Distance and surface

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  • After four centuries a quote from Galileo Galilei is still the most effective way to introduce a Metrology book: “Measure what is measurable, and make measurable what is not so”. Every human activity needs an objective measurement and every global process should be supported by a common standard. There are several handbooks, tutorials and journals that focus on the basic concepts of metrology, the uncertainty theory and the international reference standards. Moreover, the engineering literature is awash with measurement methods for each specific field.

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  • We are privileged to be living in one of the greatest eras of exploration that humankind has ever undertaken. Our current Age of Space grew out of the dark struggles of World War II when large rockets were developed as agents of mass murder. The subsequent Cold War rivalry between the United States and Soviet Union pushed rocket capabilities to the point that it became possible to send vehicles into Earth orbit and beyond (even though the stated aim was to send missiles carrying nuclear weapons over mere continental distances). The Russians put the first human into Earth orbit.

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  • Volcanic eruptions are awesome and destructive; however, this natural phenomenon is beneficial in the long term. One of the earliest known written records of a natural disaster concerned the eruption of Pompeii in A.D. 79, and was recorded by Pliny the Younger in his letters to the historian Tacitus (Jashemski, 1979). Volcanic eruptions, ranging in intensity and numbering between 17 and 27 per year during the past decade (Bullard, 1984), continue to remind us of their potential impacts on the environment.

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  • Written by a premier astronomy expert, this book begins with a discussion of the Sun, from sunspots to solar eclipses. It then features over 100 tables on characteristics of the Moon, and the names, positions, sizes, and other key descriptors of all the planets and their satellites. The book tabulates solar and lunar eclipse, comets, close-approach asteroids, and significant meteor showers dates. Twenty-four maps show the surface features of the planets and their moons. The author then looks to the stars, their distances and movements, and their detailed classification and evolution.

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  • 109 if we think of the graph of the distance function in Rn . This is a surface S in R n and if we follow the extrema of distance on this surface, the roadmap of this paper is exactly a roadmap in the sense of 18 and 19 . The silhouette curves of 18 correspond to the freeway curves of this paper, and the linking curves correspond to bridges. Recall the basic property required of roadmaps:  +1 De nition A subset of R of a set S satis es the roadmap condition if every connected component of S contains a single...

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  • An ocean wave is an undulation of the sea surface. Wave crest,Wave trough,Wave height,Wave lengt,Wave period Progressive waves move across the sea surface.,Standing waves oscillate about a fixed point. Wind velocity : Wind duration, Fetch (distance over which wind blows), Simply put, wave size increases as all these factors increase.

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  • 3 Temporary Planktonic Existence 3.1 RELEASE OF PROPAGULES INTO PLANKTON The sources of colonization of living and non-living (inert) surfaces in the marine environment are communities inhabiting hard substrates of natural and artificial origin, and also soft grounds (see Chapter 1). They release dispersal forms, usually called propagules, into water: microorganisms, animal larvae, and macroalgal spores, which are potential colonists (foulers). The contribution of different hard-substrate communities to the colonization (biofouling) process is not the same.

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  • In this paper, we focus our attention on providing a formal framework for expressing data mining tasks in- volving time granularities, and on proposing efficient algo- rithms for performing such tasks. To this end, we introduce the notion of an event structure. An event structure is essen- tially a set of temporal constraints on a set of variables representing events. Each constraint bounds the distance between a pair of events in terms of a time granularity.

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  • where V is the volume worn away, W is the normal load, x is the sliding distance, H is the hardness of the surface being worn away, and k is a nondimensional wear coefficient dependent on the materials in contact and their exact degree of cleanliness. The term k is usually interpreted as the probability that a wear particle is formed at a given asperity encounter. Equation (21.5) suggests that the probability of a wear-particle formation increases with an increase in the real area of contact, Ar (Ar = W=H for plastic contacts), and the sliding distance. ...

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  • The solution structure ofNereis diversicolorsarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein (NSCP) in the calcium-bound form was determined by NMR spec-troscopy, distance geometry and simulated annealing. Based on 1859 NOE restraints and 262 angular restraints, 17 structures were generated with a rmsd of 0.87 A ˚ from the mean structure. The solution structure, which is highly similar to the structure obtained by X-ray crystallography, includes two open EF-hand domains, which are in close contact through their hydrophobic surfaces....

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  • Circumferences of circles are used in calculating speeds of rotating machine parts, including drills, reamers, milling cutters, grinding wheels, gears, and pulleys. These speeds are variously referred to as surface speed, circumferential speed, and peripheral speed; meaning for each, the distance that a point on the surface or circumference would travel in one minute.

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  • Introduction: Nanoelectrode ensembles (NEEs) are nanotech-based electroanalytical tools that find application in a variety of fields ranging from electroanalysis to sensors and electronics. The NEEs are fabricated by growing metal nanowires in the pores of a template microporous membrane. The density of the pores in the template determines the number of nanoelectrode elements per surface unit and the average distance between the nanoelectrode elements.

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  • As carriers begin deploying FTTX architectures, they are focusing a lot of attention on the outside plant (OSP) segment. And why not? This architecture presents many challenges with passive optical networking (PON) technology, thousands of distribution lines and connections, power and distance concerns, and so many other issues to address. Basically, the mindset is that if a problem is going to surface during the FTTX deployment, it will likely happen downstream.

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  • Wet sulfate deposits: eastern North America. (Source: Environment Canada SOE 96-2, Spring 1996.) LK P, P0 S r, Dr t = reactivity index = pressure, Pa = surface area of the test panel, m2 = distance, m = time, s Pa, Pb = pressure, Pa W, W0 = power, pW Acoustic Enclosures, Turbine A-13 FIG. A-7 Trends in lake sulfate levels (North America). (Source: Environment Canada SOE 96-2, Spring 1996.

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  • The G-spot is a gland located behind the pubic bone and around the urethra. It can be massaged or stimulated by reaching up about two finger joints distance on the upper surface of the vagina. If already aroused, some women will find that stimulation of this area leads to an intense orgasm which may be of a different quality from a clitoral orgasm. Stimulation of the spot produces a variety of initial feelings: discomfort, feeling the need to urinate, or a pleasurable feeling. With additional stroking the area may begin to swell and the sensations may become more pleasureable.

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  • South-east Asian components of our population are increasing rapidly. The ethnic mix in each organisation is likely to be quite different, so the best approach may be to develop anthropometric distributions for each organisation from different data sets, using the proportions of each ethnic group. Some applications of anthropometric data are discussed below. The arrangement of equipment on a working surface should be based on placing the most frequently used items within the easiest reach.

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  • High up among the heather-clad hills which form the broad dividing barrier between England and Scotland, the little river Esk brawls and bickers over its stony bed through a wild land of barren braesides and brown peat mosses, forming altogether some of the gloomiest and most forbidding scenery in the whole expanse of northern Britain.

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  • Use an extract ventilation unit to capture and filter over­spray and mist. You need to place the unit very close to the sprayed surface. Some units are ineffective at capturing spray: check with a smoke machine. Containment equipment (that actively catches the majority of over­spray) and spray enclosures (that contain, remove and filter overspray) are commercially available. Spraying outdoors Ensure the compressor and its air intake are upwind of spraying and clear of other harmful substances.

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  • We introduce an alternative approach to extracting word pair associations from corpora, based purely on surface distances in the text. We contrast it with the prevailing windowbased co-occurrence model and show it to be more statistically robust and to disclose a broader selection of significant associative relationships - owing largely to the property of scale-independence. In the process we provide insights into the limiting characteristics of window-based methods which complement the sometimes conflicting application-oriented literature in this area. ...

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