Predisposition to disease

Xem 1-20 trên 21 kết quả Predisposition to disease
  • New technologies have led to revisiting of the individual-collective relation in public health …and to questions of their impact on health inequalities The upholding of ‘choice’ coincides with new forms of stratification No consistency in argument Examples: nutrigenetics, obesity and functional foods

    ppt35p nhocbuonthich 18-06-2012 70 11   Download

  • Oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of many cardiovascular disorders, such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. NRF2 is the primary transcriptional regulator of several antioxidant genes, including that of sulfiredoxin (SRXN1).

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  • Characterising genetic diversity through the analysis of massively parallel sequencing (MPS) data offers enormous potential to significantly improve our understanding of the genetic basis for observed phenotypes, including predisposition to and progression of complex human disease.

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  • Medical Ethics and New Technologies The rapid pace of technological advances has profound implications for medical applications far beyond their traditional roles to prevent, treat, and cure disease. Cloning, genetic engineering, gene therapy, human-computer interfaces, nanotechnology, and designer drugs have the potential to modify inherited predispositions to disease, select desired characteristics in embryos, augment "normal" human performance, replace failing tissues, and substantially prolong life span.

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  • I wrote the first edition of this book more than 20 years ago, and the discoveries in genetics since then have been phenomenal. The new knowledge and applications of human genetics to health and to society have made it even more necessary that nurses "think genetically" in their practice and, indeed in their lives. Genetic factors can be responsible in some way for both direct and indirect disease causation; for variation that determines predisposition, susceptibility, and resistance to disease and also for response to therapeutic management.

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  • A major pan-European study showed that survival rates in England and Scotland were lower than in other European countries in the 1980s. 6 This was probably due, at least in part, to the fact that British patients tended to have more advanced disease at the time of diagnosis. It is not yet known whether the discrepancy in outcomes has been reduced in the period since this study was carried out. Risk factors The causes of breast cancer are complex. It has been suggested that up to 10% of patients may have an inherited predisposition to the disease.

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  • The second requirement is a clear and well defined starting point. For popu- lation-based cancer registries, the starting date (from which the survival is calculated) is the incidence date (see Section 17.3.1). The third requirement is a clear and well defined outcome. Death is gener- ally the outcome of interest, but some registries collect enough data to allow them to conduct analyses using recurrence of tumour, or first recurrence of a particular complication, as the outcome of interest.

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  • Despite advances in pharmacology, not all patients respond favourably to drugs. A proportion of patients under therapy don't benefit from their treatment or experience an adverse reaction to the medication. However, progress in the understanding of disease mechanisms and drug actions are opening opportunities to match therapies to patient populations, and thus pave the way towards a more personalised medicine.

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  • Blue pine (Pinus wallichiana) plantations in Kashmir forests have been noticed to be affected by blight diseases showing typical symptoms of shoot blight, die-back and curling of terminal shoots. Plants grown in nutritionally poor soils are more susceptible to diseases. The type of major nutrient supplementation plays a major role in predisposition of plant to the infection by needle blight pathogens. Three fungi were isolated from the infected needles of Blue pine bearing fructification.

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  • Published genetic risk scores for breast cancer (BC) so far have been based on a relatively small number of markers and are not necessarily using the full potential of large-scale Genome-Wide Association Studies.

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  • A large body of genetic research has focused on the potential role that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants might play on the predisposition to common and complex (multi-factorial) diseases. It has been argued however that many of these studies could be inconclusive due to artifacts related to genotyping errors or inadequate design.

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  • Genetic predisposition is the primary risk factor for familial breast cancer. For the majority of familial breast cancer, however, the genetic predispositions remain unknown. All newly identified predispositions occur rarely in disease population, and the unknown genetic predispositions are estimated to reach up to total thousands.

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  • Many disorders exhibit the feature of locus heterogeneity, which refers to the fact that mutations in different genes can cause phenotypically similar disorders. For example, osteogenesis imperfecta (Chap. 357), long QT syndrome (Chap. 226), muscular dystrophy (Chap. 382), homocystinuria (Chap. 358), retinitis pigmentosa (Chap. 29), and hereditary predisposition to colon cancer (Chap. 87) or breast cancer (Chap. 86) can each be caused by mutations in distinct genes.

    pdf5p konheokonmummim 03-12-2010 71 6   Download

  • Being able to look at clients and families with a “genetic eye” has become critical for all nurses. Advances from genetic and genomic research have influenced all areas of health care and cross all periods of the life cycle. Genetic factors are responsible in some way for both indirect and direct disease causation; for variation that determines predisposition, susceptibility, and resistance to disease; and for response to treatment.

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  • Pathogenesis The multicentric nature of the disease and high rate of recurrence has led to the hypothesis of a field defect in the urothelium that results in a predisposition to cancer. Molecular genetic analyses suggest that the superficial and invasive lesions develop along distinct molecular pathways in which primary tumorigenic aberrations precede secondary changes associated with progression to a more advanced stage.

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  • Asthma is now the most common chronic childhood disease, occurring in approximately 54 of every 1000 children (21). From 1980 through 1996, childhood asthma increased dramatically, by approximately 5% per year (14, 16, 26). The etiology of asthma is complex and multifactorial; risk factors include genetic predisposition as well as exposure to environmental and infectious triggers.

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  • Gout is a picturesque presentation of uric acid disturbance. It is the most well understood and described type of arthritis. Its epidemiology is studied. New insights into the pathophysiology of hyperuricemia and gouty arthritis; acute and chronic allow for an even better understanding of the disease. The role of genetic predisposition is becoming more evident. The clinical picture of gout is divided into asymptomatic hyperuricemia, acute gouty arthritis, intercritical period, and chronic tophaceous gout. Diagnosis is based on laboratory and radiological features.

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  • Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multifactorial disease resulting from both genetic predisposition and environmental factors including the gut microbiota (GM), but deciphering the influence of genetic variants, environmental variables, and interactions with the GM is exceedingly difficult.

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  • Steven K Lundy, Sujata Sarkar, Laura A Tesmer and David A Fox Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Rheumatology and Rheumatic Diseases Core Center, University of Michigan Medical School, 4043 Biomedical Sciences Research Bldg., 109 Zina Pitcher Pl., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200, USA Corresponding author: David A Fox, Published: 13 February 2007 This article is online at © 2007 BioMed Central Ltd Arthritis Research & Therapy 2007, 9:202 (doi:10.

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  • Children also need to know that Parkinson’s is not contagious. They can’t catch it like they can get a cold or the chicken pox. Older children also may be worried that, since they’re related to you, they will contract the disease themselves eventually. But with today’s research leading in the direction of predisposition combined with environmental factors, you can com- fortably reassure them that is not likely to happen. As unlikely as it sounds to an adult, young children may need to be told that it’s not their fault a parent has Parkinson’s.

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