Exposure route

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  • Risk assessment of chemical substances is an ever-developing discipline. Transparent and accurate risk assessments are necessary for decision-makers to make wise risk management decisions. The outcome of risk assessments may have enormous economical consequences, in addition to the consequences for human health and the environment. Globalization is a fact, with huge possibilities for economic and social prosperity. Food and consumer products are produced in one part of the world and put on the market in another....

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  • This book is intended as a guide to the selection or design of the principal kinds of chemical process equipment by engineers in school and industry. The level of treatment assumes an elementary knowledge of unit operations and transport phenomena. Access to the many design and reference books listed in Chapter 1 is desirable. For coherence, brief reviews of pertinent theory are provided. Emphasis is placed on shortcuts, rules of thumb, and data for design by analogy, often as primary design processes but also for quick evaluations of detailed work....

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Investigation of utilization of nanosuspension formulation to enhance exposure of 1,3dicyclohexylurea in rats: Preparation for PK/PD study via subcutaneous route of nanosuspension drug delivery

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  • Most wood furniture manufacturing facilities exhaust their emissions directly to the outside of the facility without any treatment. Therefore, in addition to possible occupational exposure to VHAPs, persons living in close proximity to the plant might also be exposed to air toxic emissions from the facility. Chemicals enter the body via three primary routes: inhalation, ingestion or direct contact with the skin. In the work environment of a wood finishing line, the primary exposure route to VHAPs is inhalation.

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  • The results of this study suggest that the lowest exposures (concentrations of pollutants) are experienced by train commuters, largely a reflection of the routes being removed from any significant road traffic. Motorcyclists experienced significantly higher average concentrations as a result of high-concentration and very-short-duration peaks not seen in the traces of car and bus commuters travelling on the same road.

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  • Clinical Implications of Altered Bioavailability Some drugs undergo near-complete presystemic metabolism and thus cannot be administered orally. Nitroglycerin cannot be used orally because it is completely extracted prior to reaching the systemic circulation. The drug is therefore used by the sublingual or transdermal routes, which bypass presystemic metabolism. Some drugs with very extensive presystemic metabolism can still be administered by the oral route, using much higher doses than those required intravenously.

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  • The post-ANOVA analysis suggests that motorcyclists experience much higher exposures than other commuters travelling on the road (Test 1 of Table 3). The runner was found to have a significantly lower mean exposure than for the bus and car commuter for the route along which there was a dedicated pedestrian/cycleway (Test 2 of Table 3) but not significantly different for the route where the runner simply chose a less congested route (Test 9 of Table 3). This suggests that pedestrian/cycleways are effective in reducing exposures for runners.

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  • Because science is always advancing, OPP periodically updates and changes the way it approaches pesticide risk assessments. Under FIFRA and FFDCA, the national pesticide program is one of the most data-rich programs at EPA, providing significant information upon which to make pesticide decisions. Our goal is a more comprehensive and consistent evaluation of potential risks of pesticides, including all potential routes of exposure.

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  • Control of ectoparasites on poultry creates additional exposure risks. High pressures sprays or dipping are often used in large commercial operations to treat birds for obligate ectoparasites such as the northern fowl mite. Aerosol and splash represent exposure risks for the applicator in both situations. Routes of entry may be oral, dermal or inhalation. Dipping represents the most significant risk to personnel since each bird must be handled to effectively treat the outbreak. A significant amount of splash occurs as birds are immersed and withdrawn from the dipping vat.

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