinh dien cdn minh thi lai lui thu ve sau, cang ngay Hot Ta't Liet cang<br /> tranh d nha rieng, dd la dien le cii cua nUdc bgc 16 thai do h6'ng hach cua ke dang th6'ng<br /> toi..." (25). tri ca mgt de che phong kien hung manh.<br /> Nam 1279, nha Nguyen diet nha Nam Phia Dgi Viet, trong moi thii bieu giii di,<br /> To'ng, chiem toan bg lanh tho Trung Qu6'c. Idi le luon to ra nhun nhiidng, mem mong,<br /> Td da'y, Dai Viet, Champa (con ggi la nhiing lap luan thi chat che vd khon kheo<br /> Chiem Thanh)... trd thanh muc tieu xam vien cd de kien quyet tii cho'i: Quan triidng<br /> lUdc trUc tie'p cua nha Nguyen. khong than vdo chdu, khong giii con tin,<br /> khong ki bien ddn sd, khong cung cdp quan<br /> Cudi nam 1282, Ho't Ta't Liet sai Toa D6<br /> linh de nhd Nguyen di danh cdc niidc khdc,<br /> dem mgt dao quan vUdt bien danh Chiem<br /> khong nop phu thue', khong lay chieu sdc.<br /> Thanh de roi td dd se danh tho'c len phia<br /> Ddy chinh Id sii the hien rdt dgc ddo vd<br /> nam Dai Viet, pho'i hdp vdi dai quan tU<br /> thdnh cong cua viec diia ddi thoai vdn hoa<br /> phia bic tran xuo'ng. Ho't Tat Liet cdn<br /> vdo hoat dgng ngoai giao nhdm bdo ve dgc<br /> nham hiem ddi vua Tran phai giiip binh<br /> lap, chu quyen quoc gia vd danh dii ddn toe<br /> lUdng cho viec danh Chiem Thanh cua<br /> - nhiing gid tri vdn hoa tinh than thieng<br /> chung.<br /> lieng cua Dgi Viet.<br /> Vua Tran da cd ngUdi sang Nguyen dUa<br /> thu td cho'i. Bdc thU cd doan viet: "Ve viec Cdn viec co'ng sinh phUdng vat thi cac<br /> them quan thi Chiem Thanh thd phu nUdc vua Tran giii dung le 3 nam thUc hien mgt<br /> toi da lau, cha toi chi la'y ddc de che chd, lan. Viec H6't Ta't Liet ddi dat chUc dat 16<br /> den tdi cung no'i chi cha t6i. Td khi cha toi hoa xich, trieu Tran ciing nhUdng bg cha'p<br /> quy thuge thien trieu de'n nay, quan linh nhan, nhUng tim each v6 hieu hda, khdng<br /> 10 Rghien ciiii Lich 5i3r. 5611.2009<br /> <br /> cho chung hanh dgng nhU nhiing ten quan trieu Tran va dong dao dan chung deu bat<br /> "toan quyen". binh va phan dng do'i vdi nhiing chinh saeh<br /> dd.<br /> Bang each dng xU linh hoat cd cUdng cd<br /> nhu nhu vay, nha Tran van giii dUde quan Ldi dung tinh hinh bat dn cua nha Ho,<br /> he ngoai giao vdi nha Nguyen, keo dai thdi cuo'i nam 1406, Minh Thanh To da nhan<br /> ky hda hoan dUdc tren 25 nam (1258-1284) danh "phu Tran, diet Hd" de phat binh xam<br /> de xay dUng da't nUdc, cung cd' quo'c phdng, lUdc nude ta. Vi ma't long dan, cha con Ho<br /> san sang danh bai dao quan xam lUdc hiing Quy Ly chu ye'u dUa vao quan dgi va cac<br /> manh va hung han nhat tren the gidi thdi tuyen phdng thu c6' dinh de cho'ng giae, nen<br /> trung dai. nhanh chong bi cac dao quan cua TrUdng<br /> Phu, Mgc Thanh danh bai.<br /> Vi the, de'n khi nha Nguyen lien tie'p<br /> phat dgng hai cuoc chien tranh quy md Idn The la sau gan 5 the ky dgc lap, nUdc ta<br /> vao cac nam 1285 va 1287-1288 hdng thon lai rdi vao ach dd hg cUc ky tan bao va<br /> tinh Dai Viet, thi chung da nhan dUde tham dgc cua nha Minh trong vdng 20 nam<br /> nhiing bai hge cay d i n g tai Ham Td, (1407-1427). Nhung trong suo't thdi gian<br /> Chudng Dudng, Tay Ke't, Bach Ding. nay, cac eugc khdi nghia cua Tran Ngoi,<br /> T r i n Quy Khoang, Pham Ngge, Le Nga,<br /> rv. DIJNG SlfC MANH CUA NGON TlT<br /> ciing nhu phong trao "ao dd" cua dong bao<br /> THUC HIEN KE SACH "TAM CONG",<br /> cac dan toe thieu so' mien mii lien tiep no<br /> CHAM Dt/T CHIEN TRANH B A N G<br /> ra. Chinh quyen d6 hg hau nhU kh6ng cd<br /> GIAI PHAP HOA BINH, LAP LAI<br /> luc nao cd the ngdi yen.<br /> QUAN HE BANG GIAO LAU D A I V 6 I<br /> TRUNG QUOC D U 6 I T H O I LE Trong boi canh dd, dau nam Mau Tuat<br /> (7-2-1418), sau mgt thdi gian ehuan bi lUc<br /> Sau ba lan chien thang quan Nguyen,<br /> lUdng, Le Ldi ddng len pha't cd khdi nghia d<br /> va tiep dd vdi chinh saeh do'i ngoai viia<br /> •vung rdng ndi Lam Sdn. Trong so' nhiing<br /> mem deo vda kien quyet, nha T r i n da giii<br /> anh hung hao kiet td bd'n phUdng trong<br /> dUdc quan he bang giao binh thudng vdi<br /> nude sdm tim den Lam Sdn tu nghia, cd<br /> phUdng Bic hdn 100 nam.<br /> nha tri thdc Idn Nguyin Trai (27).<br /> De'n cudi the ky XIV - d i u the ky XV, Nguyen Trai trao cho thii linh nghia<br /> nhan sU thoai hda cua may trieu vua Tran quan Lam Sdn ban Binh Ngo sdch, "hie'n<br /> cuo'i Cling, Ho Quy Ly da d i n dan la'n at rdi mUu chude Idn, khdng ndi de'n viec danh<br /> phe trua't nha Tran, lap ra nha Ho (1400- thanh ma lai kheo ndi de'n viec danh vao<br /> 1407). Idng ngUdi" (28), tdc la ke saeh "tam cong".<br /> Hd Quy Ly thi hanh nhiing cai each nhu Le Ldi xem Binh Ngo sdch, khen la phai va<br /> "han dien", "han no"..., thu hdi mgt s6' Idn ludn giii Nguyen Trai d ben minh de ban<br /> rugng da't va ehuyen s6' no ty qua mdc quy muu tinh ke danh quan Minh. Nguyin Trai<br /> dinh cua quy tdc Tran vao tay Nha nude. dUde Le Ldi giao cho nhiem vu thay mat<br /> Tuy cd mat tich cue nha't dinh, nhung minh soan thao tat ca cac thu td giao thiep<br /> nhiing cai each cua nha Ho thien ve viec vdi quan Minh.<br /> dem lai Idi ich cho ddng hg minh hdn la Idi Trai qua thdi ky dau (1418-1423) phai<br /> ich qud'c gia. Ca giai cap quy toe cii dudi VUdt qua mudn van khd khan gian kho "dn<br /> Kinh nghiem dira ddi thoai van hda... 11<br /> <br /> <br /> thudng ne'm mat, ngii thudng ndm gai"; roi dich khac nhau trong tifng thdi diem cu the<br /> den thdi ky dinh chie'n (1423-1427) de "lo cua eugc khang chie'n, cd chii y den ca tinh<br /> ren chien cu", "quyen tien mo linh, giet voi each, tam ly, tU tUdng cua mdi dd'i tUdng<br /> khao quan" (29), td cuo'i nam 1424 trd di, nhan thU.<br /> nha't la trong cae nam 1425-1427 nghla<br /> Dd'i vdi nhiing ten tUdng hieu chie'n,<br /> quan da ehuyen sang giai doan chu dgng<br /> hung bao khdng du liem si de nghe le phai,<br /> tie'n cdng, gianh dUdc nhiing t h i n g ldi ngay<br /> Nguyin Trai kien quyet vach mat chi ten,<br /> cang to Idn.<br /> da kich' t h i n g tay. Ching han, trong mgt<br /> Day ciing chinh la giai doan, tren cd sd bUc thu gdi PhUdng Chinh, Nguyin Trai<br /> cua thang ldi quan sU, ngdi but cua Nguyen viet: "Bao cho may ngUde tae PhUdng<br /> Trai da phat huy de'n mUc cao nhat tac Chinh: Ke dao lam tUdng, la'y nhan nghia<br /> dung "tam cdng", gop phan ra't quan trgng lam gd'e, tri diing lam cua. Nay bon may chi<br /> vao viec lam suy sup y chi xam lUdc cua ke chuong lUa dd'i, giet hai ke vd tdi, ham<br /> thu. ngUdi vao chd chet ma khdng xdt thUdng.<br /> Viec a'y trdi da't khdng dung, than ngUdi<br /> Chi rieng trong hai nam 1426 va 1427,<br /> deu gian, cho nen lien nam chinh phat,<br /> nhan danh Le Ldi, Nguyen Trai da viet<br /> h i n g danh h i n g thua" (31). Ndi dung bdc<br /> tren 50 bdc thU gdi cho cac tUdng Minh<br /> thu hoan toan mang tinh da'u tranh khdng<br /> nhu PhUdng Chinh, Thai Phuc, Sdn Thg,<br /> khoan nhUdng.<br /> VUdng Thdng,... Bing sUc manh cua ngdn<br /> tif the hien trong nhiing bUc thu chieu du Trong trUdng hdp dd'i vdi Vudng Thdng,<br /> dich, Nguyen Trai da buge "mUdi mgt tren thi "mUu phat tam cdng" cua Nguyen Trai<br /> mUdi ba thanh Idn cua giae phai cdi giap ra lai dUdc van dung theo mdt each Ung xd<br /> hang" (30). khac.<br /> Trong Binh Ngo dgi cdo, Nguyen Trai Vudng Thong la loai tUdng da dgc Thi,<br /> viet: "Ta miiu phgt tdm cong, khong chie'n Thii, thudng hay ndi tdi dao thanh hien. Y<br /> cung thdng". cd uy tin vdi trieu dinh nha Minh. Diu<br /> Muu phat tam cdng, mgt mat, la neu cao thang 11-1426, vua Minh Tuyen Tong<br /> dai nghia cua eugc khang chie'n cho'ng (nien hieu Tuyen DUc) cU y lam tdng binh<br /> Minh de keu ggi nhiing ngUdi lam dUdng thanh sdn h i u dem 5 van quan sang tie'p<br /> lac Id'i theo giae trd ve vdi hang ngu nhan vien cho thanh Ddng Quan dang bi quan ta<br /> dan. Nhung mat trgng ye'u nha't cua mUu uy hiep manh. Vdi s6' quan tang vien dd,<br /> phat tam cdng la giai thich cho quan va cgng vdi s6' quan da tap trung ve Dong<br /> quan Minh nhan ra tinh cha't phi nghia, Quan, ta't ca cd de'n tren 10 van ten (32),<br /> phi dao ly va sU that bai khdng tranh khdi VUdng Thdng quyet dinh md eugc hanh<br /> cua eugc xam lUdc. Ve mat nay, trdng quan Idn nham day lui quan ta ra khdi<br /> nhiing bdc thu chu dgng gdi di hoae tra ldi •vning ngoai vi Dong Quan. NhUng eugc<br /> thu cua dd'i phUdng, ngdi but cua Nguyen hanh quan nay bi quan ta danh cho tan tac<br /> Trai to ra het sdc sac ben, ddng thdi ciing d Tot Dgng, Chiic Dgng. Thda thing quan<br /> ra't uyen ehuyen, da dang. Ldi le cd cUdng ta tie'n de'n bao vay thanh Dong Quan.<br /> cd nhu, khi t h i t khi md, luc dga luc ran VUdng Thdng phai cd sd gia mang thu sang<br /> nham thUc hien c6 hieu qua nhiing muc xin giang hda vdi nghia quan.<br /> 12 Rghien cmi Lich sii", sd 11.2009<br /> <br /> Td dd, Nguyen Trai thay mat Le Ldi lien Giiia nam 1427, Nguyin Trai viet thu<br /> tie'p viet hang ma'y ehuc bdc thu trao di gdi cho Vudng Thdng, chi cho y tha'y rd nguy cd<br /> lai vdi VUdng Thdng, kien tri thuyet phuc y bai vong khdng tranh khdi cua quan Minh.<br /> cung cac tUdng dudi quyen rut het quan ve Nhung Vudng Thdng van ngdan cd' giii<br /> nUdc de cha'm dUt chien tranh. Ve phia thanh de chd quan cdu vien.<br /> minh, Le Ldi dong y tie'n bieu ciu phong,<br /> Mai de'n thang 10-1427, thi vua Minh<br /> tim Tran Cao lap lam vua.<br /> Tuyen DUc mdi cd Lieu Thang dem 10 van<br /> Tuy nhien, do ban than vdn giao quyef quan td Quang Tay tie'n sang va Mgc<br /> lai bi bgn PhUdng Chinh, Ma Ky xiic xiem, Thanh dUa 5 van quan td Van Nam keo<br /> nen Vudng Th6ng ngoai gia hda nghi, trong xud'ng. NhUng chi trong gan mdt thang,<br /> van sai quan dap them thanh, dao them canh quan cua Lieu Thang da bi quan ta<br /> hao, pha chudng Quy Dien de due sung tieu diet trong chie'n dich Chi Lang - Xudng<br /> 6'ng, lam binh khi, ddng thdi mat phai Giang. "Lieu Thdng phcfi thay d ndi Md<br /> ngUdi ve nUdc cau cdu vien binh. Yen", "Liidng Minh trdn hdm phai bo<br /> minh", "Ly Khdnh ke ciing phdi that cS\<br /> Nguyin Trai lien vie't thu chat va'n "Thoi Tu le gdi xin ddu hdn^', "Hodng<br /> Vudng Thdng: "TrUdc day, vang tie'p thu Phuc troi minh ddnh chiu bdt". Nghe tin<br /> cua ngai cung ldi sd gia deu ndi la "Chi eanh quan Lieu Thang bi tham bai, dao<br /> theo ldi Udc trUdc, kh5ng cd dieu gi khac"; quan Mdc Thanh voi vang thao chay. Le<br /> lai ndi "sang ma tie'n bieu, td'i se rut quan". Ldi sai giai Hoang Phuc, Thdi Tu dem theo<br /> Bdc thu mUc chUa khd, ldi ndi ben tai cdn a'n tin, hd' phu cua Lieu Thang de'n dudi<br /> vang. Nay sif da di rdi, ma ngUdi tiln sii thanh Ddng Quan cho Vudng Thdng tan<br /> cCing da ve rdi, khdng ro ngai cd qua theo mat nhin tha'y.<br /> ldi ndi trudc chang? hay lai cd dieu khac<br /> chang?... Co nhan cd cau: "Khii thiic khii Biet ro ca hai dao quan cdu vien deu bi<br /> binh, tin bdt khd khd' (Ludng an va quan tieu diet hoae chay dai, VUdng Thong<br /> cd the bd dudc, dieu tin khdng the bd dUdc) hoang mang de'n tot do. Tuy vay, y vin<br /> (33), cho nen Van Cdng khdng tham ldi chua dam nghe theo thu du hang cua<br /> danh nude Nguyen, Thudng Quan khdng bd Nguyen Trai, md eda thanh, cdi giap, rut<br /> thudng ddi cay go. Nay ngai la bUc tudng cd quan ve Trung Quo'c. Y sd r i n g ne'u bai<br /> dgc thi thu, lai khdng bang Van Cdng, binh khi trieu dinh nha Minh chUa ra lenh<br /> ThUdng Quan hay sao? dinh bo dieu tin thi trieu dinh se tri tgi.<br /> hay sao?" (34). Nam dUde tam trang dd eua VUdng<br /> Trudc nhUng cau hdi dd va hang loat cau Thdng, Nguyin Trai giai thich cho y bang<br /> hdi khac cua Nguyin Trai trong cac bdc mgt luan diem trong binh phap cua Tdn Td<br /> thu tie'p theo, Vudng Thdng khdng cd each ring: "Dgi tiidng d ben ngoai, menh link<br /> gi tra ldi cho xudi. NhUng h I n v i n vien mgi ciia vua co the co viec khong tuan theo cung<br /> ed thoai thac viec riit quan, cd't keo dai thdi dugc"... "Hud'ng chi viec binh khdng the cl<br /> gian de chd vien binh. Trong khi dd, eugc xa ma dc dac dUdc; viec, co viec hoan vi$c<br /> vay ham cua quan ta lam cho quan giae d ca'p, cd the nha't nha't ddi menh lenh trieu<br /> trong thanh Ddng Quan ngay cang khd'n dinh dUdc u?" (35). Nguyen Trai ciing giai<br /> dd'n. thich cho VUdng Thdng rang rut quan khdi<br /> Giao Chi khdng phai la trao da't trieu dinh<br /> Kinh nghiem dira ddi thoai van hoa... 13<br /> <br /> <br /> cho ngudi khac, bdi vi: "TU ddi xUa, de trinh khang chien chd'ng Minh cua dan tdc<br /> VUdng tri thien ha ching qua chi cd "chin ta. Dieu dd la hoan toan chinh xac.<br /> chau" ma nude Giao Chi lai d ngoai "chin<br /> Song d day, td gdc. nhin cua chu de<br /> chau". Xet ra tU xUa Giao Chi khdng phai<br /> nghien cdu neu tren, chung tdi cdn nhan<br /> la da't cua Trung Qud'c ro lim rdi. Lai khi<br /> tha'y, ve thUe cha't, hoat ddng binh van,<br /> bud'i dau mdi dep yen (Giao Chi), Thai<br /> hoat dgng da'u tranh ngoai giao a'y ham<br /> Tdng hoang de [nha Minh - PXN] cd chie'u<br /> chda ndi dung cua eugc do'i thoai rat dac<br /> tim eon chau hg T r i n de cho giii viec thd<br /> sic giiia van hda Dai Viet va van hda<br /> cung. The la y cua trieu dinh vin khdng<br /> Trung Hoa thdng qua trao ddi thU td giiia<br /> eho da't Giao Chi la da't cua Trung Qud'c"<br /> Nguyin Trai va nhieu tUdng soai Minh, dac<br /> (36).<br /> biet la VUdng Thdng vao gan cud'i nhiing<br /> De'n day, Vudng Thdng hdan toan chiu nam 20 cua the ky XV.<br /> khua't phuc trudc ly le sic ben vdi diy du<br /> Nghe thuat vd bdn linh ddi thoai vdn<br /> can cd viing chic cua Nguyin Trai. Y hoa bdc thay ciia Nguyen Trdi the hien d<br /> "khdng ddi lenh trieu dinh niia ma xin dem cho: Tren cO sd ndm viing Bdc sif, ndm<br /> quan ve trUdc" (37). viing kinh dien Nho gia, hieu ro cd ngi tinh<br /> Hai ben nhat tri td' chUe Hgi the d phia vd tdm ly do'i phUdng, Nguyen Trdi dd dgt<br /> nam thanh Ddng Quan. Tai Hdi the, phia ra trUdc VUdng Thong - tong chi huy dao<br /> ta cam ket bao dam mgi dieu kien cho quan quan nam chinh ciia nhd Minh, ngUdi tiing<br /> Minh an toan rut ve nUdc. Phia bgn Vudng dgc Thi Thu vd binh phdp • hdng loat cdu<br /> Thdng thi the: "Neu khdng cd Idng thUc, lai hoi, buge y phdi tU vdn lUdng tdm khi ddi<br /> tu trai ldi the, (dd'i vdi viec) ngudi phuc dich chieu hdnh vi cua minh vdi chinh nhiing ldi<br /> day noi tieng ciia cdc nhd tU tudng Idn<br /> va eae thuyen da dinh rdi, ciu dap dudng<br /> Trung Hoa. Qua do, ong ddn dat y tii cho<br /> sa da sUa rdi, ma khdng lam theo ldi ban,<br /> khong the bdc bo nhiing gid tri vdn hoa ciia<br /> lap tUc dem quan ve nUdc, cdn keo dai nam<br /> ddn tgc minh de'n cho phdi thda nhdn gid<br /> thang de ddi vien binh; eung la ngay ve den<br /> tri cot loi nhat, cd bdn nhat ciia vdn hoa<br /> trieu dinh, lai khdng theo sU ly trong ban<br /> Dgi Viet Id dgc lap vd chii, quyen quoc gia.<br /> tau, khdng sd t h i n linh nui sdng d nUdc An<br /> Nam lai ban khac di, hoae cho quan quan Cudi cung, Vudng Thdng phai the trUde<br /> di qua dau cUdp bdc nhan dan, thi Trdi, Da't than linh song ndi Viet, chap nhan cham<br /> cung Danh Sdn, Dai Xuyen va than ky cac dUt chie'n tranh, khdng chd lenh vua ma tU<br /> xU ta't dem bgn quan tdng binh thanh sdn minh quyet dinh rut het dao quan xam lUdc<br /> hau la VUdng Th6ng, tU ban than cho de'n ve nUdc, tra lai ndn sdng dat nUdc ta cho ta.<br /> ca nha, than thich, lam cho che't het, va ca Vdi ldi the tren, ve thue cha't, Vudng<br /> de'n quan quan ciing khdng mdt ngUdi nao Thdng da cdng khai tuyen bd' dau hang de<br /> ve dUde den nha" (38). xin dUde an todn dem quan ve nude.<br /> TrUde nay, nhieu nha nghien cdu deu Dung vdo Idc dd, cae tudng si va ngUdi<br /> chd rang nhiing sU kien vifa trinh bay d nUdc ta ra't cam thu quan Minh, vo'n la<br /> tren phan anh t h i n g ldi nJc rd cua hoat nhiing ke tdng tan sat cha eon, than thich<br /> dong binh van, cua viec ke't hdp da'u tranh cua hg, lien ru nhau de'n de nghi vdi Le Ldi<br /> ngoai giao vdi da'u tranh quan su trong qua giet bgn chung di. NhUng vdi mgt tam nhin<br /> 14 Rghien cmi Lich sCt. so 11.2009<br /> <br /> chie'n lUdc va mgt long khoan dung rdng luc phong kien cat cd d Dang Trong va<br /> Idn, Le Ldi da ndi vdi cac tUdng si va ddng Dang Ngoai, tie'n cdng tieu diet cac dao<br /> dao dan chung ring: "Tra thu bao oan la quan xam lUdc td ca hai phia Nam va Bac,<br /> thudng tinh cua mgi ngUdi, nhUng kh5ng bude dau tho'ng nha't da't nude.<br /> thich giet ngUdi la ban tam cua bac nhan<br /> NgUdi anh hung "ad vai" tri diing song<br /> dUc. Va lai, ngUdi ta da hang ma minh lai<br /> todn nd'i bat nha't cua phong trao Tay Sdn<br /> giet thi la diem xau khdng gi Idn bing. Ne'u<br /> la Nguyen Hue. Cud'i nam 1788, tai Phu<br /> cd't de ha noi cam gian trong chd'c lat ma<br /> Xuan, Nguyen Hue nhan dUdc tin td'ng dd'c<br /> mang tieng vdi muon ddi la giet ke da<br /> Ludng Quang Tdn Si Nghi vang lenh vua<br /> hang, thi chi b i n g tha mang so'ng cho dc<br /> Can Long da dem may chue van quan<br /> van ngUdi, de dap tat mdi chien tranh chd<br /> Thanh sang xam lUdc nUde ta, vin cd la<br /> ddi sau, sd xanh ghi chep tieng thdm mudn<br /> khdi phuc nha Le theo Idi cau cdu cua Le<br /> ddi, ha chang Idn lao sao?" (39).<br /> Chieu Thd'ng, va quan giae da tie'n vao<br /> Rd rang, day la mgt cuoc do'i thogi ngi Thang Long. Nguyen Hue lam le len ngdi<br /> vdn hoa ra't dac sac trong lich sU cuoc hoang de', lay hieu la Quang Trung, rdi lap<br /> khang chien ehdng Minh eua dan tgc ta. tUc thd'ng linh dai quan keo ra Bac.<br /> Cude dd'i thoai ngi van hda a'y da dUa den<br /> Mac du hoan toan viing tin vao thang ldi<br /> ket qua la cac tUdng si va ngUdi nUdc ta<br /> cua minh, song vdi tam nhin chien lUdc,<br /> deu ddng thuan vdi chu trUdng sang sud't,<br /> Quang Trung da tha'y trUdc vai trd quan<br /> mang ban cha't nhan dao cad ca cua Le Ldi<br /> trgng cua hoat dgng ngoai giao trong viec<br /> va Nguyen Trai:<br /> cung cd' nen dgc lap dan toe sau chien<br /> Nghi ve ke'ldu ddi cua nhd niidc, thang quan sU. Ong ndi vdi cac tUdng si,<br /> trong dd cd Ngd Thi Nham (41): "Lin nay<br /> Tha ke hdng miidi vgn si binh.<br /> ta ra, than hanh cam quan, phUdng lUdc<br /> Sda hoa hieu cho hai niidc, tien danh da cd tinh san. Chang qua mUdi<br /> Tdt mudn ddi chie'n tranh" (40). ngay, cd the dud'i dUdc ngudi Thanh. NhUng<br /> nghi chung la nUdc Idn gap mUdi nUdc<br /> Tren thUc te, sau sU kien nay, quan he minh, sau khi bi thua mgt tran, at lay lam<br /> bang giao hda binh giiia nUde ta vdi nha then ma lo mUu bao thu. Nhu the thi viec<br /> Minh rdi nha Thanh da duy tri dUdc 360 binh dao khdng bao gid ddt, khdng phai la<br /> nam (1428-1788). phuc eho dan, nd nao lam nhu vay. De'n luc<br /> V, "KHEO LOl LE D E P BINH DAO", ay, chi cd ngUdi kheo ldi le mdi dep nd'i binh<br /> NGAN CHAN CUOC TIEN CONG dao, khdng phai la Ngd Thi Nham thi<br /> PHIJC THTJ CIJA DICH, THIET LAP khong ai lam dUdc. Chd mUdi nam niia, cho<br /> QUAN HE BANG GIAO THAN T H I ^ N ta dUdc yen dn ma nuoi luc ludng, ba'y gid<br /> V 6 l N H A THANH D U 6 l T H O I T A Y nude giau quan manh, thi ta cd sd gi<br /> SON chung?" (42).<br /> <br /> Vudng trieu Tay Sdn dUde tao lap tren VUdt hdn du kien ban dau, chi sau 6<br /> cd sd phong trao ndng dan khdi nghia giiia ngay dem tien cdng manh liet (td 30 thang<br /> the ky XVIII. Phong trao dd da nhanh chap de'n 5 thang gieng nam Ky Dau, tdc td<br /> ehdng phat trien thanh eugc chien tranh 25 de'n 30-1-1789), dildi sU chi huy ky tai<br /> each mang cua ndng dan, danh tan cac the cua Quang Trung, quan ta da hoan toan<br /> Kinh nghiem dira ddi thoai van hda.. 15<br /> <br /> <br /> giai phdng Thang Long, quet saeh 29 van ngoai ai hiep dap, khdng sao nhin dUdc,<br /> quan xam ludc Man Thanh ra khdi da't thanh ra cd ve dudng nhu chd'ng lai Thien<br /> nUdc. trieu" (43).<br /> Sau chie'n t h i n g vang dgi dd, Quang Ldi le trong td bieu la he't sdc nhdn<br /> Trung rut ve Phu Xuan, de Ngd Thi Nham nhudng nhUng van neu cao chinh nghla<br /> d ngoai Bic va trao cho dng trgng traeh cua ta, len an tdi ac cua giae, td ro sdc<br /> dam dUdng cdng viec ngoai giao vdi nha manh cua quan Tay Sdn va su tham bai<br /> Thanh. cua dich. Dac biet, td bieu "quy" mgi tgi 16i<br /> Trudc het, Ngd Thi Nham da nhan danh gay ra chien tranh la do Tdn SI Nghi "tU<br /> vua Quang Trung vie't Bieu trdn tinh ve sU tien gia mao menh vua de lap cdng". Day la<br /> kien diu nam Ky Dau gdi vua Can Long mgt chie'n thuat ngoai giao kh6n kheo<br /> nha Thanh. nham giii the dien cho vua Can Long, lam<br /> eho y de td bd y dinh phuc thu va ciing cd<br /> Td bieu cd doan vie't: "Dd'c bg dudng Ton the de cha'p nhan ehuyen tif dd'i d i u quan<br /> SI Nghi la dai than giii bd coi, khdng biet sU sang do'i thoai van hda de thiet lap lai<br /> xet ro tinh hinh ndi xa, duyen do nha Le quan he bang giao giiia Dai Thanh va Dai<br /> ma't nUdc va duyen cd tdi ra Thang Long Viet.<br /> tau ro vdi hoang de de hoang de phan xU,<br /> cho bd coi dUde yen d'n, mam lean bi dep Cung vdi muc dich dd va vdi nhiing ldi le<br /> tat. Trai lai chi nghe ldi ngUdi dem pha, xe cdn nhun nhudng hdn nUa, td bieu de nghi<br /> vua Thanh chinh thUe plrong cho Quang<br /> vUt td bieu cua tdi xud'ng dat, truyen hich<br /> Trung lam An Nam qud'c vUdng.<br /> treng cdi, la'y cd la khdi phuc nha Le, rdi<br /> dem binh qua cUa ai, nhiing toan cat cd trU Cud'i cung, td bieu ngu y nhic kheo vua<br /> tan gdc, da giet hai bUa bai de td Idng Thanh rang, ne'u yeu cau cua vua Quang<br /> tham... Trung khdng dUdc cha'p nhan, le phai<br /> khdng dUdc thUc hien, thi vua Thanh phai<br /> Ngay mong 5 thang gieng nam nay, tie'n<br /> chiu traeh nhiem ve nhflng hau qua cd the<br /> ra Thang Long, v6'n cdn mong Tdn SI Nghi<br /> xay ra:<br /> nghi lai, may ra la'y nggc lua thay can qua,<br /> ehuyen binh giap lam hgi ao xiem, tdi khan "Thien trieu to Idn, khi nao lai them ke<br /> khoan xin yet kien nhUng khdng he dUdc sU dUdc thua vdi nude nhd va lai dung vii<br /> tra ldi. Hdm dd binh linh cua Tdn SI Nghi lUc hai dan, chae la long chi thanh khdng<br /> den ddn danh trUdc, vda mdi giao phong da nd. Cdn neu van nha't ma viec binh each<br /> thao chay tan tac, dam len nhau ma chet, keo dai khdng dUt, tinh the'vd Id, tdi khdng<br /> thay day rudng, la'p ca sdng ngdi... dUde phan nUde nhd ma thd nude Idn, thi<br /> tdi ciing danh phd mac menh trdi ma khdng<br /> Tdi trom nghi trong khoang binh dao,<br /> dam bie't tdi vay" (44).<br /> thanh nhan cung cho la sU van ba't dac di.<br /> Dai hoang dc' d sau chin tang, cdng viec Do tac dgng manh cua Bieu trdn tinh va<br /> ngoai bd cdi, Tdn Si Nghi chifa tUng tau ciing do nghe theo ldi can cua vien quan dai<br /> len, che la'p tai trdi, de'n ndi cd sU vd Id than gan giii la Hda Than dai y ring: "TU<br /> nhudng a'y. Tdi thifc dau dam dem cang bg xua de'n nay, Trung Qud'c chUa bao gid die<br /> ngUa chgi vdi banh xe. Chi vi cda trdi xa y d nude Nam. Cac trieu Td'ng, Minh,<br /> mudn dam, ddng mdt ti la bi ke biy tdi Nguyen cuo'i cung deu thua chay, gUdng dd<br /> 16 Rghien ciru Lich siSr, so 11.2009<br /> <br /> vin cdn ranh rdnh" (45), vua Can Long cua minh, vua Can Long da giao Phuc An<br /> danh phai tii bd y dinh huy ddng 50 van Khang gdi du mdi vua Quang Trung sang<br /> quan cua chin tinh de sang danh tra thu Yen Kinh. Nhung chae ehan vua Quang<br /> viec thua tran mdi rdi va td y san sang ddn Trung khdng khi nao lai sang chau mgt<br /> tiep mdt sd bg ngoai giao chinh thdc cua ngUdi ma minh vda mdi danh thang. Hdn<br /> Tay Sdn de lap lai quan he binh thudng niia, me vua Quang Trung lai vda ta the.<br /> giiia hai nUdc. Ngo Thi Nham dan dau mgt sd bg len bien<br /> gidi ban bac vdi phai bg Phuc An Khang va<br /> Cdng viec ve phia nha Thanh do Hda<br /> cho hg biet vua dang chiu tang khdng the<br /> Than va Phuc An Khang - tdng dd'c mdi d<br /> di dUdc. Sd mat the dien thien trieu, phai<br /> Ludng Quang thu xep. Ve phia Viet Nam,<br /> bg Phuc An Khang dUa ra mgt "dieu ke".<br /> Ngd Thi Nham va Phan Huy Ich lo lieu.<br /> "Dieu ke" dd la phia Tay Sdn se cd mgt<br /> Thang 4 nam Ky Dau, mgt sd bg Tay Sdn<br /> ngUdi ddng gia vua de sang Yen Kinh va<br /> do chau vua Quang Trung la Nguyen<br /> bao cho vua Can Long la vua Quang Trung<br /> Quang Hien dan d i u da de'n Yen Kinh<br /> se sang. Sd bd gdm 159 ngUdi do Pham<br /> dang bieu ciu phong va trieu cdng.<br /> Cdng Tri - chau vua Quang Trung - ddng<br /> Khoang thang 8-1789, vua Can Long sai gia vua dan d i u .<br /> sd mang sic phong sang chinh thiic phong<br /> Giiia nam 1790, khi ddn tie'p vua Quang<br /> Quang Trung lam An Nam qud'c vUdng. Sic<br /> Trung (gia) sang Yen Kinh, vua Can Long<br /> phong cd doan vie't: "Da'ng vUdng gia khdng<br /> dich than lam bai thd tang vua Quang<br /> ky thi dan, ha lai cau no ban dd de phan<br /> Trung, ldi le hda diu, trong dd dac biet cd<br /> biet. Sinh dan phai cd ngUdi coi sdc de cho<br /> cau ghi nhan viec bai bd le cd'ng ngUdi<br /> yen dn nude nha. Nay cdng bd' an sung, la'y<br /> vang:<br /> lam bing de tran nham. Phong ngUdi lam<br /> An Nam qud'c vUdng, ban a'n mdi... Vudng Thdng trieu vdng sii bi kim nhdn.<br /> hay dem hot Idng thanh, nghiem tue lo<br /> (Ddi xUa dang bi viec kim nhan) (47).<br /> lang, giii viing coi bd de con chau nd'i ddi<br /> lau dai" (46). Rd rang, chu trUdng "kheo ldi le dep binh<br /> dao" cua Quang Trung chinh la diing ddi<br /> Tuy van len mat nUdc Idn, song b i n g thogi vdn hoa thay cho tie'p tuc do'i ddu<br /> viec phong Quang Trung lam An Nam qud'c quan sU. Chd trUdng ay da dUdc Ngo Thi<br /> VUdng, ve thUc cha't, vua Thanh da cdng Nhdm thiic hien mgt cdch xuat sdc. No<br /> khai tuyen bd' thUa nhan ddc lap, chu khdng nhiing gop phdn chgn ddng y do cua<br /> quyen cua nUdc ta. nhd Thanh phdt binh ddnh trd thii Tay<br /> Tiep dd, Ng6 Thi Nham cdn vie't nhieu Scfn, md con thiet lap diigc quan he bang<br /> thu bieu khac gdi vua quan nha Thanh ddi giao thdn thien giUa hai nUdc.<br /> bd le cd'ng ngudi vang va ddi bay chau d Dieu dd la hoan toan phu hdp vdi tinh<br /> Hung Hda ma trUdc kia nha Minh da la'n than cua Quang Trung:<br /> chiem cua Dai Viet.<br /> "Chie'n hoa do ta dinh doat,<br /> Nam 1790, nhan dip "Bat tuan dai "khanh" Thdn thien de ngiidi ciing vui" (48).<br /> Kinh nghiem dira ddi thoai van hoa... 17<br /> <br /> <br /> CHU THICH<br /> (1). Dai Viet sii ky todn thii, tap I...Nxb. Klioa (16). Hoang Xuan Han. Sdd, tr. 346. Nhflng ldi<br /> hoc xa hoi, Ha Noi, 1993, tr. 218-219. t r a n h bien tai hoi nghi Vinh Binh va bUe thU tren<br /> eua Le Van Thinh, sd saeh cua ta khong ch6p. Hoc<br /> (2). N h u tren, tr. 223.<br /> gia Hoang Xuan H a n da tim tha'y trong Tuc tU tri<br /> (3). Saeh Giang tU: ten chua goi theo ten song thong giam truang bien cua Ly Dao ddi Tong.<br /> chay qua Nam Saeh. Co le bay gid, eung nhu d thdi<br /> (17). Hoang Xuan Han. Sdd, tr. 349-350.<br /> nha T r i n , song Saeh la mot doan cua song<br /> ThUdng. (18). P h a n Huy Chii: Lich trieu hie'n chuang<br /> loai chi, t a p HI. Nxb. Khoa hoe xa hoi. Ha Noi,<br /> , (4). Thien sU P h a p T h u a n (? - 990) ho Do, tru<br /> 1992, tr. 279.<br /> tri chiia Co Sdn.<br /> (19). Cac chua Mong Co trong niia dau th§' ky<br /> (5). Dai Viet sii ky toan thii, t a p I. Sdd, tr. 224.<br /> XIII la T h a n h Cat Tu Han (1206-1227), Ogoday<br /> Co y kien eho r i n g , nhUng cau thd Ung do'i giUa Ly<br /> (1228-1241). Tie'p do la 10 nam cac thu h n h Mong<br /> Giae va P h a p ThuSn la mot giai thoai dep dUdc sii<br /> Co t r a n h gianh quyen lUc. De'n nam 1251, dai hoi<br /> saeh ghi lai.<br /> quy toe Mong Co mdi lai dUa Mong Kha len ngoi<br /> (6). Dai Viet si ky toan thii, tap I. Sdd, tr. 225. han.<br /> <br /> (7). Su Khuong Viet tUc Ngo Chan Luu (933- (20). Xem Lich sii Viet Nam, tap I. Nxb. Khoa<br /> 1011). Nam 971, ong dUdc vua Dinh Tien Hoang hoc xa hoi. Ha Noi, 1971, tr. 195-196.<br /> ban hieu Khuong Viet dai sU. Dudi trieu vua Le<br /> (21). Theo Dai Viet sii ky toan thu, thang 2 nam<br /> Dai Hanh, sU dUde vua rS't kinh trong, pham cae<br /> Mau Ngo (1258), Thai Tong da nhUdng ngoi eho<br /> viec quan quo'c trieu dinh, sU deu dUdc t h a m dU.<br /> con va len lam thUdng hoang; T h a n h Tong Hoang<br /> (8). Dai Viet sic ky toan thii, tap I. Sdd, tr. 225. da len ngoi. Nhung do'i vdi chua Mong Co', thi Thai<br /> Bai tCl do Ha Van Tan dich. Tong v i n la vua An Nam vdi cai ten Quang Binh.<br /> Trong cac viec ngoai giao nhU nhan, gili thU txi qua<br /> (9). D i n theo Hoang Xuan Han: Ly Thudng<br /> lai, tie'p sU Mong Co' tren danh nghla deu do Thai<br /> Kiet - Lich si ngoai giao va tong gido trieu Ly.<br /> Tong. Tren thUc te, b trong nUde T h a n h Tong da<br /> Nxb. Ha Noi, 1996, tr. 157-158.<br /> true tiep dieu h a n h trieu chinh. CUng gidng nhU<br /> (10). Lf Te Xuyen: Viet dien u linh. In trong vay, thang 10 n a m Mau D i n (1278), T h a n h Tong<br /> Tong tap vdn hoc Viet Nam, tSp 3B. Nxb. Khoa hoc da nhudng ngoi cho N h a n Tdng len lam thUdng<br /> xa hoi, Ha Noi, 1994, tr. 193. hoang. N h u n g do'i vdi trieu Nguyen, thi sau khi<br /> (11). Song N h u Nguyet: doan song C i u thuoc Thai Tong ma't, Thanli Tdng mdi chinh thUe len<br /> huyen Yen Phong, BJc Ninh ngay nay. ngdi, va cac thu tU trao doi vdi vua Nguyen v i n<br /> nhan danh T h a n h Tdng (ma t h u tich Nguyen goi<br /> (12). Hoang Xuan Han. Sdd, tr. 331-332.<br /> la Nhat Huyen).<br /> (13). N h u tren, tr. 345.<br /> (22). Dai Viet sii ky todn thU, t a p II. 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Sdd, tr.<br /> t h a n h Thang Long, que vdn d lang Chi Ngai (Chi<br /> 281.<br /> 1.<br /> Linh, Hai DUdng), sau ddi ve lang Nhi Khe<br /> (Thudng Tin, Ha Ndi). Ong dd t h a i hoc sinh (tien (40). Nguyin Trdi todn tap. Sdd, tr. 87.<br /> si) nam 1400 va cd ra lam quan cho trieu Hd. Sau<br /> (41). Ngd Thi N h a m (1746-1803): ngudi Ta<br /> khi eugc k h a n g chie'n eiia nha Ho t h a t bai, cha dng<br /> T h a n h Oai, huyen T h a n h Oai, tra'n Sdn Nam, nay<br /> bi giae Minh b i t day sang T r u n g Qude va dng eung<br /> thudc T h a n h Tri, Ha Ndi. Ong dd tie'n si nam<br /> bi quan thu giam long d Ddng Quan (Thang Long).<br /> 1775, tifng lam q u a n vdi T r i n h Sam. Khi Nguyen<br /> De'n nay, ehua ed can cU vflng chae de xac dinh<br /> Hue ra B i c l i n thU hai (1788), dng de'n vdi ngudi<br /> Nguyen Trai vUdt vdng eUdng tda cua giae Minh de<br /> a n h h u n g "ao vai" va dUdc trong dung. Sau chie'n<br /> de'n vdi Le Ldi dung vao thdi gian nao. 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