Molecular mode

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  • Bacterial type IV secretion systems (T4SS) form supramolecular protein complexes that are capable of transporting DNA or protein substrates across the bacterial cell envelope and, in many cases, also across eukaryotic target cell membranes.

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  • Environmental toxicology is the study of the impacts of pollutants upon the structure and function of ecological systems. For the purposes of this text, the emphasis will be upon ecological structures, from the molecular to the individual organism to the community and the ecosystem. The broad scope of environmental toxicology requires a multidisciplinary approach of a variety of specialists.

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  • It is widely recognised that high-speed lines attract new travellers to the railway system. A recent study undertaken on the Madrid-to-Seville AVE line also revealed big savings in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, showing that without the AVE an additional 48,000 tonnes of CO2 would be produced on this route every year. AVE passengers were asked which transport mode they would have chosen if there were no high-speed trains: 13% said conventional train, 26% air transport, 24% private car, 3% coach and 34% said they would not have made the journey at all....

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  • An exo-1,3-b-glucanase has been isolated from cultural filtrate of Trichoderma viride AZ36. The N-terminal sequence of the purified enzyme (m ¼ 61 ^ 1 kDa) showed no significant homology to other known glucanases. The 1,3-b-glucanase displayed high activity against laminarins, curdlan, and 1,3-b-oligoglucosides, but acted slowly on 1,3-1,4-b-oligoglucosides. No significant activity was detected against high molecular mass 1,3-1,4-bglucans. The enzyme carried out hydrolysis with inversion of the anomeric configuration.

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  • Seven distinct antigenic botulinum toxins (BNT-A, -B, -C, -D, -E, -F, and -G) produced by different strains of Clostridium botulinum have been described. The human nervous system is susceptible to five toxin serotypes (BNT-A, -B, -E, -F, -G) and unaffected by 2 (BNT-C, -D). Although all toxins have different molecular targets, their action leads to the blockade of the cholinergic nerves. However, only the A and B toxins are available as drugs.

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  • Worldwide, one in five women has a child by the age of 18. In the poorest regions of the world, this rises to over one in three women. Adolescent pregnancies are more likely to occur among poor, less educated and rural populations. WHO’s recommendations for reducing early pregnancy are informed by two graded systematic reviews, three ungraded studies, as well as the conclusions of an expert panel.

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  • Freshwater sponges are common animals of most aquatic ecosystems. They utilize flagellated choanocytes to pump water through a series of canals. Incoming water enters through ostia, passes through choanocyte chambers, and exits through the osculum. Bacteria are filtered from incoming water, and large volumes of water can pass through a sponge in a 24-hour period. Because of their simple morphological construction, many cells come into direct contact with the surrounding water as the sponge pumps.

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  • Idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD) is an age-dependent, neurodegenerative disorder and is predominantly sporadic. Only 20–30% of patients have a positive family history for PD with a complex mode of inheritance. In a few extended families, the disease is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Linkage to chromosome 4 was reported in a large Italian kindred multiply affected by an early-onset form of PD (1). However, this finding was not replicated in a sample of 94 Caucasian families by Scott et al. (2), or in 13 multigenerational families by Gasser et al. (3)....

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  • Glucose as a source of energy is centrally important to our understanding of life. We investigated the cell division–quiescence behavior of the fission yeastSchizosaccharomyces pombeunder a wide range of glucose concentra-tions (0–111 mM). The mode of S.

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  • Sequence analysis of aPaenibacillussp. BP-23 recombinant clone coding for a previously described endoglucanase revealed the presence of an additional truncated ORF with homology to family 48 glycosyl hydrolases. The corres-ponding 3509-bp DNA fragment was isolated after gene walking and cloned inEscherichia coliXl1-Blue for expres-sion and purification. The encoded enzyme, a cellulase of 1091 amino acids with a deduced molecular mass of 118 kDa and a pI of 4.

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  • The chitosanase fromStreptomycessp. N174 (CsnN174) is an inverting glycoside hydrolase belonging to family 46. Previous studies identified Asp40 as the general base residue. Mutation of Asp40 into glycine revealed an unexpectedly high residual activity. D40G mutation did not affect the stereochemical mechanism of catalysis or the mode of interaction with sub-strate.

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  • Juvenile hormones (JHs) of insects are sesquiterpenoids that regulate a great diversity of processes in development and reproduction. As yet the molecular modes of action of JH are poorly understood. TheMethoprene-tolerant (Met) gene of Drosophila melanogasterhas been found to be responsible for resistance to a JH analogue (JHA) insecticide, methoprene. Previous studies onMethave implicated its involvement in JH signaling, although direct evidence is lacking.

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  • To achieve a structural context for the analysis of G-protein coupled recep-tor (GPCR) oligomers, molecular modeling must be used to predict the corresponding interaction interfaces. The task is complicated by the paucity of detailed structural data at atomic resolution, and the large number of possible modes in which the bundles of seven transmembrane (TM) seg-ments of the interacting GPCR monomers can be packed together into dimers and⁄or higher-order oligomers.

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  • Information Theory, Evolution, and the Origin of Life presents a timely introduction to the use of information theory and coding theory in molecular biology. The genetical information system, because it is linear and digital, resembles the algorithmic language of computers. George Gamow pointed out that the application of Shannon’s information theory breaks genetics and molecular biology out of the descriptive mode into the quantitative mode, and Dr. Yockey develops this theme, discussing how information theory and coding theory can be applied to molecular biology....

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  • This book is dedicated to the rapidly grown field of microporous ceramic membranes with separating layers of pore diameter less than 2 nm. In spite of the recent rapid growth of the research effort directed towards the development of microporous ceramic membranes the field is still considered to be at its infancy and exhibits a significant future growth potential.

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  • Within the last decade the interest in lipases has increased dramatically, and no doubt, this interest will be maintained in the future. Novel and powerful tools of molecular biology, crystallography, NMR technology and molecular modeling will continue to reveal new amino acid sequences and three-dimensional structures of lipases. In addition, transgenic and knockout animal models as well as the use of specific inhibitors will add knowledge about their mode of interaction with lipid substrates, cleavage mechanism and physiological roles in humans....

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  • The molecular mechanism of the presynaptic neurotoxicity of snake venom phospholipases A2(PLA2s) is not yet fully elucidated. Recently, newhigh-affinity binding proteins for PLA2 toxins have been discovered, including the important intracellular Ca 2+ sensor, calmodulin (CaM). In the present study, the mode of interaction of group IIAPLA2swiththe Ca 2+ -bound form of CaM was investigated by mutational analysis of ammodytoxin A (AtxA) from the long-nosed viper (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes).

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