Mediating soil interactions

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  • In acidic soils, aluminum (Al) competing with Zn results in Zn deficiency in plants. Zn is essential for auxin biosynthesis. Zn-mediated alleviation of Al toxicity has been rarely studied, the mechanism of Zn alleviation on Al-induced photoinhibition in photosystems remains unclear.

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  • Attachment of soil bacteria to plant cells is supposedly the very early step required in plant–microbe interactions. Attachment also is an initial step for the formation of microbial biofilms on plant roots. For the rhizobia–legume symbiosis, various mechanisms and diverse surface molecules of both partners have been proposed to mediate in this process. A biofilm is an aggregate of microorganisms in which cells are stuck to each other and/or to biotic/abiotic surface.

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  • The bleached pulps were screened prior to sheet preparation. All analyses were performed according to ISO and SCAN standards, except for the carbohydrate analysis of straw which was done by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC). The ashing was conducted at 550°C for 12 h. The mechanically refined pulp after hot water treatment was fractioned with a Bauer McNett apparatus. The paper technical properties were determined from the combined 100 and 200 mesh fractions.

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  • At very high temperatures and constant heat loads even camels need to dissipate heat. Many mammals achieve evaporative cooling through an increased respiratory rate rather than by sweating. Respiratory cooling is relatively more expensive in water than is sweating since faster respiration rates result in more energy being used. Normal respiratory rates in camels are in the range of 6 to 11 breaths/min. (average 8) in the Sahara. Under heat stress these increase to levels of 8 to 18 (average 16). Such low respiration rates do not result in significantly increased evaporation. ...

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  • To select sample schools, the surveyors first chose schoolswith twelfth grades. Then, for each school containing a twelfth grade, they identified the middle and elementary schools that “fed” their students into the secondary school. If a lower-grade school fed more than 90% of its students into the selected twelfth-grade school, then it was sampled with certainty; other lower-grade schools were sampled in proportion to the share of their students who were fed into the twelfth-grade school.

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  • Continued growth in annual fuel cell system shipments was seen worldwide in 2011, increasing 39% compared to 2010 to reach a new high of 24,600 units. So far 2012 has seen that momentum maintained and our expectations are for full-year system shipments to more than triple relative to 2011, reaching 78,200. In megawatt terms, 2011 grew 20% versus the previous year to exceed 100 MW for the fi rst time and we anticipate a further 61% growth in megawatts for 2012, totalling 175.8 MW. A number of high-profi le developments took place, including a surge in large stationary fuel cell...

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  • The growth and popularity of social media throughout 2011 has not shown signs of slowing down, either on a global level or within the Arab region. Globally, Facebook still dominates, with over 800 million users worldwide, of which 50% log in daily, while 350 million users access Facebook through mobile devices2 . Twitter, on the other hand, reached over 100 million “active users” in September 20113 , with an estimated 200 million “tweets” generated each day. Half of these active users log in every day, although not all of them tweet.

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  • The following checks should be carried out at the beginning of each operating theatre session. In addition, specific checks should be carried out before each new patient during a session or when there is any alteration or addition to the breathing system, monitoring or ancillary equipment. It is the responsibility of the anaesthetist to make sure that these checks have been performed, and the anaesthetist must be satisfied that they have been carried out correctly.

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  • At the bottom of the screen is the Property inspector. If the Property inspector isn’t visible, choose Window Properties. The Property inspector displays properties for a selected object or tool. You can change these properties. If no objects or tools are selected, the Property inspector displays document properties. The Property inspector displays either two or four rows of properties. If the Property inspector is at half height, that is, displaying only two rows, you can click the expander arrow in the lower right corner to see all properties.

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  • From each plot plant specimens for further herbarium identification were collected. The entire specimen collection has been left with botanist Vu Van Can in Hanoi. All specimens were conserved in alcohol before drying and identification. Some specimens were identified in the field, others later in Hanoi.

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  • Third, we look at the results for other time intervals since the start of the crisis, as well as the results for “normal times” (1997–2008). Looking within the crisis, we find evidence of more underestimation of fiscal multipliers earlier in the crisis (for the time intervals 2009–10 and 2010–11) than later in the crisis (2011–12 and 2012–13). Results for the earlier samples yield coefficients typically between 0.7 and 1.0. Results for the later samples yield coefficients typically between 0.3 and 0.5 and are less statistically significant.

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  • Banking activities have a relatively large share of GDP in the U.K. compared to other countries. In this paper the focus will be on the domestic activities of the banks and non-banks. The latter can be defined as lenders, which have their funding provided by the wholesale money and capital markets, rather than by their own depositors. Many banks in the U.K., especially in the City of London are involved in cross-border activities, either as currency traders, bond and share traders and/or as risk traders in the derivatives markets.

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  • The HITIDE Subgroup focuses on governance challenges, operational opportunities, and issues relevant to HITIDE projects. Its current interests include interoperability, standards, de-identified test data, and organizational barriers. medical device interoperability (NIH Affiliate, ONC Strategic Health IT Advanced Research Projects [SHARP] program); and developing substitutable, modular applications for health IT systems (ONC SHARP program).

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  • Through history, expression of Dionysian ideals often seemed inspired as a reaction to the dominant tradition of reason. While the rise and fall of tension between the two traditions may make for a dramatic story and inspire many to choose one side or the other, Dewey and other holists would insist that the complete human experience is always the unity of the two. Thus, it is neither accurate nor sensible to assert that one side is more important than the other or to force an either/or choice. That said,...

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  • Brazil’s capital market remains focused on short term instruments. Most financial contracts among residents are indexed to the overnight interest rate, although there has been a gradual trend towards increasing duration in the recent years. This largely short term structure reflects long-standing fundamental factors, including a legacy of past high inflation that typically is associated with a more short–term focus for investing.

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  • Hedge funds increased in value to €79 billion, driven largely by revaluations of €2.2 billion amid a net transactions outflow of €0.3 billion. The revaluation performance was tempered by the fact that some hedge funds assumed short positions in a positively performing market. Hedge funds have not outperformed other investment strategies in the year to date. Other funds, comprising mostly mixed funds 3 , experienced negligible inflows of €0.2 billion, despite positive revaluations of €5.1 billion, culminating in an increase in overall stock to €152 billion. ...

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  • The good news is that more and more content is being “born digital” without the need for scanning. We expect that, over time, more and more information will arrive digitally, including bills, correspondence, financial statements, music, and photos. Articles in professional journals, newspapers, and magazines are perhaps the most valuable content that a professional and many of these are available digitally now. RSS feeds from professional organizations will improve this situation.

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  • Because P2P systems designers have to a large extent failed to overcome these challenges, the semantics provided by these systems is typically quite weak. In most content sharing systems, only popular content is readily accessible — yet content popularity seems to be driven by Zipf distributions, in which a large fraction of requests are directed to unpopular content. Similarly, current content sharing systems ignore problems such as updates to content, and they typically only support retrieval of objects by name.

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  • An exhibiting artist since 1966, Lucia Pacenza is one of her country’s major sculptors. Her work is represented in collections in Argentina, Mexico, Spain and the United States. She completed this commission while Artist in Residence at the ANU School of Art. As with Janus, the classical god of doorways whose two faces look both forward and backward, so this arch combines references to both beginnings and ends. The concertina-folded and tooth-edged working around the hole suggests body openings and birth.

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  • King, Heywood and others foresee the potential for further improvements in new car fuel economy, up to a 50% reduction in L/100 km by 2030-2035, mainly through the wider penetration of technolo- gies leading up to, and including, fully hybridized vehicles. The introduction of grid-connected bat- tery electric vehicles (probably first as “plug-in” hy- brids) would also contribute to efficiency improve- ment (in addition to fuel shifts toward electricity), assuming sustained progress in battery technol- ogy.

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