Photoshop CS2 All-in-One Desk Reference For Dummies- P22

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Photoshop CS2 All-in-One Desk Reference For Dummies- P22

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Photoshop CS2 All-in-One Desk Reference For Dummies- P22:Barbara Obermeier is principal of Obermeier Design, a graphic design studio in Ventura, California. She’s the author of Photoshop Album For Dummies, coauthor of Adobe Master Class: Illustrator Illuminated, Photoshop 7 For Dummies, and Illustrator 10 For Dummies. She has contributed as coauthor, technical editor, or layout designer for numerous books. Barb also teaches computer graphics at Brooks Institute; the University of California, Santa Barbara; and Ventura College....

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  1. 608 Cloning with the Clone Stamp Tool Figure 3-1: When using the Clone Stamp tool, drag along the area where you want your clone to appear. When you successfully complete the cloning process, you have two identical objects. Figure 3-2 shows my identical twin Siberian tigers. 12. Save the image and close it. Figure 3-2: My twin Siberian tigers are the products of cloning.
  2. Digital Bandaging with the Healing Brush Tool 609 Tips for excellent cloning results Here are a few useful tidbits regarding the Clone Stamp tool: Use the Clone Stamp tool for fixing simple flaws: To clean up a flaw that is pretty straight, such as a stray hair or scratch, Alt+click (Option+ click on the Mac) with the tool to define the source. Then click at one end of the straight flaw and Shift+click at the other end. The cloned source pixels then cover up the flaw. Vary the origin point for sampling often: If you keep sampling from the same point without ever varying it, the area you’re cloning starts to look like ugly shag carpeting. Or at best, starts to appear blotchy and over-retouched. Zoom out once in a while to check how your overall image is looking. You can avoid those funky telltale clone stamp repetitive patterns and blotches. Clone patterns: To use the Pattern Stamp tool, which shares the flyout menu with the Clone Stamp tool, select a custom pattern from the Pattern picker drop-down palette on the Options bar. Drag with the Pattern Stamp tool, and you see the pattern appear. Digital Bandaging with the Healing Brush Tool The Healing Brush and Patch tools are similar to the Clone Stamp tool. They let you clone pixels from one area and apply them to another area. But that’s where the healing tools leave the Clone Stamp tool eating their dust. The problem with the Clone Stamp tool is that it doesn’t take the tonality of the flawed area — the shadows, midtones, and highlights — into considera- tion. So if the pixels you are sampling from aren’t shaded and lit exactly like the ones you’re covering, you have a mismatch in color, which makes seam- less and indecipherable repairs hard to achieve. Book VIII That is, until the Healing Brush tool arrived. This very intelligent tool clones Chapter 3 by using the texture from the sampled area (the source) and then using the colors around the brush stroke as you paint over the flawed area (the desti- Removing What’s Fixing Flaws and nation). The highlights, midtones, and shadows remain intact, and the result Not Wanted of the repair is more realistic and natural — not retouched and phony. Here are the steps to heal your favorite, but imperfect photo:
  3. 610 Digital Bandaging with the Healing Brush Tool 1. Open your image and select the Healing Brush tool. My guy, shown in Figure 3-3, looks like he could stand to get some “work done,” as they say in Hollywood. Note that you can also heal between two images. Just make sure that they have the same color mode. 2. On the Options bar, click the Brush Preset picker. In the drop-down palette, select your desired diameter and hard- ness for your brush tip. You do this several times while retouching your image. Using the appropriate brush size for the flaw you are repairing is important. 3. Leave the blend mode set to Normal. You can change your blend mode Figure 3-3: The Healing Brush can make if necessary. The Replace mode these wrinkles practically disappear. preserves textures, such as noise or film grain, around the edges of your strokes. For most simple retouch- ing jobs, such as this one, you can leave it at Normal. 4. Choose a Source option. You have a choice between Sampled and Pattern. • Sampled, which you will probably use 99 percent of the time, uses the pixels from the image. • Regarding Pattern, well, you can probably infer that it uses pixels from a pattern you have selected from the Pattern picker drop-down palette. For my example, I am sticking with Sampled because I don’t think my guy would look that good with a Tie-Dye or Nebula pattern across his face. He’s just way too corporate for that. 5. Select how you want to align the sampled pixels. When you click or drag with the Healing Brush tool, Photoshop displays a crosshair along with the Healing Brush cursor. The crosshair repre- sents the sampling point, also known as the source. As you move the Healing Brush tool, the crosshair also moves, providing a constant refer- ence to the area that you are sampling. However, if you deselect the Aligned option on the Options bar, Photoshop applies the source pixels
  4. Patching without Seams 611 from your initial sampling point, despite how many times you stop and start dragging. I left Aligned selected in my example. Select the Sample All Layers option to heal an image using all visible layers. If unselected, you heal only from the active layer. For maximum flexibility, select the Sample All Layers options and add a new, blank layer above the image you want to heal. When you heal the image, the pixels appear on the new layer and not on the image itself. You can then adjust opacity, blend modes, and make other tweaks to the “healed” pixels. 6. Establish the sampling point by Alt+clicking (Option+clicking on the Mac). Make sure to click the area of your image you want to clone from. In my example, I clicked the smooth area on the chin and por- tions of the forehead. 7. Release the Alt (Option on the Mac) key and click or drag over the area of your image that con- tains the flaw. Pay attention to where the cross- hair is located because that’s the area you are sampling from. In my example, I brushed over the wrinkles under and around the eyes and on the forehead, as shown in Figure 3-4. I also zapped some dark spots here and there. Save the file, close it, and send Figure 3-4: In just five or ten minutes, this in your invoice for your digital gentleman lost about ten years. Book VIII dermabrasion. Chapter 3 Removing What’s Fixing Flaws and Patching without Seams Not Wanted While the Patch tool is similar to the Healing Brush tool in theory, its applica- tion method is slightly different. Instead of painting over the flaws with a brush, you select your flawed area and apply a patch to that selection. The Patch tool does a good job in fixing larger flawed areas or isolated imperfections rather than a few wrinkles or scars here and there. What’s more, it’s a breeze to use.
  5. 612 Patching without Seams Here are steps to patching an area in need of repair: 1. Open your image and select the Patch tool. It looks like a patch of material. The girl in my image, shown in Figure 3-5, is virtually flawless, although I can’t say the same for the wall she is lean- ing against. Figure 3-5: The Patch tool can fix the flaws on the wall.
  6. Patching without Seams 613 2. Choose Source or Destination on the Options bar. Choose Source if you want to select the flawed area. Select Destination if you want to select the good area you want to clone from. You can also choose Pattern if you so desire. 3. Drag around the flawed area of your image. Think of the Patch tool as a kind of super cloning Lasso tool. Drag com- pletely around the flawed area as you would when selecting with the Lasso tool. If you need to, you can apply a slight feather of 0.5 to 2 pixels, depending on the resolution, to soften the edge of the selection. I Figure 3-6: Drag around the flawed selected my area without a feather, area. as shown in Figure 3-6. You can actually select your flawed area with any selection tool you like. After you have your selection, then select the Patch tool and proceed to Step 4. 4. Drag your selection to the area on your image that you want to clone (or sample) from, as shown in Figure 3-7. 5. When you release the mouse, Photoshop patches your flawed selection with the cloned pixels. 6. Repeat the process as needed. Book VIII After several patches, the wall now Chapter 3 looks almost as good as the girl, as Figure 3-7: Drag the selection to the shown in Figure 3-8. area you want to sample. Removing What’s Fixing Flaws and Not Wanted
  7. 614 Zeroing In with the Spot Healing Brush Figure 3-8: The Patch tool repaired the wall. Zeroing In with the Spot Healing Brush Whereas the Healing Brush is designed to fix larger flawed areas, the new Spot Healing Brush is designed for smaller blemishes and little imperfec- tions. The tool actually isn’t new. It’s been borrowed from Photoshop’s consumer cousin, Photoshop Elements. The biggest difference between the Healing Brush and the Spot Healing Brush is that the Spot Healing Brush doesn’t require you to specify a sampling source. It automatically takes a sample from around the area to be retouched. The good news is it’s quick and easy. The downside is that it doesn’t give you as much control over the sampling source. Consequently, reserve this tool for small and simple flaws.
  8. Zeroing In with the Spot Healing Brush 615 Here’s how to quickly fix little, nitpicky imperfections with the Spot Healing Brush tool: 1. Open your image and grab the Spot Healing Brush tool. The small moles in Figure 3-9 are examples of small areas you can fix with the Spot Healing brush. PhotoSpin Figure 3-9: Watch these moles disappear. 2. On the Options bar, click the Brush Preset picker and select your desired diameter and hardness for your brush tip. Try to select a brush that is a little larger than the flawed area you wish to fix. 3. Choose a blend mode from the Options bar. Book VIII Like the Healing Brush, you can also choose the Replace mode. Most Chapter 3 likely the Normal mode will work the best. Removing What’s Fixing Flaws and 4. Choose a type from the Options bar. Not Wanted You have a choice between Proximity Match and Create Texture. • Proximity Match: Samples the pixels around the edge of the selec- tion to use to fix the flawed area. • Create Texture: Uses all the pixels in the selection to create a texture to fix the flaw. Try Proximity Match first and if it doesn’t work, undo and try Create Texture.
  9. 616 Colorizing with the Color Replacement Tool 5. Choose Sample All Layers to heal an image using all visible layers. If left unselected, you heal only from the active layer. 6. Click, or click and drag, on the area you want to fix. In Figure 3-10, I used the Spot Healing Brush for the moles and spots on the upper lip and cheeks. But for the mole over the eyebrow, I broke out the Healing Brush. I found I needed more control of the sampling source due to the mole being so close to the hair of the eyebrow. Figure 3-10: I used the Spot Healing brush and the Healing Brush to remove a few moles. Colorizing with the Color Replacement Tool In this new version of Photoshop, the Color Replacement tool was booted out of its home on the healing tools flyout menu and moved to the Brush and Pencil flyout menu. But functionally, it makes more sense to keep it with the flaw fixing brushes, so I talk about it here. The Color Replacement tool allows you to replace the original color of an image with the foreground color. You can use this tool in a variety of ways. Create the look of a hand-painted photo by colorizing a grayscale image. Or maybe you just want to change the color of an object or two, such as a couple of flowers in a bouquet. And although Photoshop now has a bona-fide Red Eye tool, a practical use of the Color Replacement tool is to easily paint away red eye. The great thing about the Color Replacement tool is that, like the other heal- ing tools, it completely preserves the tonality of the image. The color that you apply doesn’t obliterate the midtones, shadows, and highlights as it would if you were using the regular Brush tool. The Color Replacement tool works by first sampling the original colors in the image and then replacing those colors with the foreground color. By specifying different sampling
  10. Colorizing with the Color Replacement Tool 617 methods, limits, and tolerance settings, you can control the range of colors that Photoshop replaces. This weapon in the arsenal of retouching tools is a cinch to use. Here are the short steps to replacing color: 1. Open your image and select the Color Replacement tool. Remember it shares a flyout menu with the regular Brush and Pencil tools. It looks like a brush with a square and two arrows next to it. Use the B (or Shift+B) key to select it from the keyboard. 2. On the Options bar, click the Brush Preset picker. In the drop-down palette, select your desired diameter and hardness for your brush tip. 3. Select your desired blend mode. Color is the default mode and works well for most colorizing jobs. Use this mode if you’re trying to get rid of red eye. Hue is similar to color, but is less intense and provides a lighter effect. Set your foreground color to Black in the Tools palette and set the mode to Saturation to convert a color image to a grayscale image. Luminosity is the exact opposite of the Color mode and while it can create a beautiful effect between two image layers, it doesn’t provide that great of an effect with this tool. For a full “scientific” definition of each blend mode, check out Book IV, Chapter 1. 4. Select your sampling method. The default of Continuous allows you to sample and replace color contin- uously as you drag your mouse. Choose Once to replace colors only in areas containing the color that you first sample by clicking. And finally, select Background Swatch to replace colors only in areas containing your current Background color. Book VIII Chapter 3 5. Select your sampling limits mode. Removing What’s The default of Contiguous lets you replace the color of pixels containing Fixing Flaws and Not Wanted the sampled color that are adjacent to each other only. Discontiguous lets you replace the color of the pixels containing the sampled color wherever it occurs in your image. And Find Edges allows you to replace the color of pixels containing the sampled color while preserving the sharpness of the edges of the objects. 6. Specify your tolerance percentage. Tolerance refers to a range of color. A higher tolerance lets you replace a broader range of color. A lower tolerance limits the replacement of color only to areas that are similar to the sampled color.
  11. 618 Getting Rid of Dreaded Red Eye 7. Choose whether you want anti-aliasing. Remember anti-aliasing slightly softens and smooths the edge of the selected or sampled areas. 8. After you establish your settings, click or drag on your image. Notice how the foreground color, which in my example is black, replaces the original colors of the sampled areas (see Figure 3-11). Of course, the exact effect you get depends on your settings. Figure 3-11: Use the Color Replacement tool to replace the original color in your image with your current foreground color. Getting Rid of Dreaded Red Eye Red eye occurs when the subject of a picture looks directly into the flash, and the unfortunate result is that eerie reddish luminescence in the eyes that says, “I may very well be a demon child.” Many cameras have a red-eye prevention mode that causes the subjects’ irises to contract, making their pupils smaller when the second flash (that is, the real flash) goes off. Other cameras mount the flash high or to one side of the lens, which also minimizes the chance of red eye. However, these preven- tive measures are of little solace when you have a great picture that features bright red pupils as its most dominating feature. If you’ve been hanging around in Photoshop for a while, you’re probably aware that you can get the same result many different ways. This holds true for getting rid of red eye as well. You can use the regular old Brush tool with a Color blend mode and paint away the red. Or you can use the Color Replacement tool with a black foreground to color away the crimson. And now you can use the new Red Eye tool. As with the Spot Healing Brush, the Red Eye tool is another tool that was adopted from Photoshop Elements due to popular demand. Here’s a quick way to get the red out and restore your image to a less zombie-like look:
  12. Getting Rid of Dreaded Red Eye 619 1. Open the original photo with red eye showing. I’m using a photo of an unhappy angel, shown in Figure 3-12. Figure 3-12: This photo needs an exorcist. 2. Select the Red Eye tool. Using the default settings, click the red portion of the eye in your image, as shown in Figure 3-13. This one click tool darkens the pupil, while retaining the tonal- ity and texture of the eye. Figure 3-13: Click the red eye with the Red Eye tool to make it vanish. Book VIII 3. If you’re not happy with the results, tweak one or both of the following options: Chapter 3 Pupil Size: Use the slider to increase or decrease the size of the pupil. Removing What’s Fixing Flaws and Not Wanted Darken Pupil: Use the slider to darken or lighten the color of the pupil. 4. If all goes well, your image is now cured of the dreaded red eye, as shown in Figure 3-14. The Red Eye tool works only with RGB or LAB color images. For details on these color modes, see Book II.
  13. 620 Working with Vanishing Point Figure 3-14: The ultimate cure of red eye. Working with Vanishing Point Every Photoshop upgrade always has one new feature that everyone “oohs” and “ahhs” over. In CS2 that new feature is Vanishing Point. This awesome command enables you to make realistic edits in images with perspective planes. With Vanishing Point, you specify the planes in your images and then, by using a variety of techniques such as painting or cloning, can add or eliminate objects on those planes. For example, say you have a building that has only one window on the side. You have a remodeling project in mind where you would like to add more light in the room, so you want to add three more windows on that side. Using Vanishing Point, you can easily add those windows, all of which will be scaled and angled by staying true to the perspective of the side of that building. With Vanishing Point, you can now edit three dimensionally on a two-dimension image. The resulting image is a nice composite to hand over to your general contractor. No more funky cut and paste composites or worse yet, indecipherable hand sketches over photos. Here are the steps for using this incredible new feature: 1. Open an image containing perspective planes that needs editing. Creating a new layer is a good idea so that you can isolate your Vanishing Point result from your original image layer. You have further editing advan- tages if you want to change opacity settings, blend modes, and so on.
  14. Working with Vanishing Point 621 If you want only the Vanishing Point results to be applied to a specific part of your image, be sure and make the selection (or add a mask) before choosing the Vanishing Point command. If you need to paste an element into the Vanishing Point dialog box, be sure and copy the item before choosing the Vanishing Point command. This copied element can be from the same image or a different image. It can also be a text layer. 2. Choose Filter➪Vanishing Point. The Vanishing Point dialog box appears, as shown in Figure 3-15. Create Plane tool PhotoSpin Figure 3-15: Boxes are good candidates for working with the Vanishing Point command. Book VIII Chapter 3 3. Grab the Create Plane tool. Click at each of the four corners of your plane to establish your editing surface. Be as accurate as you can Removing What’s Fixing Flaws and when specifying the plane on your image. Not Wanted A bounding box with nodes at each corner and a grid appears over the plane surface, as shown in Figure 3-16. Feel free to tweak the plane to perfection by moving or resizing the plane using the Create Plane or Edit Plane (black tool) tools. Photoshop informs you if your plane has a problem by displaying a bounding box and grid as red or yellow. Adjust the bounding box until it becomes blue. Move a corner node until the bounding box and grid are blue, which indicates that the plane is valid. 4. Use the Grid Size slider to adjust the size of the grid units to better line up the plane and grid with the elements that may be in your image such as tiles, texture, windows, or doors.
  15. 622 Working with Vanishing Point Figure 3-16: Define your editing plane with the Create Plane tool. 5. If desired, you can use the Create Plane tool and Ctrl+drag (Ô+drag on the Mac) an edge node of the plane to “tear off” a perpendicular plane. This simply means, for example, that you can extend the plane around to another side, as I did in Figure 3-16, and create another plane. This keeps the planes related to each other and ensures that your edit’s in the correct scale and angle. Note that at this point you can simply create perspective planes and then click OK and bail out. The planes you established appear in the future when you call up the Vanishing Point command again. 6. After you establish your perspective planes, choose an editing task: • Make a selection: Select the Marquee tool and drag a selection in the plane, as I did in Figure 3-17. Specify your selection options, either before or after the selection. You can feather the selection to get soft edges. Or you can adjust the opacity of the selection. You can also choose a Heal option. Move Mode allows you to specify the selection as Destination or Source. Select Destination to select the area you move the marquee to. Source fills an area with the contents of the marquee when you move the marquee and release. If you want to select your entire plan, just double-click the Marquee tool.
  16. Working with Vanishing Point 623 Figure 3-17: Make a selection with the Marquee tool on your plane. • Clone: Select the Marquee or Transform tool and Alt+drag (Option+ drag on the Mac) the selection to create a copy of the selection. Transform (scale, rotate, move) the selection to your liking. Clone as many times as you want. When you move the selection, it adjusts to fit the perspective of the plane, as shown in Figure 3-18. Ctrl+Shift+T (Ô+Shift+T on the Mac) duplicates your last clone. Note that you have access to multiple undos within the Vanishing Point dialog box. But they are limited to your single editing session. Press Ctrl+Z (Ô+Z on the Mac) to undo. Book VIII • Move a selection: Grab the Marquee or Transform tool and drag the Chapter 3 selection. Press the Shift key to constrain the move. Removing What’s Fixing Flaws and • Transform a selection: To scale the selection, select the Transform Not Wanted tool and move the cursor on top of a node and drag. To rotate, move the cursor next to a node until you see a curved double arrow. Then drag in the direction of your desired rotation. Check the Flip or Flop options to flip the selection horizontally or vertically.
  17. 624 Working with Vanishing Point Figure 3-18: Your cloned selection conforms to fit the perspective of the destination plane. • Fill a selection with a piece of the image: With the Marquee tool, Ctrl+drag (Ô+drag on the Mac) and make the selection you want as the source image. You can also choose Source from the Move Mode pop-up menu and drag the selection to the source image. You can then move or clone the selection. If the selection needs to be scaled or rotated, grab the Transform tool. • Clone by stamping with part of the image: This technique works exactly like the regular Photoshop Clone Stamp tool. With the Stamp tool, Alt+click (Option+click on the Mac) the area you want to define as the source for your cloning. Then drag your mouse on the portion of the image where you want the clone to appear. If you drag in a perspective plane, the Stamp tool paints the cloned area in per- spective. You can specify options for your brush diameter, hardness, and opacity. Choose a Heal option. The Off option allows you to clone without blending color, lighting, and shading of the surrounding pixels. The Luminance option allows you to clone using the lighting and shading of the surrounding pixels, but keeping the color of the source (or sampled area). And finally, the On option enables you to clone by blending color and lighting and shading of the surrounding pixels. Select Aligned to sample pixels while maintaining the current sampling point even when you release the mouse. Deselect this option to sample pixels from the sampling point of each mouse click.
  18. Working with Vanishing Point 625 • Paint with color: Select the Brush tool and specify your options, which are similar to the clone options. Click the Brush Color swatch. Choose your desired color from the Color Picker and paint by drag- ging on your image. As in stamping, the brush size and shape adjusts to stay true to the perspective. • Paste a copied element from the clip- board: Press Ctrl+V (Ô+V on the Mac) to paste your element. With your Marquee tool, position the element on your plane where it adjusts to fit the perspective. • The Hand and Zoom tools are for your navigation ease. You can also access the magnification pop-up menu and the plus and minus buttons at the bottom of the window. 7. Click OK. No one will be the wiser that your composite image, shown in Figure 3-19, doesn’t really exist in the real world as we know it. Save your edited image as a native Photoshop (.psd), Figure 3-19: Your Vanishing TIFF, or JPEG to ensure that your perspective Point edited image looks planes are saved in the file. unedited and untampered with. Book VIII Chapter 3 Removing What’s Fixing Flaws and Not Wanted
  19. 626 Book VIII: Retouching and Restoration
  20. Book IX Photoshop and Print
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