Micronutrient deficiency

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  • Introduction Micronutrient deficiencies affect the majority of the population in Asia. Though somewhat lower than in other countries in the region, micronutrient deficiencies remain p r eva len t in Vie tna m. The prevalence of xerophthalmia, or clinical vitamin A deficiency (VAD), is now lower than the cut-off point established by the World Health Organization (WHO) to indicate a significant public health problem. However, the prevalence of sub-clinical VAD as measured by low serum retinol exceeds 10% for children under five and pregnant women.

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  • Natural resources conservation is one of the dilemmas currently facing mankind in both developed and the developing world. The topic is of particular importance for the latter, where the majority depend on terrestrial ecosystems for livelihood; more than one billion people live in abject poverty earning less than a dollar per day; more than 3.7 billion suffer from micronutrient deficiency and more than 800 million suffer from chronic hunger.

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  • Specific micronutrient deficiencies may affect maternal and foetal health. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy may cause foetal brain damage and mental retardation in infants. Vitamin A deficiency increases the risk in pregnant women of infection and anaemia, may cause blindness during pregnancy and early lactation, and has been associated to an elevated risk of HIV mother-to-child transmission. Folate deficiency may cause severe foetal neural tube defects like anencephaly and spina bifida.

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  • In 2000, the WHO Regional Committee for Europe requested the Regional Director, in resolution EUR/RC50/R8, to take action to help fulfil WHO’s role in implementing its first food and nutrition action plan for the WHO European Region. This included presenting Member States with a review of the scientific evidence needed to develop integrated and comprehensive national food and nutrition policies.

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  • At the start of the 21st century, the learning potential of significant numbers of children and young people in every country in the world is compromised. Hunger, malnutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, parasite infections, drug and alcohol abuse, violence and injury, early and unintended pregnancy, and infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted infections threaten the health and lives of children and youth (UNESCO, 2001). Yet these conditions and behaviours can be improved.

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  • Anaemia is one of the most common nutritional problems affecting women in developing countries, where iron deficiency usually combines with other micronutrient deficiencies such as folate and vitamin B. In addition, the diet of the poorest populations is often monotonous and mainly based on staple foods, which are low in iron and contain absorption inhibitors. Other important factors involved in the occurrence of anaemia include malaria and hookworm infestations, chronic infections such as HIV, and congenital conditions like sickle cell disease, among others.

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  • This little book will aid you in answering that troublesome question. The recipes are carefully selected and we hope you will find them helpful. More important to you than the question of food is that of health. Therefore, in this book we show you many letters from women who have received great benefit by taking Lydia E. Pinkham's Vegetable Compound. You have heard of this splendid medicine, for it has been used by women for nearly fifty years. It is a Woman's Medicine for Women's Ailments.

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  • Post-natal infections not only occur more frequently in children stunted in utero but also promote stunting post-natally in young children, particularly in low- and middle-income settings where a high prevalence of infectious illnesses combines with poor sanitation to facilitate fecal- oral transmission of diarrheal and parasitic illnesses (Grantham-McGregor et al 1999b).

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  • 9 Chlorine Chlorine is classified as a micronutrient, but it is often taken up by plants at levels comparable to a macronutrient. Supplies of chlorine in nature are often plentiful, and obvious symptoms of deficiency are seldom observed.

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  • These replacement and/or supplementary supplies can be provided through organic manures and/or mineral fertilizers. This publication concerns the provision of raw mate- rials for two important mineral fertilizers, phosphate and potash. Three major nutrients are required in large quantities for plant growth, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassi- um. Three secondary nutrients are required in smaller quantities on some soils; sulfur, calcium and magne- sium. Seven micronutrients may be required in small amounts where deficient.

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  • As a research scientist in the area of human nutrition, I have observed a sea change in emphasis within my field over the past 10–15 years. There have always been dynamics within the subject: During the first half of the twentieth century, scientists grappled with discovering the essential micronutrients and with characterizing the biological effects of their deficiency. This interest in “too little” was supplanted in the mid-1980s by a preoccupation with too much—too much fat, too much sugar, and too much obesity.

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  • The results was read according to the grading system of the International Union Against TB and Lung Diseases as - , +, ++, +++7. Thereafter, the sputum was decontaminated using 4 per cent NaOH. The resulting solution was mixed using vortex mixer. About one ml from the mixture was inoculated onto prepared modified Ogawa egg medium as previously demonstrated8 and incubated at 37oC for six weeks. M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv and sterile Ogawa medium were used as positive and negative controls respectively.

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