Hierarchical computer organization

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  • The purpose of Part One is to provide a background and context for the remainder of this book. The fundamental concepts of computer organization and architecture are presented.

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  • In this text, I have tried to present the concepts of computer organization and architecture as clearly as possible and have provided numerous homework prob- lems to reinforce those concepts. Many instructors will wish to supplement this ma- terial with projects. This appendix provides some guidance in that regard and describes support material available in the instructor’s manual.

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  • Architecture is those attributes visible to the programmer: Instruction set, number of bits used for data representation, I/O mechanisms, addressing techniques. e.g. Is there a multiply instruction? Organization is how features are implemented Control signals, interfaces, memory technology. e.g. Is there a hardware multiply unit or is it done by repeated addition?

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  • A computer system consists of a processor, memory, I/O, and the interconnections among these major components. With the exception of the processor, which is suffi- ciently complex to devote Part Three to its study, Part Two examines each of these components in detail.

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  • This chapter examines a range of external memory devices and systems. We begin with the most important device, the magnetic disk. Magnetic disks are the foundation of ex- ternal memory on virtually all computer systems. The next section examines the use of disk arrays to achieve greater performance, looking specifically at the family of systems known as RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks).

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  • This chapter discusses aspects of the processor not yet covered in Part Three and sets the stage for the discussion of RISC and superscalar architecture in Chapters 13 and 14. We begin with a summary of processor organization. Registers, which form the internal memory of the processor, are then analyzed.

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  • The final part of the book looks at the increasingly important area of parallel orga- nization. In a parallel organization, multiple processing units cooperate to execute applications. Whereas a superscalar processor exploits opportunities for parallel ex- ecution at the instruction level, a parallel processing organization looks for a grosser level of parallelism, one that enables work to be done in parallel, and cooperatively, by multiple processors.

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  • During the early years of microprocessor technology, there were few engineers with education and experience in the application of microprocessor technology.Now that microprocessors and microcontrollers have become pervasive in many types of equipment, it has become almost a requirement that many technical people have the ability to use them. Today the microprocessor and the microcontroller have become two of the most powerful tools available to the scientist and engineer.

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  • Up to this point, we have viewed the processor essentially as a “black box” and have considered its interaction with I/O and memory. Part Three examines the internal structure and function of the processor. The processor consists of registers, the arith- metic and logic unit, the instruction execution unit, a control unit, and the intercon- nections among these components.

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  • In Part Three, we focused on machine instructions and the operations performed by the processor to execute each instruction. What was left out of this discussion is exactly how each individual operation is caused to happen. This is the job of the control unit.

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  • Die einfachsten technischen Systeme nutzen eine Hauptschleife (Run-Loop), sind also recht einfach und schnell zum Laufen gebracht. Vorausgesetzt, wir können mit JTAG-Adapter, Emulator und Bootloader umgehen. Eine kurze Einführung in diese Themen ist im Kap. 2 gegeben. Die nächste Stufe der Expertise wird erreicht, wenn wir es mit technischen Systemen zu tun haben, auf denen ein Betriebssystem läuft oder eigentlich laufen sollte. Zwei wichtige Betriebssysteme in der embeddedWelt sind Linux und QNX.

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  • Ontologies and catalogs of gene functions, such as the Gene Ontology (GO) and MIPS-FUN, assume that functional classes are organized hierarchically, that is, general functions include more specific ones. This has recently motivated the development of several machine learning algorithms for gene function prediction that leverages on this hierarchical organization where instances may belong to multiple classes.

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  • A computer program for synthesizing Japanese fundamental frequency contours implements our theory of Japanese intonation. This theory provides a complete qualitative description of the known characteristics of Japanese intonation, as well as a quantitative model of tone-scaling and timing precise enough to translate straightforwardly into a computational algorithm. An important aspect of the description is that various features of the intonation pattern are designated to be phonological properties of different types of phrasal units in a hierarchical organization.

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