Ethnic disparities

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  • Racial and ethnic minorities tend to receive a lower quality of healthcare than non-minorities, even when access-related factors, such as patients’ insurance status and income, are controlled. The sources of these disparities are complex, are rooted in historic and contemporary inequities, and involve many participants at several levels, including health systems, their administrative and bureaucratic processes, utilization managers, healthcare professionals, and patients.

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  • Although women are a minority in national prison populations all over the world, the female prison population is increasing. This increase in women’s imprisonment is part of a global trend towards the increasing popularity and use of imprisonment and a corresponding under- use of constructive alternative, non-custodial sanctions. This applies particularly to drug offences and non-violent theft (Penal Reform International, 2007).

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  • And what effect do these industrial shifts have on the employability of city residents? The transformation has favored a more educated labor force over blue-collar or entry- level workers, and it has been most pronounced in the Northeast and Midwest, which house the greatest concentration of minority groups (Moss and Tilly, 1991; Kasarda, 1985, 1989, 1990).

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  • Health literacy is “the degree to which individuals can obtain, process, and understand the basic health information and services they need to make appropriate health decisions.” It represents a constellation of skills necessary for people to function effectively in the health care environment and act appropriately on health care information. These skills include the ability to interpret documents, read and write prose (print literacy), use quantitative information (numeracy), and speak and listen effectively (oral literacy).

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  • Filers reported suspicious activity involving pricing disparities in 34 SAR-SFs, or 37 percent of SAR-SFs referencing CMOs. While the face values of the CMOs had not changed since issuance, their market values had greatly diminished, some reportedly to as little as 1 percent of face value. Filers reported many subjects who applied for loans based on the face value of the security.

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  • Numerous studies have also documented racial and ethnic disparities in health.[29] White children are half as likely as Black and Latino children not to be in excellent or very good health.[30] Some disparities are starkest between White and Black children. For example, Black children are 20% more likely to have a limitation of activity and more than twice as likely to have elevated blood lead levels. Disparities are also apparent in access to health care.

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  • Significant progress has been made in the reduction of cancer incidence and mortality rates. Delay-adjusted incidence rates for all low-income, racial, and ethnic groups combined decreased by 0.7% per year from 1999 to 2007, after stabilizing from 1989 to 1999 and increasing by 1.2% per year from 1975 to 1989. The decline in overall mortality rates accelerated from 1.1% per year from 1993 to 2001 to 1.6% per year from 2001 to 2007 (Jemal et al., 2008). This is real progress. However, very real and widening gaps are masked by these statistics.

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  • Nationally, estimates for the rate of overweight among children aged 4 to 12 is 10 percentage points higher for African-American and Latino children (22 percent) than for white children (12 percent) (Strauss, et al., 2001). Between the early 1960s and the late 1980s, while the rates of obesity tripled for black girls, they doubled for white girls (Kimm, et al., 2001). As nationally, there are disparities in childhood overweight among certain ethnic groups in California, African-American and Latino teens are at higher risk of overweight than white teens (Ritchie, et al., 2001).

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  • The issue of disparity and inequalities between black and minority ethnic groups and the majority white population in rates of mental ill health and equality of service in terms of experience and outcomes has figured in government policy since Labour took office in 1997. The death of an African-Caribbean patient named David Bennett in a secure psychiatric unit whilst detained under the Mental Health Act (1983) and the subsequent inquiry report published in 2003 found the NHS to be “institutionally racist”.

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  • Health disparities are differences that occur by gender, race and ethnicity, education level, income level, disability, or geographic location. Health disparities exist among all age groups, including among children and adolescents. For example, low-income and children of color lag behind their more affl uent and White peers in terms of health status. Children lower in the socioeconomic hierarchy suffer disproportionately from almost every disease and show higher rates of mortality than those above them.

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  • Health disparities in the United States correlating with race, ethnicity, language, economic status and other demographic factors have been documented by numerous researchers. According to the CDC, populations experiencing health disparities are growing as U.S. demographics change. The future of American health depends on understanding, addressing, reducing, and eliminating these disparities.

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  • Disparities in outcomes associated with race and ethnicity are well documented for many diseases and patient populations. Tuberculosis (TB) disproportionately affects economically disadvantaged, racial and ethnic minority populations. Pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis (PIAT) contributes heavily to the societal burden of TB. Individual impacts associated with PIAT may vary by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status.

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  • According to that report (and many others), the causes of such disparities are complex, including genetic differences, environmental and occupational hazards, stress and lifestyle. But even when diagnosed at equal rates, racial and ethnic communities and low income groups face difficulties in accessing health care services and education. Poverty, lack of health care coverage and under- insurance (more prevalent in many minority communities) also affect access to information, prevention education, screening, treatment, referral to specialists, continued treatment and even pain relief. ...

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  • Good luck in your transformation efforts. Your organization has the opportunity to succeed in this new environment, as your transformation becomes a reality. While there is a lot of work ahead, you are not alone in your efforts. Your state associations can provide assistance and information. NIATx has many tools available for service providers at no cost. Members of the Moving Forward Alliance are available to assist in some areas. National organizations like SAAS can help answer your questions.

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