Compounds in wines

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  • Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) seriously reduces quality of life and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The causes and neuropathogenesis of POCD remain largely unknown. Resveratrol, a sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) activator, is a polyphenol compound found in red wine that has protective functions in neuropathology paradigms.

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  • Close interaction between antioxidant activity (TEAC) values and samples obtained by using ethanol during extraction were indicated, also. These results demonstrated that by-products such as wine pomace could be successfully used for production of valuable bioactive compounds.

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  • The strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae Bordeaux synthesized the most total aldehydes at a temperature of 24оС, while Saccharomyces cerevisiae 8-11 - at 28оС. Acetaldehyde, acetone and 2-butanone were identified in the experimental wines by gas chromatographic analysis. During the fermentation at a temperature of 20°C and 24°C, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Bordeaux produced more acetaldehyde, acetone and 2-butanone compared to 8-11. At 28°C Saccharomyces cerevisiae 8-11 produced more acetaldehyde and 2-butanone, 33.

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  • The volatile metabolites produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, which are mainly esters, higher alcohols and organic acids, play a vital role in the quality and perception of fermented beverages, such as wine. Although the metabolic pathways and genes behind yeast fermentative aroma formation are well described, little is known about the genetic mechanisms underlying variations between strains in the production of these aroma compounds.

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  • Ultraviolet (UV) radiation modulates secondary metabolism in the skin of Vitis vinifera L. berries, which affects the final composition of both grapes and wines. The expression of several phenylpropanoid biosynthesis-related genes is regulated by UV radiation in grape berries.

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  • The literature indicates that red wine presents in its composition several substances that are beneficial to health. This study has investigated the antioxidant effects of Tannat red wine on oxidative stress induced by glucose and fructose in erythrocytes in vitro, with the purpose to determine some of its majoritarian phenolic compounds and its antioxidant capacity.

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  • Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of filamentous fungi that occur naturally in food and feed. The presence of these compounds in the food chain is of high concern for human health due to their properties to induce severe toxicity effects at low dose levels. The contamination of fruits with mycotoxins has not only caused health hazards but also resulted in economic losses, especially for exporting countries.

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  • Changes in amino acids and phenolic compounds in Emir, Narince, and Sultaniye grapes were monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography for two consecutive seasons.

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  • The tannin contents (% w /w dry matter) have been determined by the Lowenthal method, which were 13.80; 13.91; 14.15 and 14.50 in the samples from Vinh Long, Can Tho, Binh Duong and Tra Vinh, respectively. This study focused on the extraction of the tannin compounds from the Garcinia mangostana Linn for applications in food industry, especially in the wine-producing industry.

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  • A study of wine fermentation from mucilage of cocoa beans (theobroma cacao l.). Cocoa mucilage, a by-product of cocoa beans processing, constitutes 10% of total cocoa beans, with soluble solids up to 17.78 Bx, pH of 3.43 – 3.5, rich in sugar, minerals, organic acids and phenolic compounds.

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  • This booklet is intended as a practical guide to assist countries that are setting up a national statistical organization to communicate effectively with the media, and in turn, with the general public. It does not pretend to solve every problem that a national statistical organization will face. However, it offers the best advice from those statistical agencies that have been doing the job for years, to those who may be just starting out.

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  • A second process was the expansion of soybeans and other crops in the cerrado (savannah) region of Brazil by using varieties, soil amendments and conservation tillage developed through long-standing public investment in research and development that allowed cultivation of acid soils that were previously considered unsuitable for agriculture. This was a major technological success that dramatically increased production and exports.

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  • On the other hand, in order to know the level of economic freedom of each country, the annual study by the Heritage Foundation and Wall Street Journal, Index of Economic Freedom 2008, is used. In this edition the study continues implementing the changes of the previous edition, but also added some more information about the tax load for the people. Due to this change in the study, for its interanual comparison this report uses the updated data of 2007 with the information included in the 2008 index in order to avoid differences distorting the reality....

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  • The contents of each cell in Table 12 are simply (and only) a reflection of the contents of the equivalent cell in Table 10. Thus, for example, (re)training of former farm workers is a direct response to the reduction in agricultural employment associated with the Agri-centric narrative, and measures to strengthen entrepreneurship and IT aspects of human capital could be a response to the depletion issues caused by the Urban-Rural narrative in PRR regions. Two summary points may be derived from Table 12.

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  • Dewey holds that the capacity for aesthetic experiences of art arises out of basic mechanisms, present even in animals, that are employed throughout everyday life. We are in a continual process, Dewey notes, of falling out of sync with our environments—whenever we are hungry, cold, tired, afraid, or in pain—and regaining our sense of union and harmony. We continually detect signs of dissatisfaction or discomfort within ourselves and attempt to alleviate that discomfort.

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  • There is a powerful, positive influence that comes from the team being protected from changing goals during the Sprint. First, the team gets to work knowing with absolute certainty that its commitments will not change, which only reinforces the team’s focus on ensuring completion. Second, it disciplines the Product Owner into really thinking through the items he or she prioritizes on the Product Backlog. Knowing that the commitment is for the duration of the Sprint makes the Product Owner much more diligent in thinking through what to ask for at the beginning. ...

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  • The consolidated income statement and consolidated statement of cash flows include the revenues and expenses and cash flows of companies that are no longer in the Group up to the date on which the related holding was sold or the company was liquidated, and those of the new companies included in the Group from the date on which the holding was acquired or the company was incorporated through year end. Revenue and expenses associated with discontinued operations are presented in a separate line on the consolidated income statement.

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  • A simple model of earnings, operating cash flows, and accruals developed in this section generates an explanation for the negative serial correlation in operating cash flow changes. Increases (decreases) in sales generate contemporaneous outlays (inflows) for working capital increases (decreases) that are followed in the next period by cash inflows (outflows). The result is negative serial correlation in cash flow changes. Accruals exclude the contemporaneous one-time outflows for working capital from the current period's earnings and incorporate forecasts of permanent future cash inflows.

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  • One way to reduce wage earnings risk is to save more. This saving converts human capital to financial capital at a higher rate. It also enables the financial capital to have a longer time to grow until retirement. The value of compounding returns in financial capital over time can be very substantial. And one way to reduce human capital risk is to diversify it with appropriate types of financial capital. Portfolio allocation recommendations that are made without consideration of human capital are not appropriate for many individual investors.

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  • Second, information should be thought of as better if it reduces the uncertainty surrounding some future cost or benefit. For instance, future liabilities are inherently uncertain. Information that can narrow the variance on estimates of those uncertain liabilities should be considered better information. Reduced variance is particularly valuable when decision-makers are risk-averse, since a reduction in variance alone can lead to different decisions when there is risk aversion.

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