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Unit 11: CONDITIONALS

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Unit 11: CONDITIONALS

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The if-clause usually comes first, but it can come after the main clause. And a comma between the clauses is more likely when the if-clause comes first. Ex: If I hear any news, I’ll tell you. / I’ll tell you if I hear any news. In the if-clause of the first conditional, we can use: The present continuous to talk about an action going on now Ex: If they’re having a party, it’ll be noisy. (Now, they may be having a party or not.)

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  1. Unit 11: CONDITIONALS I. Form: FORM CONDITIONAL EXAMPLE Conditional Clause Main Clause If you heat water, it boils. Zero Conditional If + Present Simple + Present Simple + Will/ can/ may,… + bare-inf First Conditional If + Present Simple If he drops it, it will/can break. Second If I had a lot of money, I If + Past Simple + Would/ could/ might + bare-inf Conditional would/ could/might buy a car. Third + Would have/ could have/ might If it hadn’t rained, we would If + Past Perfect Conditional have + P.P have gone picnic.  Notes: 1. The if-clause usually comes first, but it can come after the main clause. And a comma between the clauses is more likely when the if-clause comes first. Ex: If I hear any news, I’ll tell you. / I’ll tell you if I hear any news. 2.  In the if-clause of the first conditional, we can use:  The present continuous to talk about an action going on now Ex: If they’re having a party, it’ll be noisy. (Now, they may be having a party or not.)  The present perfect to emphasize a finished action Ex: If you’ve finished your homework, I’ll let you go out. (You finish your homework completely. I’ll let you go out.)  Should + bare infinitive to indicate a little more uncertainty Ex: If I should see him, I’ll ask him to ring you. (I’m not sure that I might see him or not.)  Will: - To make a request Ex: If you will just wait a moment, I’ll find someone to help you. (= Please wait a moment, ...) - For an action happening later than the action in the main clause Ex: If this medicine will make me better, I’ll take it. (I may take this medicine. Then it make me better.)  In the main clause of the first conditional, we can use imperative to give commands. Ex: Turn on the heat if you feel cold. 3. In the second conditional:  We can use the past continuous in the if-clause to express an action not going on now. Ex: If they were living in Japan, they’d work at the bark. (Now, they aren’t living in Japan.)  We usually use were instead of was. Ex: - If I were better qualified, I would get a good job. (If I were: more formal) - If I was better qualified, I would get a good job. (If I was: less formal) 4. With “should” (in type 1), “were” (in type 2), “had + P.P” (in type 3), we can invert the subject and verb, and leave out “if”. Ex: - Should anyone call, please take a massage. (= If anyone should call, please take a massage.) - Were I you, I wouldn’t do that. (= If I were you, I wouldn’t do that.) 1
  2. - Had I known, I would have told you. (= If I had known, I would have told you.) 2
  3. II. Uses: 1. Zero Conditional:  To talk about general truths or scientific facts Ex: If water boils, it changes into steam. (It’s a scientific fact.)  To instruct Ex: The machine switches off if you press this button. 2. First Conditional:  To talk about present or future possibilities Ex: If it doesn’t rain, we'll go to the cinema. (= It may rain or it may not)  To give commands or suggestions Ex: - Call me if you need some help. - If you feel like seeing the sights, we can take a bus tour.  To warn and threaten Ex: - If you don’t do exercise regularly, you’ll be fat. - If you don’t leave immediately, I’ll call the police. 3. Second Conditional:  To talk about something unreal or imaginary situations in the present or future Ex: If I had enough money, I would buy a car. (Now, I don’t have enough money.)  To give advice with “If I were you,…”/ ”If I were in your position,…” Ex: - If I were you, I would go to see a doctor. (You should go to see a doctor.) - If I were your position, I would not lend this house. (You shouldn’t lend this house.) 4. Third Conditional:  To talk about something unreal or imaginary situations in the past Ex: I would have come to see you if you had rung me. (You didn’t ring me, so I wasn’t able to come to see you.)  To express regret about the past Ex: If I had studied hard, I would pass the exam. (I regret not studying hard.)  To criticize people or to point out their mistake Ex: If Bill had set his alarm clock, he wouldn’t have overslept. (Bill overslept because he didn’t set his alarm.) 3
  4. III. Other ways of expressing a condition Unless: 1. “Unless” means the same as “If… not” Ex: - We’ll go broke unless we find a sponsor. (= We’ll go broke if we don’t find a sponsor.) - Unless I wear glasses, I can’t see it. (=If I don’t wear glasses, I can’t see it.)  Notes:  We do not formally unless meaning if … not in an unreal condition. Ex: If I hadn’t fallen, I would have won. (NOT Unless I had fallen, …)  We do not use unless when talking about feeling caused by something not happening. Ex: I’ll be upset if you don’t come. (NOT I’ll be upset unless you come.) In Case: 2. We use “in case” to talk about something to avoid a possible problem later on.  If or in case? - I’ll get some money from the bank if I need some. (I’ll wait until I need some and then get it.) - I’ll get some money from the bank in case I need some. (I’ll get some now because I might need it later.) We can use Provided (that), On condition (that), As long as/ so long as, Suppose/ 3. Supposing… instead of if in conditional sentences.  As long as/ so long as Provided/ providing (that) + Clause, … Suppose/ supposing (that) On condition that Ex: - You can smoke as long as you do it outside the building. - The machine will last for years provided (that) it is looked after properly. - Supposing it rains, what will you do?  Without + Noun/ Noun phrase means If … not Ex: Without the map, I’d have got lost. (= If I hadn’t had the map, …) = If it were not for + Noun/ Noun phrase  But for + Noun/Noun phrase = If it hadn’t been for + Noun/ Noun phrase Ex: But for you, I’d have drowned. (= If it hadn’t been for you, …)  Otherwise means if that is not so Ex: Hold on tight, otherwise, you might fall. (Otherwise here means if you don’t do that.) 4
  5. 4. Mixed Conditional: Frequently the time in if-clause and the time in result clause are different: one clause maybe in present and the other in the past. We can mix the Second and Third conditionals for this situation. Ex: TRUE: I did not have breakfast some hours ago, so I am hungry now. CONDITIONAL: If I had eaten breakfast some hours ago, I would not be hungry now. (past) (present) TRUE: He is not a good student. He did not study for the test yesterday. CONDITIONAL: If he were a good student, he would have studied for the test yesterday. (present) (past) SUMMARY CHART Form Conditional Use Example Conditional Main Clause Clause If the weather is bad, To talk about the ferries do not sail. general truths or Zero If + Present Simple Present Simple scientific facts Conditional If the camera is on, a To instruct red light appears If + Present Simple Will/may/can + To talk about future If it snows, we will bare infinitive possibilities make a snowman. If John invites you to First his party, you can go. Conditional If + Present Simple Imperative To give commandsCall me if you need help. Alex would buy a new skateboard if he had To talk about enough money. (but he Second Would/could/might imaginary situations If + Past Simple doesn’t have enough Conditional +bare infinitive in the present or money) future If you visited London, you could see Big Ben. If Jane had known To talk about Would/could/might about the concert, she Third If + Past Perfect situations in the + have + past would have gone to it. Conditional Simple past that we cannot participle (but she didn’t know change about it) 5
ADSENSE
ADSENSE

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