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Regenerative biology

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 67. Applications of Stem Cell Biology in Clinical Medicine Applications of Stem Cell Biology in Clinical Medicine: Introduction Organ damage and the resultant inflammatory responses initiate a series of repair processes, including stem cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation, often in combination with angiogenesis and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Endogenous stem cells in tissues such as liver and skin have a remarkable ability to regenerate the organs, whereas heart and brain have a much more limited capability for self-repair.

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  • Diabetes Mellitus The success of islet cell and pancreas transplantation provides proof of concept for a cell-based approach for type I diabetes. However, the demand for donor pancreata far exceeds the number available, and maintenance of long-term graft survival remains a problem. The search for a renewable source of stem cells capable of regenerating pancreatic islets has therefore been intensive. Pancreatic βcell turnover occurs in the normal pancreas, although the source of the new βcells is controversial.

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  • Other Organ Systems and the Future The use of stem cells in regenerative medicine has been studied for many other organ systems and cell types, including skin, eye, cartilage, bone, kidney, lung, endometrium, vascular endothelium, smooth muscle, striated muscle, and others. In fact, the potential for stem cell regeneration of damaged organs and tissues is virtually limitless. However, numerous obstacles must be overcome before stem cell therapies can become a widespread clinical reality.

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  • Advances in stem cell biology and biomaterials development in the late 1990s have helped drive on an ever expanding body of research in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Scientists realized that the key to future success of functional tissues is bridging the gap between developmental biology and tissue engineering. We are all amazed by the high degree of sophistication and miniaturization found in nature. Nature is, indeed, a school of science.

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  • ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs) proteinases degrade proteoglycans and thereby have the potential to alter tissue architecture and regulate cellular function.

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  • Global warming and changes in climate have already had observed impacts on natural ecosystems and species. Natural systems such as wetlands, mangroves, coral reefs, cloud forests, Arctic and high latitude ecosystems are especially vulnerable to climate‐induced disturbances. Enhanced protection and management of biological resources and habitats can mitigate impacts and contribute to solutions as nations and communities strive to adapt to climate change. Biodiversity is the foundation and mainstay of agriculture, forests, and fisheries.

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  • Organ damage and the resultant inflammatory responses initiate a series of repair processes, including stem cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation, often in combination with angiogenesis and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Endogenous stem cells in tissues such as liver and skin have a remarkable ability to regenerate the organs, whereas heart and brain have a much more limited capability for self-repair. Under rare circumstances, circulating stem cells may contribute to regenerative responses by migrating into a tissue and differentiating into organ-specific cell types.

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  • Tissue Engineering is the first medical therapy where engineered tissues could potentially become fully integrated within the patient, thus offering a permanent cure for many diseases not curable today. The National Science Foundation (NSF) defined Tissue Engineering in 1988 as the “application of the principles and methods of engineering and life sciences toward fundamental understanding of structure-function relationships in normal and pathological mammalian tissues and the development of biological substitutes to restore, maintain or improve tissue function (Shalak and Fox, 1988).

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  • During the last decades, numerous studies about stem cells and regenerative medicine highlighted new therapeutic approaches to treat several neurological disorders. It is noteworthy that the current optimism over potential stem cell therapies is driven by new understandings of stem cell biology leading to specific cell fate decision.

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  • Research should aim to develop regenerative therapies, involve SMEs and test promising products or techniques in the clinic. Since it is intended to encourage regenerative medicine as an approach, proposals may address any justified disease or condition. Execution of clinical/in-patient trials should represent a central part of the project. To indicate real promise, pre-clinical or early clinical results should be already available. Rigorous toxicology studies should precede clinical trials.

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