Limit of detection

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  • The effect of optimum conditions via pH, dye concentration, time and solvent are studied. Beer’s law is obeyed in the concentration ranges 0.50-25.0 μg/mL with molar absorptivity of 1.46 104 , 1.83 104 and 2.07 104 L. mol-1 . cm-1 and limit of detection (LOD) of 0.105, 0.101, 0.084 for BPB, BCG and BTB methods, respectively. No interference was observed from common excipients present in pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method has been applied successfully to determine ciprofloxacin in pharmaceutical preparation (tablets, infusion and eye drops).

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  • A simple analytical method was developed for determination of chloride content in polymeric materials. The procedure comprises of two steps, the dissolution of the polymer by alkaline fusion followed by indirect spectrophotometric analysis of the chloride based on the absorption at 460 nm of Fe(SCN)2+, a product of the reaction between chloride ion and a mixture of mercury (II) thiocyante and ferric ion. A non-linear calibration curve was constructed from 0.5 to 20 ppm with R2 = 0.9991; the limit of detection and quantitation were of 0.325 and 1.083 ppm, respectively.

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  • The structural and textural characterization of the as-prepared SERS substrates were characterised by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy. The SERS activity was studied by Raman scattering spetra of Malachite Green (MG) molecules in water at room temperature. The SERS results showed an enhancement (20 times) by coupling of MG molecules with a localized surface plasmon resonance of Ag NPs. The limit of detection of MG molecules was determined to be 10−7M.

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  • Results presented as maps and profiles displayed variations of high and low radioactive concentrations across the area. These maps showed moderate to very high concentrations and very low to low concentrations of the radioelements; uranium (4.5-13.0 ppm); (LLD-low limit of detection -3.0 ppm), Th (25.0-70.0 ppm); (8.5-16.0 ppm) and K (2.0-4.0 %); but the most often observed values are in the range 2.5-7.0 ppm, 22.0-30.0 ppm and 3.0-4.0% for U, Th, and K respectively.

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  • the second edition of atoms, radiation, and radiation protection has several important new features. si units are employed throughout, the older units being de-fined but used sparingly. there are two new chapters. one is on statistics for health physics. it starts with the description of radioactive decay as a bernoulli process and treats sample counting, propagation of error, limits of detection, type-i and type-ii errors, instrument response, and monte carlo radiation-transport computations.

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  • With an indexed bond, the interest and maturity value are adjusted by the rate of inflation over the life of the bond. Because the cash flow of an indexed bond is adjusted for inflation, the bond’s real value does not vary with inflation, protecting investors and issuers alike from inflation risk. Inflation indexed bonds would be a fundamental innovation in U.S. financial markets, providing benefits to investors, the Treasury, and policymakers. Despite the potential benefits, the U.S. Treasury has never issued indexed bonds.

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  • Gompertzian tumor growth. The growth fraction of a tumor declines exponentially over time (top). The growth rate of a tumor peaks before it is clinically detectable (middle). Tumor size increases slowly, goes through an exponential phase, and slows again as the tumor reaches the size at which limitation of nutrients or auto- or host regulatory influences can occur. The maximum growth rate occurs at 1/e, the point at which the tumor is about 37% of its maximum size (marked with an X). Tumor becomes detectable at a burden of about 109 (1 cm3) cells and kills the patient at a tumor...

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  • This paper describes a method of detecting grammatical and lexical errors made by Japanese learners of English and other techniques that improve the accuracy of error detection with a limited amount of training data. In this paper, we demonstrate to what extent the proposed methods hold promise by conducting experiments using our learner corpus, which contains information on learners’ errors.

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  • The ultimate goal of this paper is to develop derivatives of ferroceneservingas an electrochemical probe that would enhance the performance of immunosensor.An immunosensor based on polypyrrole-streptavidin layer as platform for immobilization of biotinylatedferrocene and antibodies was developed. The measurement of redox signal of ferrocene was analyzed by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) method and underlined a variation of redox properties upon the antigen interaction.

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  • The CO(3-2) emission of the debris disc of the young A star 49 Ceti, known to be particularly gas rich, has been recently detected and measured using the ALMA interferometer. We study the observed line profile and comment on each of the possible contributions to its width. Line broadening is found to be dominated by Keplerian shear and an upper limit of 0.8 km s−1 FWHM is placed on other possible contributions, including temperature, confirming the quietness of the gas contained in the disc and disfavouring models that would require relatively violent events to generate secondary gas.

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  • A benzothiazolium-derived colorimetric and fluorescent chemosensor (L) for detection of mercury ions has been prepared. The detection limits of the colorimetric and fluorescent method for mercury ions are 15.3 and 11.8 ppb, respectively, much lower than the reported chemosensors based on similar derivatives of benzothiazolium.

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  • In this research, the analysis method of cyclic siloxanes including octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) in PCPs was developed by using a gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC/MS) system.The method detection limits and the method quantification limits of individual cyclic siloxanes were 0.7 ng/g and 2.0 ng/g, respectively.

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  • HPLC-PDA method was used to determine two basic dyes, Auramine O and Rhodamine B in food samples. The limits of detection and quantification of Auramine O (AO) and Rhodamine B (RB) were both 0.02 mg/L and 0.05 mg/L, respectively. The recoveries of AO and RB in matrices ranged from 83.00% to 105.91% with the concentration 0.5 µg/g, 1.0 µg/g and 1.5 µg/g.

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  • The Power of Accounting: What the Numbers Mean and How to Use Them provides a highly readable text for non-financial managers. It explores accounting’s uses and limitations in the management process. The text is intended for users of accounting information as opposed to preparers. It focuses on aiding the reader in understanding what accounting numbers mean, what they do not mean, when and how they can be used for decision making and planning and when they cannot. Larry Lewis is a Professor of Accounting at the University of Portland’s Pamplin School of Business, USA.

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  • Transgenic plants – Advances and limitations edited by Yelda Özden Çiftçi, present: applicatio; agrobacterium - mediated transformation of wheat: general overview and new approaches to model and identify the key factors involved; recent advances in fruit species transformation; green way of biomedicine - how to force plants to produce new important proteins; molecular breeding of grasses by transgenic approaches for biofuel production; genetic transformation of immature sorghum inflorescence via microprojectile bombardment; methods to transfer foreign genes to plants; crop improvement; m...

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  • New developments in mass spectrometry have allowed routine identification and lowered limits of detection at levels only imagined a decade ago. Thousands of contaminants and residues in the food supply and the environment are now being reported. Between 2005 and 2010, more than 5,000 publications covering TOF-MS and environmental and food analysis were published, showing the importance of the technique in these applications.

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  • In the past, the government often tried to ensure that we pay "a fair rate" of interest by implementing usury ceilings or limits on the rates that lenders can charge. During the 1980s there was a general trend toward eliminating or raising these limits as policy-makers reacted to the high inflation and record interest rates of the late 1970s. During the early 1990s, however, the trend reversed as some suggested that caps should be placed on credit card rates, which remained at historically high levels while other key interest rates declined significantly.

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  • The elderly population is seen differently in developing and developed countries. In the former, the age limit for a person to be considered old is 60 years; in the latter, this age limit is 65 years. This differentiation emerged during the First United Nations World Summit on Population Aging, through Resolution number 39/125(1). The need to establish chronological parameters for old age becomes more relevant as social and health actions are scheduled.

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  • (BQ) Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach will give you the thorough understanding you need of basic features, operations, and limitations of ifferent types of computer networks. This book offers full coverage of wireless technologies, industry convergence, compression techniques, network security, LAN technologies, VoIP, and error detection and correction.

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