And guide translation

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  • Studying grammar will only slow you down and confuse you. You will think about the rules when creating sentences instead of naturally saying a sentence like a native. Remember that only a small fraction of English speakers know more than 20% of all the grammar rules. Many ESL students know more grammar than native speakers. I can confidently say this with experience. I am a native English speaker, majored in English Literature, and have been teaching English for more than 10 years. However, many of my students know more details about English grammar than I do. I can easily...

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  • The past several years have witnessed rapid advances in syntax-based machine translation, which exploits natural language syntax to guide translation. Depending on the type of input, most of these efforts can be divided into two broad categories: (a) string-based systems whose input is a string, which is simultaneously parsed and translated by a synchronous grammar (Wu, 1997; Chiang, 2005; Galley et al., 2006), and (b) tree-based systems whose input is already a parse tree to be directly converted into a target tree or string (Lin, 2004; Ding and Palmer, 2005; Quirk et al.

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  • The Routledge Companion to Translation Studies brings together clear, detailed essays from leading international scholars on major areas in translation studies today. This accessible and authoritative guide offers fresh perspectives on linguistics, context, culture, politics and ethics and contains a range of contributions on emerging areas such as cognitive theories, technology, interpreting and audiovisual translation. Supported by an extensive glossary of key concepts and a substantial bibliography, this Companion is an essential....

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  • This Style Guide is intended primarily for English-language authors and translators, both in-house and freelance, working for the European Commission. But now that so many texts in and around the EU institutions are drafted in English by native and nonnative speakers alike, its rules, reminders and handy references aim to serve a wider readership as well.

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  • As an editor for Fitness magazine, my job is to be a conduit of information between my readers and the experts (registered dietitians, medical doctors, and researchers). In essence, I’m a translator. You see, most experts speak what I like to call medicalese—a complex, exceedingly tedious language that few outside their professions can understand. Medicalese words can be as long as some sentences, sentences are usually the size of paragraphs, and whole studies—well, let’s just say it takes a lot of coffee to get through some of them....

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  • A Security Gateway at the network boundary inspects and provides access control for all traffic. Traffic that does not pass though the gateway is not controlled. A security administrator is responsible for implementing company security policy. The Security Management Server enables administrators to enforce security policies consistently across multiple gateways. To do this, the administrator defines a company-wide security policy Rule Base using SmartDashboard and installs it to the Security Management Server.

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  • Safety statements These statements provide the caution and danger information used in this documentation. Important: Each caution and danger statement in this documentation is labeled with a number. This number is used to cross reference an English-language caution or danger statement with translated versions of the caution or danger statement in the Safety Information document.

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  • Damages Disclaimer This software and related documentation are provided under a license agreement containing restrictions on use and disclosure and are protected by intellectual property laws. Except as expressly permitted in your license agreement or allowed by law, you may not use, copy, reproduce, translate, broadcast, modify, license, transmit, distribute, exhibit, perform, publish or display any part, in any form, or by any means. Reverse engineering, disassembly, or decompilation of this software, unless required by law for interoperability, is prohibited.

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  • In response to requests from Congress, NASA asked the National Research Council to undertake a decadal survey of life and physical sciences in microgravity. Developed in consultation with members of the life and physical sciences communities, the guiding principle for the study is to set an agenda for research for the next decade that will allow the use of the space environment to solve complex problems in life and physical sciences so as to deliver both new knowledge and practical benefits for humankind as we become a spacefaring people.

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  • High-level languages, such as C, C++, and Java, are more like natural languages and thus make programs easier to read and write. Low-level languages are closer to the machine and there is a one-to-many relationship between high-level languages and low-level languages, where language translators such as compilers and interpreters convert each high-level instruction into many low-level instructions. The native language of a particular machine is a low-level language known as machine language and is coded in ones and zeros.

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  • A Completely Serious, No-Nonsense, Startlingly-Accurate Autobiography Terence John Parr was born in Los Angeles, California, USA in the year of the dragon on August 17, 1964 during the week of the Tonkin Gulf Crisis, which eventually led us into the Vietnam Conflict; coincidence? Terence’s main hobbies in California were drooling, covering his body in mud, and screaming at the top of his lungs. In 1970, Terence moved to Colorado Springs, Colorado with his family in search of better mud and less smog.

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  • The financial statements of foreign operations are translated into the Dutch guilder, the Company's reporting currency. Assets and liabilities are translated using the exchange rates on the respective balance sheet dates. Income and expense items are translated based on the average rates of exchange for the periods involved. The resulting translation adjustments are charged or credited to stockholders' equity. Cumulative translation adjustments are recognized as income or expense upon disposal of foreign operations.

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  • Every project management system focuses on the time, cost and scope of a project. Time: how long it will take? Cost: What will it cost in salary and other resources? Scope – what exactly is being delivered at the end of the project? These are essential along with detailed steps of the project. Consider using project management software when dealing with a complex task that has many moving parts and you are not sure that you can track them all. Project management software, when done correctly, allows a manager to have a clear...

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  • At the beginning of the guide we saw how the word “project”, which exists in most languages, has very different meanings in different contexts. It’s useful to spend time checking that there really is agreement on basic concepts and what they mean. It’s often worth doing a glossary. The choice of working languages is crucial – if there’s only one there’s a risk of (a) misunderstanding (b) the project being dominated by native speakers. Translation and interpreting are expensive and time consuming, though, so a compromise solution is usually required.

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  • While it is generally accepted that many translation phenomena are correlated with linguistic structures, employing linguistic syntax for translation has proven a highly non-trivial task. The key assumption behind many approaches is that translation is guided by the source and/or target language parse, employing rules extracted from the parse tree or performing tree transformations. These approaches enforce strict constraints and might overlook important translation phenomena that cross linguistic constituents. ...

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  • We present a machine learning approach to evaluating the wellformedness of output of a machine translation system, using classifiers that learn to distinguish human reference translations from machine translations. This approach can be used to evaluate an MT system, tracking improvements over time; to aid in the kind of failure analysis that can help guide system development; and to select among alternative output strings. The method presented is fully automated and independent of source language, target language and domain. ...

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  • In 2004, more than 6,660,000 babies were born in North America. Just over 60 percent of these babies were born in the United States, 33 percent in Mexico, and 5 percent in Canada. Between 1994 and 2004, the number of babies born in the United States increased slightly (by just over 4 percent) while Mexico and Canada saw a decrease—11 percent and 25 percent, respectively. 1,2 Health during pregnancy, birth, and infancy provides the foundation for optimal development and well-being throughout childhood and youth.

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  • The modules ‘IT as an Enabler…’, ‘Methods and Models of Business Engineering’, ‘Information Man- agement’ and ‘Business Models of the Information Age’ constitute the information systems view on change. Being potential enablers for new business models and reinvented processes, IT innovations and novel standardized software packages as well as appropriate information systems architectures are addressed. Also more technical topics like media convergence, platforms for electronic commerce, infrastru ctures for mobile work etc. are cove red.

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  • Evidence of negative cognitive effects has made the growth of television a popular explanation for trends such as the decline in average verbal SAT scores during the 1970s (Wirtz et al. 1977; Winn 2002) and the secular decline in verbal ability across cohorts (Glenn 1994). Given the important role that cognitive skills play in individual (Griliches and Mason 1972) and aggregate (Bishop 1989) labor market performance, understanding the cognitive ef- fects of television viewing may have significant implications for public policy and household behavior....

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  • Translation needs have greatly increased during the last years. In many situations, text to be translated constitutes an unbounded stream of data that grows continually with time. An effective approach to translate text documents is to follow an interactive-predictive paradigm in which both the system is guided by the user and the user is assisted by the system to generate error-free translations. Unfortunately, when processing such unbounded data streams even this approach requires an overwhelming amount of manpower. ...

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