Gender inequality

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  • The goal of equality between women and men is a basic principle of the United Nations (UN), which is set out in the Preamble to the Charter of the United Nations.

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  • This report serves as a background document for the policy brief on social and gender inequalities in environment and health that was prepared for the Fifth Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health (Parma, Italy, 10–12 March 2010). It provides an overview of the currently available evidence on the influences and effects of social and gender inequalities on environmental health risks.

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  • Developing Asia achieved impressive economic growth in the last decade and had remarkable success in lifting large numbers of people in the region out of poverty. At the same time, recent evidence suggests that in many growing economies of developing Asia, rising income disparities are widening the gap between the rich and the poor.

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  • The second domain, environmental pollutants, encompasses exposures that might bring about chronic conditions or exacerbate these conditions. We include in this domain air, water, and other toxic pollutants. For example, repeated exposure to toxic waste sites may result in malignancies later in life (American Cancer Society, 2002), which in turn may lead to functional decline (Teno et al., 2001; Michael et al., 2000). Thus, exposure to water contamination or toxic wastes is likely to affect health status, particularly though cumulated effects in the lifecourse.

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  • A gender specific goal is seen as essential to tackle the underlying causes of gender inequality. Studies have shown that political commitment to gender equality is declining when gender is only mainstreamed. The importance of gender targets for securing funding is also being stressed. In addition to a standalone goal, considering gender equality throughout the post 2015 framework is also seen as crucial by many.

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  • Sexual and reproductive rights apply to all individuals regardless of HIV status. Yet more often than not, the rights of HIV-positive women and adolescent girls are not recognized or given priority. Gender inequality and some social and cultural practices often tightly restrict and sometimes control the decisions that women and girls can make regarding their sexual and reproductive choices.

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  • Gender inequality prevails in “real life,” within the political, social and economic arenas in the Arab world. This is apparent in the Arab region’s low rankings in terms of gender parity within the political empowerment and economic participation pillars of various women’s empowerment indices, as well as in regional and international reports such as the Arab Human Development Reports.

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  • In many countries, babies born to women in prison stay in prison with their mother, and very young children may accompany their mothers into prison. Facilities vary widely between and within countries. Some countries have mother and baby units, with special facilities to support the mother and the child’s development. In others, babies live in the prisons without the state officially noting or monitoring their presence and without any special provision being made for them.

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  • By now, it is widely recognized that gender inequality is both a serious brake on development and a denial of the rights of women and girls. The United Nations System Task Team Report on a Post 2015 Development Agenda therefore recommended that a future global development agenda should not only seek to address and monitor the elimination of specific gender gaps. It should also transform the structural factors that underpin the widespread persistence of gender based violence, discrimination and unequal development progress between women and men and girls and boys.

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  • Gender inequality retards economic growth and poverty reduc- tion. This is a key conclusion of a recent World Bank Policy Research Report, Engendering Development—Through Gender Equality in Rights, Resources, and Voice, which considers the links among gender equali- ty, development, and public policy.

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  • Third, the nature of gender inequalities varies from region to region and country to country. For example, in most middle-income countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, gender disparities in primary school enrollments are very small and, in some cases, favor girls over boys. However, issues such as ownership of land by poor women, gender inequalities in labor markets, returns to education, and gender violence remain important. In the transition countries of Eastern Europe, gender issues arise largely from the patterns associ- ated with the transition.

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  • Perhaps the most important finding of this research is the shared view of social media as a tool for women’s empowerment. The majority of respondents felt that social media had the potential to be an empowering and engaging tool for women, whether in social, economic, legal, political or civic arenas. These perceptions contrast with the reality of gender inequalities that persist in the Arab region when it comes to these domains. In that sense, social media can potentially be a “change agent” towards women’s empowerment in Arab societies.

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "Modern labor economics - Theory and public policy" hass contents: The labor market effects of international trade and production sharing, gender, race, and ethnicity in the labor market, inequality in earnings, unions and the labor market,...and other contents.

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  • Progress towards gender equality is a critical issue for us. …..First we will adopt measures to restore those rights to our women and girls that they were denied because of the segregationist policies of the Taliban and the threat to their personal security during periods of conflict. To support this, we will need to create women's specific opportunities that will allow them to catch up with men and boys.

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  • Numerous misconceptions surround endogenous infections. For example, many women believe, or are mistakenly told by medical practitioners, that their symptoms result from much more serious sexually transmitted infections. This can occur if the presence of inflammation or discharge caused by endogenous infections is confused with discharge produced by STIs such as gonorrhea or chlamydia. Indeed, many studies show that even experienced clinicians cannot reliably distinguish between vaginal discharge caused by sexually transmitted or endogenous infections.

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  • Children outside prison who have a parent imprisoned may experience a range of psychosocial problems during the imprisonment of a parent, including: depression, hyperactivity, aggressive behaviour, withdrawal, regression, clinging behaviour, sleep problems, eating problems, running away, truancy, poor school grades and delinquency. Further, parental separation can be experienced as desertion or abandonment, which can worsen the distress for the children (Quaker Council for European Affairs, 2007)....

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  • Ongoing conflict, displacement, breakdown in social and public services coupled with recurrent droughts and flooding have significantly affected food security and livelihoods and therefore nutritional status. However, there is a growing body of evidence that other underlying causes also contribute significantly to high and persistent undernutrition.

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  • The adult literacy rate in 2004 was 49.6% with 55.5% for males and 43.4% for females (BBS 2004). Although the female/male ratio in primary school was 100:115, in secondary schools and universities this gap increased to 100:131 and 100:322 respectively (Ministry of Education 2002). In addition to gender inequalities, inequalities also exist by geographical areas. Only 36% of the rural women are literate, compared to 60% of urban women. However, this situation is rapidly changing in recent years.

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  • THE following pages contain the results of an enquiry into the after health of University Oars, which has been carried out with more or less interruption during the last four years. It was commenced in the spring of the year 1869. I then hoped to obtain the information which I needed in the course of twelve or eighteen months, but I soon found that the labour which I had undertaken was likely to prove more arduous and more tedious than I had anticipated.

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  • In support of the government's efforts and policies, the World Bank has prepared this Country Gender Assessment to identify critical areas in which gender-responsive actions are likely to enhance growth, poverty reduction and human well-being. The extent of gender discrimination in Afghanistan is pervasive, and the present report focuses on a few key sectors deemed particularly important for both short and long-term reconstruction. Gender gaps in Afghanistan are widespread in health, in education, in economic opportunities and in power and political voice.

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