Lập trình Windows - Lập Trình C #- Lập Trình C Shap - Chapter_1_Overview

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Lập trình Windows - Lập Trình C #- Lập Trình C Shap - Chapter_1_Overview

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  1. Chapter I Framework and C# Overview 1
  2. Content Content Part 1: NET Framework CLR, FCL, CTS 1. Namespace 2. Managed code 3. Garbage collection 4. .NET framework architecture 5. Part 2: C# overview Features 1. IDE 2. 2
  4. .NET Framework .NET Net 4.0 .NET 3.5 (Nov-2007) .NET VS.NET 2008 Default: Windows 7 .NET 2.0 (Nov-2005) .NET VS.NET 2005 .NET 3.0 (Nov-2006) Default: Windows Vista, Server 2008 .NET 1.1 (Apr-2003) .NET VS .NET 2003 Default: Server 2003 .NET 1.0 NET (Feb-2002) 4
  5. What is the .NET framework What The .NET Framework is Microsoft’s latest  development platform, and is currently in version 4 Key motivations:   Means of integrating disparate operating systems (Linux, Mac OS,…)  No restriction on the type of applications: .NET Framework enables the creation of Windows applications, Web applications, Web services…  Can be used from any language, including C#, C+ +, Visual Basic, JScript, and even older languages such as COBOL 5
  6. What’s in the .NET Framework? What’s .NET Framework consists primarily of a gigantic library of  code that you use from your client languages (such as C#) using object-oriented programming (OOP) techniques. Framework Class Library (FCL) contains thousands of  classes to provide access to Windows API and common functions like String Manipulation, Common Data Structures, IO, Streams, Threads, Security, Network Programming, Windows Programming, Web Programming, Data Access, etc. You can use the classes in FCL in your program just as  you would use any other class. You can even apply inheritance and polymorphism to these classes. 6
  7. Common Type System (CTS) Part of the .NET Framework library defines some  basic types. A type is a representation of data, and specifying  some of the most fundamental of facilitates interoperability between languages using the .NET Framework. This is called the Common Type System (CTS).  Example: CTS defines a type, Int32, an integral data  type of 32 bits (4 bytes) which is mapped by int of C# and Integer of VB.Net 7
  8. Common Language Runtime (CLR) Common .NET Common Language Runtime (CLR), which is  responsible for maintaining the execution of all applications developed using the .NET library. Our programs don't directly communicate with the OS but  go through the CLR 8
  9. Executing an application using the.NET framework framework In order for C# code to execute, it must be converted into a  language that the target operating system understands, known as native code. This conversion is called compiling code, an act that is  performed by a compiler. Under the .NET Framework, this is a two-stage process.  Compile your code into Common Intermediate Language  (CIL) code. JIT compiler (just-in-time) compiles CIL into native code that  is specific to the OS and machine architecture being targeted. 9
  10. IL (Intermediate Language)   MSIL (Microsoft Intermediate Language)  CIL (Common Intermediate Language)  Alternate calling ways of the Intermediate language 10
  11. Assemblies Assemblies When you compile an application, the CIL code  created is stored in an assembly. Assemblies include:   Executable application files (.exe ) and libraries (.dll )  meta information (about the information contained in the assembly) and optional resources (additional data used by the CIL, such as sound files and pictures). 11
  12. Managed Code Managed Code written using the .NET Framework is managed  when it is executed. CLR looks after your applications by managing  memory, handling security, allowing cross-language debugging,.. Applications that do not run under the control of the  CLR are said to be unmanaged In C# you can write only code that runs in a  managed environment. You will make use of the managed features of the CLR and allow .NET itself to handle any interaction with the operating system 12
  13. Garbage Collection Garbage Is the .NET method of making sure that the memory  used by an application is freed up completely when the application is no longer in use. Prior to .NET this was mostly the responsibility of  programmers. .NET garbage collection works by periodically  inspecting the memory of your computer and removing anything from it that is no longer needed. There is no set time frame for this; it might happen  thousands of times a second, once every few seconds, or whenever, but you can rest assured that it will happen. 13
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  16. C# CT Compiler C#.NET Programmer VB .NET CT Compiler VB.NET 0 101 101 0 101101 MS IL 0 101101 CLR J# .NET CT Compiler J#.NET C++ CT Compiler C++.NET 16
  17. .NET Framework - Architecture .NET Common Language  Infrastructure (CLI) provide a language-neutral  platform for application development and execution 17
  18. .NET Framework - Architecture .NET .Net Framework is  the combination of layers of CLR, FCL, Data and XML Classes and our Windows, Web applications and Web Services. 18
  19. Framework base classes Framework Is the layer on top of the CLR  The .NET Framework class library exposes features of the  runtime and provides other high-level services that every programmer needs by means of namespaces 19
  20. System Namespaces (1) System Contains fundamental classes and base classes  Define commonly-used value and reference data types,  events and event handlers, interfaces, attributes, and processing exceptions Other classes provide services supporting:  data type conversion  method parameter manipulation  Mathematics  remote and local program invocation  application environment management  supervision of managed  unmanaged applications  20


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