Ẩn dụ ý niệm con người là cây trong thành ngữ, tục ngữ tiếng Việt

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Ẩn dụ ý niệm con người là cây trong thành ngữ, tục ngữ tiếng Việt

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Bài viết chỉ ra cơ chế sao phỏng giữa hai miền không gian trong tư duy ngôn ngữ của người Việt. Dựa trên quan hệ logic trong việc tổ chức lược đồ ánh xạ của ẩn dụ ý niệm, bài viết chỉ ra kiểu tư duy đặc thù trong cấu trúc ý niệm mang đặc trưng tư duy, văn hóa của người Việt.

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  1. v LÝ LUẬN CHUYÊN NGÀNH ẨN DỤ Ý NIỆM “CON NGƯỜI LÀ CÂY” TRONG THÀNH NGỮ, TỤC NGỮ TIẾNG VIỆT NGUYỄN THỊ BÍCH HẠNH * * Học viện Khoa học xã hội, ✉ Ngày nhận bài: 11/01/2018; ngày sửa chữa: 26/02/2018; ngày duyệt đăng: 28/02/2018 TÓM TẮT Từ lý thuyết của ngôn ngữ học tri nhận, bài viết nghiên cứu mô hình ẩn dụ ý niệm “con người là cây” trong thành ngữ, tục ngữ tiếng Việt. Tìm hiểu cách tri nhận của ông cha ta về con người và các chu kỳ vòng đời người dựa trên ý niệm về chu kỳ sinh trưởng của thực vật được hiện thân trong ngôn ngữ. Căn cứ vào những tương liên trong kinh nghiệm và những miền tri thức được chiếu xạ từ miền nguồn sang miền đích, bài viết chỉ ra cơ chế sao phỏng giữa hai miền không gian trong tư duy ngôn ngữ của người Việt. Dựa trên quan hệ logic trong việc tổ chức lược đồ ánh xạ của ẩn dụ ý niệm, bài viết chỉ ra kiểu tư duy đặc thù trong cấu trúc ý niệm mang đặc trưng tư duy, văn hóa của người Việt. Từ khóa: ánh xạ, ẩn dụ ý niệm, cây, con người, thành ngữ, tục ngữ 1. METAPHOR AND CONCEPTUAL agreed upon and affirmed by many structural METAPHOR linguistics around the world. In traditional viewpoint, metaphor is often Since Lakoff & Johnson (1980) published the considered a problem of language itself, including classic book Metaphor We live by, with the view some symbols in a figurative sense, based on that: “metaphor is pervasive in everyday life, not words in literal interpretation. Metaphor, which is just in language but in thought and action. Our studied by many rhetoricians, is often referred to ordinary conceptual system, in terms of which we as the way to convert names based on an implicit both think and act, is fundamentally metaphorical comparison between two things with similarities in nature” (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, p.30), the or of similar natures. The mechanism of metaphor concept of metaphor has undergone a breakthrough creates the most common meaning conversion in change as cognitive linguists claim that metaphor is all languages. This traditional view of metaphor also an effective cognitive tool for conceptualizing dates back to the Aristotelian period, which was abstract ideas. Metaphor is not merely a form KHOA HỌC NGOẠI NGỮ QUÂN SỰ 20 Số 2 - 3/2018
  2. LÝ LUẬN CHUYÊN NGÀNH v of language but also a form of human thinking Nhu Y (chief author, 1995). The total number of about the world. Metaphorical thinking is based idioms surveyed is 2.500. on concepts. The theory of conceptual metaphor proposed by both of them has attracted particular The article uses a number of research methods, attention in the field of cognitive linguistics. such as analytical and descriptive method; concept Accordingly, metaphor is a tool through which analysis method; in combination with statistics vague experiences of human are conceptualized and classification to address research objectives on the basis of more specific experiences (Lakoff and prove the set hypotheses, according to the & Johnson, 1980, p.4). Lakoff assumes that many following procedure: of our experiences are metaphorically created through a limited number of image schemas, made Step 1: Identify a set of characteristic features by metaphorical projection between the “source” of the source domain PLANT and the target and the “target” domains, with the general domain PEOPLE; model of TARGET IS SOURCE. This special Step 2: Identify a set of corresponding features meaning conversion is accomplished through in cognitive framework PEOPLE ARE PLANTS; irradiation between two spatial domains, where the properties of the source domain are usually Step 3: Perform statistics and classification more firmly structured (e.g. PLANT, JOURNEY, from collected data sources to separate the CONTAINER) and partially mapped to the target metaphorical expressions of the concept PEOPLE domain - usually more abstract (e.g. PEOPLE, ARE PLANTS; EMOTION, TIME)... (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, p.8). Through metaphor, people recognize that the Step 4: Group the metaphorical expressions world consists of material world, spiritual world of the concept PEOPLE ARE PLANTS according and emotional world. Metaphor is attached to the to the criteria of “plant life cycle” defined in the cultural characteristics of native speaker. The article Cognitive framework; applies the theoretical frameworks of cognitive linguistics in idioms and proverbs in Vietnamese to Step 5: Develop an irradiation map in the figure out the metaphorical expression of PEOPLE metaphor PEOPLE ARE PLANTS based on ARE PLANTS and subordinate metaphors of this the mechanism of moving the properties from concept, to demonstrate the intimate relationship “plant life cycle” to “people life cycle” in between language -​​ culture - thinking expressed idioms and proverbs in Vietnamese; show the through conceptual expressions. path and the mechanism of replication between spatial domains of source and target, “plant” and 2. METHODS AND DATA USED FOR “people” in conceptual thinking of the Vietnamese RESEARCH to demonstrate the intimate relationship between The research materials are taken from Kho language -​​ culture - thinking expressed through tàng tục ngữ người Việt (Vietnamese proverb conceptual expressions. treasure), Volumes 1, 2 by Nguyen Xuan Kinh, 3. RESULTS Nguyen Thuy Loan, Phan Lan Huong and Nguyen Luan (2002), with 16.098 proverbs; Từ điển 3.1. The correspondence between source thành ngữ và tục ngữ Việt Nam (Dictionary of domain and target domain Vietnamese idioms and proverbs) by Nguyen Lan, (2014); and Từ điển giải thích thành ngữ tiếng Việt Conceptual metaphorical model PEOPLE ARE (Explanation of Vietnamese idioms) by Nguyen TREES is a universal concept in every culture. In KHOA HỌC NGOẠI NGỮ QUÂN SỰ Số 12 - 3/2018 21
  3. v LÝ LUẬN CHUYÊN NGÀNH the treasure of Vietnamese idioms and proverbs, – cây phả hệ (family tree), cấy (to transplant) – cấy the concept PEOPLE ARE TREES reflects the phôi (to transplant embryo) (Hoang Phe, Editor, cognitive mechanism about the human world 2010). In the people’s language, source concept and the cognitive way of our forefathers about “trees” is assigned regularly to the conceptual people based on the concept of plants, trees and domain associated with “people” and the forms of vegetables. Mechanism of this concept includes the abstract system associated with “people” like source domain “trees”, mapping onto target social organization, social relation, economic and domain “people”. The attributes and knowledge of political system, ideology, etc. For example, ươm “trees” are mapped and projected onto “people”, mầm cho tương lai (to grow the seed for future); and a few features of “trees” are attributed to gieo nghi ngờ (to sow the seeds of doubt); được “people”. These domains of knowledge in idioms mùa (to have a good crop) – kinh doanh được and proverbs are purely conceptual and structured mùa (to have a good business), bội thu ý tưởng according to the center - periphery model. (surplus of ideas); gặt hái thành công (to reap/ harvesh achive success), phân nhánh quyền lực Metaphor PEOPLE ARE TREES is a universal (to branch of power); công ty có nhiều chi nhánh concept in every single culture. In Vietnamese (the company has many branches), sự nghiệp culture, there are many words that are made up đơm hoa kết trái (the business is now bearing of meaning transferences based on similarities fruit); mang trong mình một mầm sống mới (to between trees and people penetrating into the bring a new seed of life (pregnant); ý tưởng bị vocabulary system of the entire population and chín ép (the idead is prematurely ripened); suy forming a stable meaning in the dictionary, such as: nghĩ chín muồi (ripe think); gương mặt chín nẫu lá (leaf) – lá gan (liver), lá (leaf) – lá phổi (lung), (overripe face (too old); tình yêu đơm trái ngọt buồng (bunch) – buồng trứng (ovary), cuống (love is now giving blossoms and fruits); khai hoa (stem) – cuống tim (heart stem), cuống (stem) nở nhụy (the flower is blossoming) (to give birth), – cuống phổi (onchi), cuống (stem) – cuống rốn etc. Thus, a naive picture of the plant’s world is (umbilical cord), quả (fruit) – quả thận (kidney), cognized and reflected in a diverse way throught quả (fruit) – quả tim (heart), vỏ (shell/bark) – vỏ language by people, in which plants is considered não (cerebral cortex), chùm (bundle) – chùm gân as an important category of semantics, culture and (sinew), thớ (fibre) - thớ thịt (meat), bắp (muscle) – consciousness, presenting the particularities of bắp đùi (thigh), ống (pipe) – ống chân (shin), cẳng national cultural thought. (arm) – cẳng tay (forearm), vân (veine) – vân tay (fingerprint), thùy (lobe) – thùy tai (ear lobe), gai The metaphorians (Lakoff & Johnson, 2003; (thorn) – gai đôi cột sống (spina bifida), gai (thorn) Tyler & Evans, 2003; Tran Van Co, 2009; Ly - nổi gai ốc (goose bumps), hạt (seed ) – viêm họng Toan Thang, 2009) have indicated that cognitive hạt (adenoids), nhân (kernel) – nhân xơ (fibroids), metaphor is a part-mapping, with no everything lép (flat) – ngực lép (flat breast), mẩy (plump) – from source domain mapped onto target domain. mông mẩy (plump body), chua (sour) – giọng Projecting from source domain onto target domain chua (sour-tongued), cành (branch) – anh em cành is selective, in which the attributes that are selected trên cành dưới (lower branches support the upper in target domain must be parts of attributes defined branches), chi (offshoot) – chi trên chi dưới (upper in source domain; therefore, there is a transition offshoot and lower offshoot) (family), nếp (sticky) of some attributes from source domain onto target – tẻ (rice) – nhà có nếp có tẻ (the family has a boy domain. In common thinking of the Vietnamese (sticky) and a girl (rice), héo (frail) – cha già mẹ people, because the growth attribute of plant’s life héo (father and mother are frail elderly), cây (tree) is divided into different stages of development, KHOA HỌC NGOẠI NGỮ QUÂN SỰ 22 Số 2 - 3/2018
  4. LÝ LUẬN CHUYÊN NGÀNH v there is a link to different stages of people’s life. is completely unconscious and under a particular Thence, the life cycle of plants is mapped to the visual schema, in which there is a harmony people’s life cycle in certain aspects (see the betweent the global universal characteristics cognitive framework PEOPLE ARE TREES). (nuclears) and the “peripheral” elements that are the special linguistic and cultural factors From metaphor PEOPLE ARE TREES, it is of the Vietnamese culture belonging to mental able to understand that source concept “trees” knowledge of national culture with special nature. may have attributes, including bud, flower, petal, blossom, green, fresh, withered, to sow, to All creatures and things existing in the universe transplant, to grow, falling, waning, brown, faded, are in a multi-dimensional relation, always interact old, stunted, odorous, bright, to burst, branch, to and transform each other. In fact, trees are very burn, to grow roots, twig, to bear, to bloom, to close to the human world. In the cultural mind of close, glossy, to break, sprout, fibre, vein, sinew, to many nations in the world, trees play a particularly spread, to rise up, pink, yellow, red, etc. assigned to important and godly sacred role. In the world’s target concept “people”. So “people” also features cultural symbol system, “tree” is one of the the attributes of such new “knowledge”. most abundant and popular symbol topics and is gathered around the concept of universe living in a When mapping the attributes of source domain continuous reproduction; therefore, trees become (tree) onto target domain (people), target domain the object of worship. Because trees attache (people) only acceps a part of but not all the inherent themselves to the life with a continuous evolution attributes of the source concept. In metaphor process, they also symbolize the periodicity and PEOPLE ARE TREES, not all of attributes of transformation, death and regeneration of the a “tree” are assigned to “people”. Apart from universe. Trees symbolize the fundamental unity these attributes, many other attributes of a “tree” of the life and developments. They are derived are not involved in the structuration of concept from seeds and sprouts which are nourished from “people”, including chlorophyll, photosynthesis, undifferentiated matter – soil, associated with stem borer, root knot, tap-root, fibrous root, root the periodic movement of time and crop. Plants hair, gear, lobed leaf, etc. These partial attributes symbolize the cyclicality of all forms of survival, make the source domain and targert domain to be including being born, to grow up, to mature, to die not absolutely heterogeneous but partially. We and be transformed into another material. Thus, will try to look at conceptual structure PEOPLE trees are origin of any life. Therefore, folk has used ARE TREES in Vietnamese proverbs and idioms the life of plants to refer to people’s (Chevalier & to confirm the above statements. Gheerbrant, 2002). 3.2. Conceptual metaphor PEOPLE ARE In Vietnamese cultural mind, plants play TREES in Vietnamese proverbs and idioms a special role. Because our folk contained the “Animism”, the worship of forest god and tree For conceptual models, it is rarely cognized god appears in many locals (Tran Ngoc Them, that they are metaphorical. However, researching 2000). According to our forefathers’ experience, a their foundations in relation to people’s experience big tree has a big god, and small has small one. (physical experience, cultural experience, biological Our folk also handed down the sentence “The experience, spirituality, and religion etc.) will see worst offense is the destruction of forests, the their cognitive mechanisms (Kövecses, 2000; second worst is the destruction of rivers” (Nhất Tyler & Evans, 2003). Using concept PEOPLE phá sơn lâm, nhì đâm hà bá) to remind people ARE TREES in Vietnamese proverbs and idioms respecting nature resources, especially for plants. KHOA HỌC NGOẠI NGỮ QUÂN SỰ Số 12 - 3/2018 23
  5. v LÝ LUẬN CHUYÊN NGÀNH Moreover, Vietnam has ancient rice civilizations, structurally metaphorical model PEOPLE ARE plus the influence of religion (Buddhism) deeply TREES with source domain and target domain is penetrating the lifestyle of the Vietnamese very popular. communities that creates a merciful, generous and charming culture with plants. In terms of the nature of animals, human and plants, there are similarities of multicellular Because of love and devotion to nature, plants organization between them. Each cell carries a are closely associated with the indigenous culture genetic programming for the whole body. The of Vietnamese people. Unknowingly, the cognition biological processes of sprouts, seeds, embryos in of elements and parts associated with plants has human and plants have markable similarities. In long been permeated into the consciousness of the naive perception of the world, the Vietnamese everyday language of people but we may not be people imagine their life as a tree that is a closed able to easily cognize. In language expressions process from embryo formation, sprout, growth, used in the daily activities or art literatures, the absorption to metabolism for development. It KHOA HỌC NGOẠI NGỮ QUÂN SỰ 24 Số 2 - 3/2018
  6. LÝ LUẬN CHUYÊN NGÀNH v is easy to find that there are certain similarities should be shapped and put into framework as they between trees and people in their life cycle. Trees were young, “Tre non dễ uốn, Tre già khó uốn” and people follow the law of nature, creation and (the young bamboo is flexibly bent and the old is destruction. The life cycle of a tree starts since more difficult). The growth stages of a tree are also the seed has been sown, sprouted, and raised on the people’s, we need to know the principles of the ground, and then it has roots and goes through “Non chẳng uốn, già nổ đốt” (if we do not bend a stages of growth, maturation, flowering, fruiting, bamboo while it was young, it will be more difficult fading, and dying. The life cycle of a tree is also to do so when it is old); “Khi măng không uốn thì commonly estimated at four seasons: Spring – to tre trổ vồng” (Just as the twig is bent, the tree’s be born; Summer – to grow; Autumn – to harvest; inclined). Traditionally, Vietnamese offsprings Winter – to store. Therefore, Vietnamese peole should follow the education way of their family, have a conceptual transference from a tree to extended family, and family lineage. No matter people to evoke the process of a life. The growth how intelligent children are, they must obey the attributes of a tree evoke the developmental rules of respecting the older and not being impolite processes in people’s life cycle: sprout (be escaped to the older (in stead of “Măng mọc quá tre” (young from the womb); growth (children – teenage); shoots pass over bamboos). Our forefather’s mature (puberty, youth); aging (old age); drying, conception in maintaining their race was that the falling, fading (dying). next generation of succession will come after his life “Tre già măng mọc” (as bamboos grow old, In the Vietnamese idioms and proverbs, when young shoots spring up). All want to have mom mapping the attributes of a tree onto people’s, at the beginning time from the birth as happiness: our forefathers choose the attributes from source domain to map onto target domain, by which the “Con có mẹ như măng ấp bẹ” (A fatherless child life cycle of a tree was mapped onto people’s; is like a bee without hive – A child has mother the growth stages of a tree were mapped onto like a shoot has coverage). The philosophy of our people’s; parts of a tree (hạt (seed), cành (branch), forefathers was that how many children I have how lá (leaf ), hoa (flower), quả (fruit), and gai (thorn) many properties I will get. Children are presents etc.) were projected onto individual person of a of God, so a family which has many children is family and social relation, etc. It is easy to find considered to be blessed: “Con đàn như tre ấm bụi” metaphorical expressions PEOPLE ARE TREES (Who has many children he has many brothers and in the Vietnamese idioms and proverbs. sisters – A family with many children is like a thick bamboo bush). Although life has multiforms and During the biological cycle of a tree’s life, multi-changes, rise and fall, but no one wants to be the seed and sprout stages are the first stages. At “Tre già khóc măng” (the old bamboo mourns the this time, the tree is soft. Its stem and branches young shoot), referring to children die before their are pliable. Like people, the first stage of their parents, because it is a guilty of unfaithfulness to life is like a blank sheet of paper, is the stage their parents and ancestors. of personality formation and consciousness development. If it is not early shaped, it will be In the plant life, seeds are the starting materials difficult to put into the framework at the growth of the life. When the tree sprouts and grows, and stage. Proverb said: “Uốn cây từ thủa còn non/Dạy grasps it roots into the soil and then develops, origin con từ thuở con còn thơ ngây”, “Bé chẳng vin cả (stump) and roots will keep the tree standing firmly gãy cành” (Learn young, learn fair – bending the to stand with storms and pests. From that initial tree as it was young, teaching the children as they attributes, “origin” is a basis of referring to a place were naive). Because PEOPLE ARE TREES, they people were born from is the origin, native home, KHOA HỌC NGOẠI NGỮ QUÂN SỰ Số 12 - 3/2018 25
  7. v LÝ LUẬN CHUYÊN NGÀNH and family lineage. In national language, we still Shoot and bud of a tree are starting points of the see the way saying people have roots and origins, life, are the signal of creation, continuation and anyone who is far from home also remembers their development of the tree’s life, like people “shoot” origins to express the concept of a “place where is the beginning stage (Pre-school is divided into they came from”. The folk used idioms to express shoot, leaf, and sprout classes to refer to the age of the concept of roots, including “Lá rụng về cội” children by year). From those starting points, shoot (falling leaves will return to the roots) presenting and bud of a tree are reminiscent of the birth and that people have origin like trees have roots. growth in one’s life. Proverbs said “Cây khô cây Roots are the fulcrum and source of a tree. The không lộc, người độc người không con” (the dry old tree will be cut branches but they still leave trees have no bud, the devil people have no child) roots for developing new sprouts, new branches to admonish people to be benevolent, friendly to and new leaves. So when one wants to remove a all things, not cruel to prevent the retributions of tree, only choose to pull and spit out the root to God. Therefore, our forefathers advised people dry under sunlight. In this case, the tree may not that despite of conflicts and hate to anyone in longer able to take nutrients from soil for survival. life, they should not destroy the whole lineage or From that cognitive way, at any time if one wants destroy the new generation: “Dứt dây ai nỡ dứt to eradicate any one, it is necessary to eradicate all chồi” (No one who wants to cut the shoot means the nuclears. Our forefathers borrowed image of a to destroy the tree), or “Đốn cây ai nỡ dứt chồi/ tree which has been destroyed all the roots: “Đánh Đạo chồng đạo vợ giận rồi lại thương” (Cutting dây thì phải trừ gốc”; “Nhổ cỏ nhổ tận gốc” (The the tree is not meant to destroy the shoot, she hates best way to solve a problem is to attack its cause/ him then she loves him). It is able to harm a few root; Cut the weeds and dig up the root). people, but not a whole family: “Phá cây thì dễ, In addition to stump, root is an important part phá chồi chẳng dễ đâu” (it is easy to destroy a tree in helping the tree to absorb water and synthesize but its shoot). nutrients from soil for growth and development. By the cognition of PEOPLE ARE TREES, A multi-rooted tree is strong and grows well. our forefathers realized that during the life, the Vietnamese people cognizes that a tree is pillar people’s turning points are marked as the growth and the roots around the pillar are parts of the tree. stages of a tree (branching, sprouting). The birth Because people are cognized as trees, Vietnamese (to be born) or death of people is also observed people think that each person lives in a family as a “tree”. Because PEOPLE ARE TREES, with a headman and many relatives who make “branches” of a tree are mapped to parts of human an extended family. One has many of whom are body, such as arms, legs, or broadly, a person in called “Lắm rễ nhiều cành” (many roots, many relation to the family tree (lineage relatives). branches). Brothers and sisters of a famlity have a relation as “Dây mơ rễ má, con bá con dì” (the Siblings coming from the same family and lineage more roots a tree has, the more relations it has, are like the upper and lower branches of a tree. the more brothers and sisters you have, the more The stronger supports the weaker. The first shelters offsprings you have). Each individual is as a root for the second: “Cành dưới đỡ cành trên”, “Anh in the family tree. If a tree wants to live, it cannot em như thể tay chân/Như chim liền cánh như cây be striked at roots like the family relations can not liền cành” (the lower branches support the upper be taken apart. branches; brothers are like arms and legs of a human body, wings of a bird, branches of a tree). During the growth of a trees “shoot”, “sprout”, Brothers are born from the same mother, but their and “bud” are first steps beginning to rise the life. personality and fate are different: “Một cây có cành KHOA HỌC NGOẠI NGỮ QUÂN SỰ 26 Số 2 - 3/2018
  8. LÝ LUẬN CHUYÊN NGÀNH v bổng, cành la/Một nhà có anh giàu, anh khó” (A straight line can not pass through a curved wood). tree has diferent-size branches/a family has poor Sometimes the negative words will provoke and rich members). The father-son relation is also grave repercussions: “Dứt dây động rừng” (pull same as the organic relation between the trunk and a vine and shake the woods); however, intelligent branches. A tree losing its branches is like losing person is never afraid of the detest: “Cây cao the live sources, the father lossing his child is like chẳng quản gió rung”, “Cây ngay không sợ chết having no spiritual security: “Con mất cha như đứng” (a good anvil does not fear the hammer/a cây mất cành” (A child losing his father is like a clean hand wants no washing – a tall tree is not tree without branches). afraid of winds). Sometimes people want to live peacefully but the situation does not give it for us: With conceptual thinking of PEOPLE ARE “Cây muốn lặng mà gió chẳng dừng” (The tree TREES, Vietnamese people understand that wants to remain quiet, but the wind won’t stop). trees are not confined within the family tree in With the conceptual thinking of PEOPLE ARE particular, but also are people in general as social TREES, forefathers have advised us to know how relations. In society, there are rich and poor, to preserve the good national traditions, to live wealth and hard people and a tree has low, middle benevolently, generally and mortally following and high branches; people’s social behaviors must virtue to accumulate virtue for the next life: “Có always be flexible and clever. The rigid are not giồng cây đức mới bền” (virtuous activities that attractive enough, such as “Cành thẳng thì chim we have done which will help us in the next life). không đậu” (Straight branches are not stopped “Virtue” – a category of virtue - in the opinion by birds). People’s capacity is only demonstrated of our forefathers, was also planted to grow and by challenges: Qua cơn gió cả mới biết cây cứng, develop next generation: “Có nhân nhân nở, vô mềm” (Through the strong wind we know soft nhân nhân trẩm” (Talk of the devil and he is sure and hard trees). The higher reputation people to appear – a good seed will grow into a tree, a do, the greater influence they are: “Cây cả ngả bad will not). We have to live follow the virtue so bóng rợp”(the biger tree has larger shadow). the next generations of our life will be good and Because a fair-dealing man has a good reputation: for long-term happiness: “Có tiền thì hậu mới hay/ “Cây ngay thì bóng mới ngay” (The straight Có trồng cây đức mới dày nên nhân” (One good tree has a straight shadow). However, in society, turn deserves another, a good tree will generate many people have great fame but they have less good seeds). influence or protection for their beloved: “Cây cả bóng thưa” (the tree is big but its shadow is Also, parts of a tree with basic functions of small). However, in life, things always exist in carring out the continuous process of exchange binary duality. The higher reputation a man does, and transformation remind the metaphor to people. the more many conflicts he faces: the higher the Leaves contain chlorophyll, whose function is tree is, the more the wind shakes; a man with low light photosynthesis and metabolism for the tree’s class of society often has a peaceful life: “Cây life. After being developed to a certain stage, cao thì gió lọc lừa/Chi bằng cây thấp gió đưa dịu during biochemistry, the chlorophyll in leaves will dàng” (the tall tree is strongly attacked by winds, turn into other substance. In the dying process, the the short is got gentle breeze). Normally, people color of leaves will gradually change from blue to are jealous. Talented people are often victims: yellowish or dark red, and then brown and falling, “Cây tốt bị đốn trước” (A good tree can be cut closing a life cycle. Within its cycle, the tree down before); honest words often offend the bad sprouts, grows and then develops with new leaves guys: “Dây thẳng mất lòng cây gỗ cong” (the that will fall and change over time in a continuous KHOA HỌC NGOẠI NGỮ QUÂN SỰ Số 12 - 3/2018 27
  9. v LÝ LUẬN CHUYÊN NGÀNH regeneration cycle. Based on the typical attributes willpower, and personality of young people. of biological process of a “leaf”, in relation to Trunk roots are what belong to the attributes of the people’s life, our forefathers also imagined that elders. Therefore, the “thorns” here is cognized as people’s life is like a leaf’s. A leaf changes its color the representative of “people”. over time (green – speckled – yellowish – fallen). In people’s experience, the metabolism process In the world of plants, flower is considered in leaves is similar to the people’s aging process, a development model of the life, of the natural so the folk have had a way of speaking: “Lá vàng factors and symbolizes the life cycle of plants còn ở trên cây/Lá xanh rụng xuống trời hay chăng (mature trees bear flowers and fruits and after each trời” (Yellow leaves on the tree mourn the falling season transferred, they continue to bear flowers, green leaves), or “Lá xanh rụng trước lá vàng” etc.). Flower is the most colorful and beautiful (green leaves fall before yellow leaves) to refer to part of a tree. So, in relation to people, flower is the death of a young person; saying “Người già như a metaphor of beauty. In language, our forefathers lá rụng” (Old people are like the falling leaves) transferred some of the attributes of a flower or to see the similarity between people’s and tree’s flower bud to refer to the human beauty, especially life, which are transient and impermanent. Along based on the homologous and rounded shape of with leaves, “thorns” also have metabolic function the flower bud to indicate the lips, including: similar to leaves. Moreover, “thorns” also have Nụ – bud – kiss, smile, half-open smile, slightly- the function of protecting the tree from external open smile; Based on the similarity between the attacks. Based on the similarities in defense blooming petals and people’s smile: môi hé mở and protection, “thorns” are also transferred the (parted lips), miệng hoa ngâu (the smile is like a features to personalities and characters of people. tiny flower), đóa hoa hàm tiếu (the smile is like An one that was intelligent and smart as was a a flower beginning to bloom). In the treasure of child is called “Cái gai nhọn, nhọn từ bé” (sharp proverbs and idioms, the flower has been used thorn, sharp as was a child); Younger people that to present the smile: “Đàn ông cười hoa, đàn bà are more astute than older are considered “Gai cười nụ” (Men’s smile is like a blooming flower, ngọn nhọn hơn gai gốc” (the thorns on the top women’s smile is like a flower bud). Flowers and are sharper than the thorns on the trunk); Young people, their conditions are homogeneous at the people that are not as stable and consisten as the level of influence (perfume) and fragile existence, elderly are considered “Gai ở ngọn giòn hơn gai ở easy to die (blooming and dying): “Người như hoa gốc” (the thorns on the top are more crunchy than ở đâu thơm đấy” (anywhere has beautiful flowers, the thorns on the trunk). In this case, our forefathers this is beautiful place), “Người đời khác nữa là cognized that PEOPLE ARE TREES and the trunk hoa/Sớm còn tối mất nở ra lại tàn” (people’life is is developed first and early grown; therefore, it is just like a bunch of Cotton-rose hibiscus, blossom stronger and and has a better endurance than the in the dawn and die in the nightfall). Flowers top of a tree, in correspondence to the elders and are people: “Người ta là hoa đất” (People are predecessors who have many years of experience. earth flowers). Everybody and every family have The top of a tree is later developed, softer, easily different colors: “Trăm hoa đua nở/Trăm nhà đua to be broken and bent, but has a greater strength, tiếng” (Hundreds of flowers race for blooming/ in correspondence to to young people who have Hundreds of families race for fame); “Mỗi cây dreams, ambitions, and physical strength but less mỗi hoa/ mỗi nhà mỗi cảnh” (Different trees have experience. Thorns are part of a tree and present different flowers, Different families have different the intellectual, health, and willing attributes of emotions). Flower is a girl; flowers are blossoming people. The thorns on the top are wisdom, health, by season and girls also have season: “Gái dậy thì KHOA HỌC NGOẠI NGỮ QUÂN SỰ 28 Số 2 - 3/2018
  10. LÝ LUẬN CHUYÊN NGÀNH v như hoa quỳ mới nở” (The teenage girl is like the we use the image of “Cây có một cành/Cành có newly blooming Mexican Sunflower). Followers một quả” ( the tree has a branch, the branhe has a bloom and then die, the beauty is quickly faded, fruit); presenting that children are effected by the too: “Đàn bà như cánh hoa tươi/Nở ra chỉ được education from the their family environment: “Coi một thời mà thôi” (Women are like the fresh petals, trái biết cây” (just look at the fruits we may know blossom for a while only). how the tree like is). This means that seeing the children we may know their parents. Describing Trees live seasonally and their growth cycle a downfall situation: “Cây độc sinh quả độc” consists of flowering, fruiting, ripening and falling (like father, like son – a poisonous tree develops stages. It is a closed cycle of plants. In viewpoint poisonous fruits); describing a situation that many of PEOPLE ARE TREES, our forefathers still people bully a person: “Đa nhân hiếp quả” (many indicated that love and happiness are the fullesses of people eat one fruit); saying that each child in people’s life, like the flowering and fruiting stages the same family has different personalities, our of tree’s life. So, there have been expressions: “tình forefathers used the image of “Cây một cội: trái yêu đơm hoa kết trái” (love is now bearing flowers chua, trái ngọt/Nước một nguồn; dòng đục, dòng and fruits); “tình yêu chín muồi” (ripen love); trong” (A tree has sweet and sour fruits, a river “trái ngọt tình yêu” (love is sweet fruit); “hạnh has dirty and clear water); those who makes phúc nở hoa” (happiness is flowering) etc. When a someone else unfair, we say that “Quýt làm cam love has the unhappy ending, it is expressed by the chịu” (an offender, another penance – the Orange concept green fruit, bitter fruit or bitterness. In the will badly rise if it is planted in the sam gardern naive perception of the world of plants, from the with Tangerine); talking about the law of cause concept of fruits, Vietnamese people also transfers and effect in life, our forefathers also borrowed some attributes of fruits to people’s, namely the the fruits to teach people: “Trồng cây chua ăn quả fruit-shaped objects, such as: quả (fruit) – quả chua, trồng cây ngọt ăn quả ngọt” (as grow sour tim (heart), quả thận (kidney). Some attributes of tree for sour fruits, grow sweet for sweet); when a fruit, including berry, stretchy, pink, red, heart- someone else falling in the situation of losing shaped, ripe, fragrant, delicious, sweet etc. are someone but have another one to replace, we say used to describe the lips, including: môi chín mọng “Đào ngã, mận thay” (as one goes, other comes (Ripe lips), môi trái tim (heart-shaped lips). In the – as Peach dies, Plum replaces); referring to he treasure of idioms and proverbs, some attributes who is the moon flower “Sớm đào tối mận” (In the of a fruit are transferred to people’s, such as fruits morning eat Peach, at night eat Plum). (gourd, pumpkin, bean, mandarin, orange, peach, plum, areca); the nature of fruits (sweet and sour), 4. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION fruits (used to refer to people. When talking about the tangerine affection of sisters, our forefathers Conceptual metaphor PEOPLE ARE TREES used the image of “Chị em gái như trái cau non” has been a universal metaphor in many languages, (sisters are young areca); referring to those who however with Vietnamese thinking – a kind of compete but no one better than one, there has image-oriented thinking, plus a profound influence been a sentence “Bầu già thì mướp cũng xơ” (old of wet rice civilization, Vietnamese people tend to gourd, mature luffa). When the one is not inferior unconsciously see human life to be refracted through to other, our forefathers used the image of “Bầu the world of plants. Transferring the attributes of leo thì dây bí cũng leo” (The pumpkin imitates plants to people’s takes place naturally in language the gourd to climb the truss); saying that brothers thinking, becomes an ordinary knowledge, and is harm each other with the image of “Cành đậu đun fixed and increasingly widespread in metaphorical hạt đậu” (use the branches of bean tree to burn the expressions, especially in Vietnamese idioms and beans); referring to people who have less child, proverbs or poems. KHOA HỌC NGOẠI NGỮ QUÂN SỰ Số 12 - 3/2018 29
  11. v LÝ LUẬN CHUYÊN NGÀNH Thus, like a tree that is a diverse category 3. Nguyễn Thị Bích Hạnh (2015), Ẩn dụ tri of plants and consists of typical characteristics nhận trong ca từ Trịnh Công Sơn, NXB Khoa học of growth processes, life styles, and life cycles, xã hội, Hà Nội. when mapping the attributes of plants to people’s through idioms and proverbs, our forefathers 4. Nguyễn Thị Bích Hạnh (2011), “Ẩn dụ ý niệm “Con người là cây cỏ” trong ca từ Trịnh showed a comprehensive view of projection Công Sơn”, Tạp chí Từ điển học và Bách khoa thư, from trees domain to people category: biological, số 6, tr.118-126. social, spiritual to psychological, emotional, etc. From the above analytical bases of the structural 5. Nguyễn Xuân Kính, Nguyễn Thúy Loan, metaphor PEOPLE ARE TREES in idioms Phan Lan Hương, Nguyễn Luân (2002), Kho tàng and proverbs, this article developed the values tục ngữ người Việt (Tập 1, 2), NXB Văn hoá Thông this structural metaphor provides, expressed tin, Hà Nội. by the meaning of language expressions (is the expression of conceptual metaphors with the 6. Nguyễn Lân (2014), Từ điển thành ngữ và linguistic tools in each of the most typical target tục ngữ Việt Nam, NXB Văn học, Hà Nội. categories, including PEOPLE) to find out the 7. Hoàng Phê (chủ biên) (2010) Từ điển tiếng cultural depth of conceptual expressions in Việt, NXB Từ điển Bách khoa, Hà Nội. conceptualizing the viewpoint of the world. From the cognitive viewpoint of the world reproduced 8. Jean Chevalier, Alain Gheerbrant (2002), Từ in the picture of people’s language in general, điển Biểu tượng văn hóa thế giới, NXB Đà Nẵng, in idioms and proverbs in general, the tree is Đà Nẵng. cognized as an important category of semantics, culture and consciousness and clearly reflects the 9. Lý Toàn Thắng (2009), Ngôn ngữ học tri national cultural characteristics in the acquisition nhận: Từ lí thuyết đại cương đến thực tiễn tiếng of language. In the process of conceptualization, Việt, (tái bản, có sửa chữa, bổ sung), Nhà xuất bản Phương Đông, Hà Nội. our forefathers transferred the attributes of a tree to people to express the worldview and human view 10. Trần Ngọc Thêm (2000), Cơ sở văn hóa bringing the culture of a community with the ancient Việt Nam, Nhà xuất bản Giáo dục, Hà Nội. rice civilizations. Through the study of specific language blocks, it is able to find innumerable deep 11. Nguyễn Đức Tồn (2008), Đặc trưng Văn associations in our forefathers’ world of thought, hoá - Dân tộc của ngôn ngữ và tư duy, NXB Khoa experience and awareness of life shown through học xã hội, Hà Nội. the colorful emotions of imagination. This creates unexpected and interesting relations between 12. Nguyễn Như Ý (1995), Từ điển giải thích thành ngữ tiếng Việt, Nhà xuất bản Giáo dục, Hà Nội. the tree’s and people’s world in the treasure of Vietnamese proverbs and idioms./. 13. Tyler, A & Evans, V (2003), The Semantics of English Prepositions Spatial scenes, embodied References: meaning and cognition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1. Trần Văn Cơ (2009), Khảo luận ẩn dụ tri nhận, NXB Lao động xã hội, Hà Nội. 14. Lakoff, G & Johnson, M (1980), Metaphors we live by, London: The University of Chicago Press. 2. Trần Thị Phương Lý (2012), Ẩn dụ ý niệm của phạm trù thực vật trong tiếng Việt (có liên hệ 15. Kövecses, Z., (2000). Metaphors and với tiếng Anh), Luận án tiến sĩ Ngữ văn, Học viện Emotion: Language, Culture, and Body in Human Khoa học xã hội. Feeling. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. KHOA HỌC NGOẠI NGỮ QUÂN SỰ 30 Số 2 - 3/2018
  12. LÝ LUẬN CHUYÊN NGÀNH v CONCEPTUAL METAPHOR “PEOPLE ARE TREES” IN VIETNAMESE IDIOMS AND PROVERBS NGUYEN THI BICH HANH Abstract: From the theory of cognitive linguistics, this paper arms to research the conceptual metaphor PEOPLE ARE TREES in Vietnamese idioms and proverbs; learn how the cognitive way of our forefathers about people and their life cycles based on the concept of plant’s growth cycle embodied in language. Based on interactions in experience and knowledge domains mapped from source domain onto target domain, this article shows the calque between two domains in language thinking of the Vietnamese people. Based on logical relation in organizing the mapping scheme of conceptual metaphor, this article shows the specific thinking style of conceptual structure characterized thinking and culture of the Vietnamese people. Keywords: mapping, conceptual metaphor, tree, people, idioms, proverbs Received: 11/01/2018; Revised: 26/02/2018; Accepted for publication: 28/02/2018 KHOA HỌC NGOẠI NGỮ QUÂN SỰ Số 12 - 3/2018 31



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