Soil health

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  • This book is a response to that need for a synthesis. It contains 17 chapters, each prepared by authors who are internation- ally recognized for their knowledge and expertise in a particular area of soil/plant biology.

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  • “Be it deep or shallow, red or black, sand or clay, the soil is the link between the rock core of the earth and the living things on its surface. It is the foothold for the plants we grow. Therein lays the main reason for our interest in soils.” --- Roy W. Simonson, USDA Yearbook of Agriculture, 1957. The British naturalist Charles Darwin (1809–1882) was probably the first scientist to examine a soil profile and suggest factors responsible for the structure of the various layers.

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  • Why do some contaminants remain in soils indefinitely? How much of a threat do they pose to human health or the environment? The need for effective and economic site decontamination arises daily. Geoenvironmental Engineering: Contaminated Soils, Pollutant Fate, and Mitigation discusses why soils remain contaminated, focusing on the development of the factors, properties, characteristics, and parameters of soils and individual contaminants.

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  • The soil ecosystem provides services such as carbon sequestration, nutrient cycling, water purification, provisioning of industrial and pharmaceutical goods, and a mitigating sink for chemical and biological agents. However, the soil is subject to various degradation processes. Its relation with the hydrosphere, biosphere, and atmosphere makes the interacting processes even more complex. Moreover, as the soilhuman interactions increase, threats, leading to a series of impacts on soil health, become more important....

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  • however, even with tested, low-cost solutions for maternal and neonatal health available, mothers and infants die needlessly. every year, more than 500,000 women die from complications of pregnancy and childbirth, and many more are permanently disabled. 6 even when infants survive, their chance for a healthy and productive life is much diminished by the death or disability of the mother.

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  • Starting contraception immediately, rather than waiting for the next menses, may theoretically reduce the time a woman is at risk of pregnancy; prevent her forgetting information on correct use of the method; prevent waning enthusiasm for the method and use of a less reliable alternative method; avoid patient costs and barriers to returning for contraception (e.g. transport, time, childcare) and reduce health care costs by reducing the number of appointments. Women who have taken EC or who have irregular cycles may have an even longer wait for their next menses.

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  • Reliable and comparable data on access to health care across the EU-27 Member States is limited. The most comprehensive available data comes from the 2007 Eurobarometer Survey Health and Long-Term Care in the European Union, which is a public opinion survey and sufficient only to suggest potential trends. Based on those women interviewed for the survey, the majority of European women report having easy access to health care. Approximately 88% of women felt that it was easy to access a family doctor or general practitioner.

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  • As the relationship among Canada, the United States, and Mexico develops, it creates the oppor- tunity to ask ourselves if and how continental prosperity is benefiting our most significant asset— our children. Does a child raised on this continent have the best chance at health, education, and safety? Will a child raised on this continent be able to face the challenges that globalization brings—today and in the future? Securing the well-being of our young people requires greater cooperation and information sharing.

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  • this is a promising time to be working on ensuring the care of mothers and newborns. the global health community has at its disposal a range of cost-effective, proven solutions that can halt the majority of conditions causing maternal and neonatal deaths. 1, 2, 3, 4 these include antibiotics for infections, sterile blades to cut umbilical cords, misoprostol and oxytocin for preventing and treating postpartum hemorrhage, and teaching mothers the importance of immediate, exclusive breastfeeding and skin-to-skin contact to keep their babies warm.

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  • he workgroup identiied four goals that were grounded in the following public health areas: (1) surveillance and evaluation: improve collection, analysis, dissemination, and reporting of COPD-related public health data; (2) public health research and prevention strategies: improve understanding of COPD development, prevention, and treatment; (3) programs and policies: increase efective collaboration among stakeholders with COPD-related interests; and (4) communication: heighten awareness of COPD among a broad spectrum of stakeholders and decision makers (Table 1).

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  • The purpose of this paper is to understand the determinants of child health. In particular, we will focus on the influence of household consumption and public infrastructure on child health. This would inform policy makers when setting priorities among different interventions. It is important to understand whether different policies are substitutes or complements. Poverty and low education could cause bottlenecks, not allowing other public policies to influence child health.

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  • Quality of health care has received recent attention as a determinant of child health. Barber and Gertler (2001) conclude that in Indonesia children who live in communities with high quality care are healthier compared with children who live in areas with poor quality. Peabody et al (1998) showed that Jamaican women with access to high quality prenatal care have higher birth weights than women with access to poor quality care. It is clear, however, that to establish causal relationships between access and/or quality care and child health is extremely difficult.

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  • This paper addresses these challenges by approaching child health policy re- form from a system-transformation perspective.

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  • Attitudes are personal biases, preferences, and subjective assessments that predispose one to act or respond in a predictable manner. Attitudes lead people to like or dislike something, or to consider things good or bad, important or unimportant, worth caring about or not worth caring about. For example, gender sensitivity, respect for others, or respecting one’s body and believing that it is important to care for are attitudes that are important to preserving health and functioning well (adapted from Greene & Simons- Morton, 1984).

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  • As treatment continues, the need to explain the importance of follow-up sputum exams will become more of a priority. As the patient feels better, it is also important to convince the patient that it is important to continue treatment and very dangerous to stop. When the health care worker meets with the patient, the first few minutes should be spent checking to see if the patient remembers the information that was previously discussed regarding treatment of tuberculosis.

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  • In Australia and New Zealand, there are three levels of nurse: Enrolled Nurse (EN), Registered Nurse (RN) and Nurse Practitioner (NP), an RN with advanced education and training. Nursing and midwifery qualifications are recognized between the two nations under the Trans Tasman Mutual Recognition Agreement. Nurses and midwives represent around 50% of Australia’s health workforce, though the availability of clinicians varies greatly in urban and remote areas. New Zealand has a total nursing workforce of approximately 40,000 practicing nurses and nurse assistants.

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  • HSSIP 2010/11–2014/15 is the medium-term plan guiding health sector focus to achieve the objectives of the 2nd National Health Policy 2011–2020 (NHP II). HSSIP followed the launch of the National Development Plan 2010/11–2014/15, which sets Uganda‟s medium-term strategic direction, development priorities, and implementation strategies. HSSIP is detailed and was developed through a participatory process with a broad range of stakeholders and also benefitted from the Joint Assessment of National Strategies process during its development. ...

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  • Breathing apparatus must be used where birds show signs of distress, and for this reason birds are of great value in enabling rescue parties to use breathing apparatus to best advantage (Burrell and Seibert, 1916). INTRODUCTION Like humans, domestic animals and fish and other wildlife are exposed to contaminants in air, soil, water, and food, and they can suffer acute and chronic health effect...

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  • Although health has improved even in the poor- est countries, the pace of progress has been un- even. In 1960 in Ghana and Indonesia about one child in five died before reaching age 5—a child mortality rate typical of many developing coun- tries. By 1990 Indonesia's rate had dropped to about one-half the 1960 level, but Ghana's had fallen only slightly. Table 1 provides a summary of regional progress in mortality reduction between 1975 and 1990. (Figure 1 illustrates the demo- graphic regions used in Table 1 and frequently throughout this Report.

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  • Water-related diseases continue to posemajor threats to children’s survival and well-being inmany places in the developing world.This article develops a theoretical perspective on the ways in which children’s vulnerability to water-related disease hazard is produced within the everyday circumstances of livelihood and child care. Central to this analysis is the role that household resources play in mediating or shaping particular microenvironments of health risk.

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