Hệ điều hành silberschatz

Xem 1-20 trên 24 kết quả Hệ điều hành silberschatz
  • File System Structure File System Implementation Directory Implementation Allocation Methods Free-Space Management Efficiency and Performance Recovery Log-Structured File Systems NFS File-System Structure File structure Logical storage unit Collection of related information File system resides on secondary storage (disks). File system organized into layers. File control block – storage structure consisting of information about a file. Operating System Concepts 12.1 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2002 Operating System Concepts 12.

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  • Module 1 - Introduction. In this chapter, you will learn to: To describe the basic organization of computer systems, to provide a grand tour of the major components of operating systems, to give an overview of the many types of computing environments, to explore several open-source operating systems.

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  • Module 2 - Computer-system structures. Chapter 2 discusses the general structure of computer systems. It may be a good idea to review the basic concepts of machine organization and assembly language programming. The students should be comfortable with the concepts of memory, CPU, registers, I/O, interrupts, instructions, and the instruction execution cycle. Since the operating system is the interface between the hardware and user programs, a good understanding of operating systems requires an understanding of both hardware and programs.

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  • Chapter 3 is concerned with the operating system interfaces that users (or at least programmers) actually see: control cards and system calls. The treatment is somewhat vague since more detail requires picking a specific system to discuss. This chapter is best supplemented with exactly this detail for the specific system the students have at hand. They should study the control card (or command) semantics and syntax; ideally they should study the system calls and write some programs making system calls.

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  • In this chapter we introduce the concept of a process and the notion of concurrent execution. Those are at the very heart of modern operating systems. A process is is a program in execution and is the unit of work in a modern time-sharing system. Such a system consists of a collection of processes: Operating-system processes executing system code, and user processes executing user code. This chapter also discuss the notion of a thread (light-weight process) and interprocess communication (IPC).

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  • Module 5 - CPU scheduling. CPU scheduling is the basis of multiprogrammed operating systems. By switching the CPU among processes, the operating system can make the computer more productive. In this chapter, we introduce the basic scheduling concepts and discuss in great length CPU scheduling. FCFS, SJF, Round-Robin, Priority, and the other scheduling algorithms should be familiar to the students.

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  • Module 6 - Process synchronization. Chapter 6 is concerned with the topic of process synchronization among concurrently executing processes. Concurrency is generally very hard for students to deal with correctly, and so we have tried to introduce it and its problems with the classic process coordination problems: mutual exclusion, bounded-buffer, readers/writers, and so on. An understanding of these problems and their solutions is part of current operating system theory and development.

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  • Module 7 - Deadlocks. After studying this chapter you will be able to develop a description of deadlocks, which prevent sets of concurrent processes from completing their tasks; to present a number of different methods for preventing or avoiding deadlocks in a computer system.

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  • Module 8 - Memory management. After completing this unit, you should be able to: Explain the difference between logical and physical addresses, explain the difference between internal and external fragmentation, explain the following allocation algorithms.

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  • Module 9 - Virtual memory. Virtual memory can be a very interesting subject since it has so many different aspects: page faults, managing the backing store, page replacement, frame allocation, thrashing, page size. The objectives of this chapter are to explain these concepts and show how paging works.

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  • Module 10 - File-system interface. In this chapter, we consider the various aspects of files and the major directory structures. We also discuss the semantics of sharing files among multiple processes, users, and computers. Finally, we discuss ways to handle file protection, necessary when we have multiple users and we want to control who may access files and how files may be accessed.

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  • Module 11 - File-system implementation. In this chapter we discuss various methods for storing information on secondary storage. The basic issues are device directory, free space management, and space allocation on a disk.

    ppt20p thuongdanguyetan03 18-04-2020 12 0   Download

  • Module 12 - I/O systems. The role of the operating system in computer I/O is to manage and control I/O operations and I/O devices. Although related topics appear in other chapters, here we bring together the pieces to paint a complete picture. In this chapter we describe I/O Structure, Devices, Device Drivers, Caching, and Terminal I/O.

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  • Module 13 - Secondary storage structure. In this chapter we describe the internal data structures and algorithms used by the operating system to implement this interface. We also discuss the lowest level of the file system the secondary storage structure. We first describe disk-head-scheduling algorithms. Next we discuss disk formatting and management of boot blocks, damaged blocks, and swap space. We end with coverage of disk reliability and stable-storage.

    ppt32p thuongdanguyetan03 18-04-2020 8 0   Download

  • Module 14 - Tertiary storage structure. In this chapter introduced the concept of primary, secondary, and tertiary storage. In this chapter, we discuss tertiary storage in more detail. First we describe the types of storage devices used for tertiary storage. Next, we discuss the issues that arise when an operating system uses tertiary storage. Finally, we consider some performance aspects of tertiary storage systems.

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  • Module 15 - Network structures. In a distributed (loosely coupled) system, the processors do not share memory or a clock. Instead, each processor has its own local memory. The processors communicate with one another through various communication networks, such as high-speed buses or telephone lines. In this chapter, we discuss the general structure of distributed systems and the networks that interconnect them. Detailed discussions are given in chapters 16 to 18.

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  • Module 16 - Distributed system structures. Chapter 16 examines distributed-system structures, including coverage of remote services, thread-management, and the Open Software Foundation’s Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) thread package.

    ppt14p thuongdanguyetan03 18-04-2020 13 0   Download

  • Module 17 - Distributed-file systems. Chapter 17 looks at the current major research and development in distributed-file systems (DFS). The purpose of a DFS is to support the same kind of sharing when the files are physically dispersed among the various sites of a distributed system.

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  • Module 18 - Distributed coordination. Chapter 18 examines various mechanisms for process synchronization and communication, as well as methods for dealing with the deadlock problem, in a distributed environment. In addition, since a distributed system may suffer from a variety of failures that are not encountered in a centralized system, we also discuss here the issue of failure in a distributed system.

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  • The various processes in an operating system must be protected from one another’s activities. For that purpose, various mechanisms exist that can be used to ensure that the files, memory segments, CPU, and other resources can be operated on by only those processes that have gained proper authorization from the operating system. In this chapter, we examine the problem of protection in great detail and develop a unifying model for implementing protection.

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