Chuyên đề đọc hiểu - Nguyễn Quỳnh Trang

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Chuyên đề đọc hiểu - Nguyễn Quỳnh Trang

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Chuyên đề đọc hiểu tiếng Anh do cô Nguyễn Quỳnh Trang biên soạn giới thiệu tới người học 40 đoạn văn và các bài tập đọc hiểu trong tiếng Anh. Đây là một tài liệu hữu ích dành cho các bạn đang học môn tiếng Anh dùng làm tài liệu học tập và nghiên cứu.

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GV: Nguyễn Quỳnh Trang<br /> <br /> Facebook: lopcoquynhtrang<br /> <br /> Chuyên đề: ĐỌC HIỂU<br /> <br /> PASSAGE 1<br /> BODY TALK<br /> by Mark Evans<br /> <br /> You will probably laugh when I tell you that my interest in body language was sparked by a favourite professor of<br /> mine at university. He mentioned "Pinocchio Syndrome" to me one wintry morning after claiming that I always<br /> rubbed my nose when giving excuses for being late to his lectures. Apparently, when someone tells a lie, the person's<br /> blood rushes to the nose and the extra blood makes it itchy. So if you think someone is not being entirely honest with<br /> you, perhaps like my professor you should watch to see if they scratch their nose! This little example of non-verbal<br /> communication inspired me to become a body language expert.<br /> Now, I earn my living by training people in non-verbal communication. Knowing when someone is lying and<br /> knowing how to convince people you're telling the truth are two of the most important skills you’ll ever learn. For<br /> example, lawyers build their reputation on their deductive skills when cross-examining in court, while politicians<br /> need to rely on their powers of persuasion to gain support.<br /> I have dedicated my life to studying the ways the human body gives more reliable information than the words we<br /> speak. The words say one thing but the body may say something completely different. This is the theory of body<br /> language and most of us are familiar with the basics. We know that crossed arms can be seen as either defensive or<br /> aggressive, but what about facial expressions, gestures, posture, and the intonation and rhythm of our speech? All of<br /> these speak volumes and can be understood if you only know how to make sense of the signs.<br /> Take the eyes, for example. If I told you a lie, you would probably expect me to look away rather than look you full<br /> in the face.<br /> However, this is not, as commonly thought, the sure sign of a lie, but the reflexive movements we make when we are<br /> trying to remember something. Because of this, glancing away is not as easy to interpret as you might believe. A<br /> good liar is not searching his memory for the truth, so he can quite easily look you straight in the eyes as he speaks to<br /> make the lie more convincing. Here's a tip, though. Watch the pupil of the eye; does it change size? If it gets bigger,<br /> this is probably an involuntary sign that something is being hidden.<br /> Body language is something that the majority of us cannot control; it's what escapes when we're concentrating on<br /> something else. I might think I'm creating a good impression because my voice is strong and steady and my speech is<br /> clear, but the sweat pouring off my forehead and my constantly moving feet say otherwise.<br /> Business clients are constantly in need of my services and I try to improve their confidence in themselves by<br /> teaching them about body language. I give advice about handshakes, which should always be firm and steady, and I<br /> teach the importance of personal space, explaining that people who live in warm climates stand a lot closer to one<br /> another than people in cooler climates. They may seem like minor matters, but these codes of behaviour can be the<br /> key to making or breaking a business deal.<br /> My working life gives me a great deal of satisfaction. I feel that I'm providing a public service, but it is a service that<br /> has had its downside. Whenever I meet someone new and I tell them what I do for a living, they immediately put<br /> their guard up and they're no longer relaxed. They quite literally freeze in the attempt to hide all the signals that they<br /> assume I'm reading. It makes life difficult at times, but I consider it a small price to pay for a job I enjoy so much.<br /> 1. The writer originally became interested in body language because…<br /> A. of a comment someone made to him.<br /> B. he wanted to know why people tell lies.<br /> C. he wanted to learn more about "Pinocchio Syndrome".<br /> D. his professor recommended the subject to him.<br /> 2. According to the writer, non-verbal communication is important because …<br /> <br /> - Học để khẳng định mình<br /> <br /> 1<br /> <br /> Hotline: 0432 99 98 98<br /> <br /> GV: Nguyễn Quỳnh Trang<br /> <br /> Facebook: lopcoquynhtrang<br /> <br /> A. it helps lawyers to be more skilful.<br /> B. politicians need to know when people are lying.<br /> C. it can help make people believe what you tell them.<br /> D. it provides a unique way of earning one's living.<br /> 3. What does the writer assume about his readers?<br /> A. They are able to change their intonation.<br /> B. They need to develop good posture.<br /> C. They use only words to communicate.<br /> D. They know something about the subject.<br /> 4. According to the writer, it is not easy to recognise when someone is lying because …<br /> A. they have an honest look on their face.<br /> B. they move their eyes very rapidly.<br /> C. listeners read their body language incorrectly.<br /> D. listeners do not look into their eyes.<br /> 5. To have a positive effect on someone, you should try to avoid ….<br /> A. making any facial expressions.<br /> B. having any involuntary reactions.<br /> C. giving the impression of not caring.<br /> D. moving your legs about too much.<br /> 6. What is the most important thing for businessmen to learn?<br /> A. the laws of a particular country<br /> B. the correct way to behave<br /> C. the necessity of being polite<br /> D. the skill of appearing confident<br /> 7. Why do people react in a negative way when they meet the writer?<br /> A. They think he is too self-confident.<br /> B. They assume that he is always lying.<br /> C. They have heard about him previously.<br /> D. They believe he is studying them.<br /> 8. What do we learn about the writer from the passage?<br /> A. He makes a lot of money from his job.<br /> B. He travels the world giving advice.<br /> C. He is dedicated to his work.<br /> D. He trains body language experts.<br /> PASSAGE 2<br /> The oldest living things on Earth are trees. Some of California's sequoias have for four thousand years looked down<br /> on the changes in the landscape and the comings and goings of humans. They sprouted from tiny seeds about the<br /> time the Egyptian pyramids were being built. Today these giant patriarchs seem as re-mote and inaccessible as the<br /> rocks and mountain cliffs on which they grow, like cathedral columns holding up the sky. it is hard imagine them<br /> playing any part in the lives of mere humans or ing in any way affected by the creatures that pass at their feet.<br /> Lesser trees, however, have played an intimate role in the lives of people since they first appeared on Earth. Trees<br /> fed the fires that warmed humans: they provided shelter, food and medicine and even clothing. They also shaped<br /> people's spiritual horizons. Trees expressed the grandeur and mystery of life, as they moved through the cycle of<br /> seasons, from life to death and back to life again. Trees were the largest living things around humans and they knew<br /> that some trees had been standing on the same spot in their parent's and grandparents' time, and would continue to<br /> stand long after they were gone. No wonder these trees became symbols of strength, fruitfulness, and everlasting life.<br /> 1. What is the main idea of the passage?<br /> A. Trees grow to great heights.<br /> B. Trees have been important to people throughout history.<br /> C. Trees make humans seem superior.<br /> <br /> - Học để khẳng định mình<br /> <br /> 2<br /> <br /> Hotline: 0432 99 98 98<br /> <br /> GV: Nguyễn Quỳnh Trang<br /> <br /> Facebook: lopcoquynhtrang<br /> <br /> D. Trees that grow in California are very old.<br /> 2. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage as a way in which people have used trees?<br /> A. For furniture<br /> B. For fuel<br /> C. For housing<br /> D. For nourishment<br /> 3. In line 3, the phrase "giant patriarchs" could best be replaced by which of the following?<br /> A. tiny seeds B. important leaders<br /> C. towering trees D. Egyptian pyramids<br /> 4. In line 11, the word "they" refers to which of the following?<br /> A. Trees<br /> B. Grandeur and mystery<br /> C. Seasons<br /> D. People's spiritual horizons<br /> 5. The author implies that, compared with sequoias, other trees have….<br /> A. been in existence longer<br /> B. adapted more readily to their environments<br /> C. been affected more by animals<br /> D. had a closer relationship with people<br /> 6. Where in the passage does the author make a comparison between trees and parts of a building?<br /> A. Lines 1-3 B. Lines 5-7 C. Lines 11-13 D. Lines 14-19<br /> <br /> PASSAGE 3<br /> In the late 1960's, many people in North America turned their attention to environmental problems and new steeland-glass skyscrapers were widely criticized. Ecologists pointed out that a cluster of tall buildings in a city often<br /> overburdens public transportation and parking lot capacities.<br /> Skyscrapers are also lavish consumers, and wasters, of electric power. In one recent year, the addition of 17 million<br /> square feet of skyscraper office space in New York City raised the peak daily demand for electricity by 120,000<br /> kilowatts – enough to supply the entire city of Albany, New York, for a day.<br /> Glass-walled skyscrapers can be especially wasteful. The heat loss (or gain) through a wall of half-inch plate glass is<br /> more than ten times that through a typical masonry wall filled with insulation board. To lessen the strain on heating<br /> and air-conditioning equipment builders of skyscrapers have begun to use double glazed panels of glass, and<br /> reflective glasses coated with silver or gold mirror films that reduce glare as well as heat gain. However, mirrorwalled skyscrapers raise the temperature of the surrounding air and affect neighbouring buildings.<br /> Skyscrapers put a severe strain on a city's sanitation facilities, too. If fully occupied, the two World Trade Center<br /> towers in New York City would alone generate 2.25 million gallons of raw sewage each year - as much as a city the<br /> size of Stamford, Connecticut, which has a population of more than 109,000.<br /> Skyscrapers also interfere with television reception, block bird flyways, and obstruct air traffic. In Boston in the late<br /> 1960's, some people even feared that shadows from skyscrapers would kill the grass on Boston Common.<br /> Still, people continue to build skyscrapers for all the reasons that they have always built them - personal ambition,<br /> civic pride, and the desire of owners to have the largest possible amount of rentable space.<br /> 1. The main purpose of the passage is to……<br /> A. compare skyscrapers with other modern structures<br /> B. describe skyscrapers and their effect on the environment<br /> C. advocate the use of masonry in the construction of skyscrapers<br /> D. illustrate some architectural designs of skyscrapers<br /> 2. According to the passage, what is one disadvantage of skyscrapers that have mirrored walls?<br /> A. The exterior surrounding air is heated.<br /> B. The windows must be cleaned daily.<br /> C. Construction time is increased.<br /> D. Extra air-conditioning equipment is needed.<br /> 3. According to the passage, in the late 1960's some residents of Boston were concerned with which aspect of<br /> <br /> - Học để khẳng định mình<br /> <br /> 3<br /> <br /> Hotline: 0432 99 98 98<br /> <br /> GV: Nguyễn Quỳnh Trang<br /> <br /> Facebook: lopcoquynhtrang<br /> <br /> skyscrapers?<br /> A. The noise from their construction<br /> B. The removal of trees from building sites<br /> C. The harmful effects on the city's grass<br /> D. The high cost of rentable office space<br /> 4. The author raises issues that would most concern which of the following groups?<br /> A. Electricians B. Environmentalists<br /> C. Aviators D. Teachers<br /> 5. Where in the passage does the author compare the energy consumption of skyscrapers with that of a city?<br /> A. Lines 6-10<br /> B. Lines 17-19<br /> C. Lines 20-24<br /> D. Lines 25-28<br /> <br /> PASSAGE 4<br /> <br /> William Sydney Porter (1862-1910), who wrote under the pseudonym of O. Henry, was born in North Carolina. His<br /> only formal education was to attend his Aunt Lina's school until the age of fifteen, where he developed his lifelong<br /> love of books. By 1881 he was a licensed pharmacist. However, within a year, on the recommendation of a medical<br /> colleague of his father's, Porter moved to La Salle County in Texas for two years herding sheep. During this time,<br /> Webster's Unabridged Dictionary was his constant companion, and Porter gained a knowledge of ranch life that he<br /> later incorporated into many of his short stories. He then moved to Austin for three years, and during this time the<br /> first recorded use of his pseudonym appeared, allegedly derived from his habit of calling "Oh, Henry" to a family<br /> cat. In 1887, Porter married Athol Estes. He worked as a draftsman, then as a bank teller for the First National Bank.<br /> In 1894 Porter founded his own humor weekly, the "Rolling Stone", a venture that failed within a year, and later<br /> wrote a column for the Houston Daily Post. In the meantime, the First National Bank was examined, and the<br /> subsequent indictment of 1886 stated that Porter had embezzled funds. Porter then fled to New Orleans, and later to<br /> Honduras, leaving his wife and child in Austin. He returned in 1897 because of his wife's continued ill-health,<br /> however she died six months later. Then, in 1898 Porter was found guilty and sentenced to five years imprisonment<br /> in Ohio. At the age of thirty five, he entered prison as a defeated man; he had lost his job, his home, his wife, and<br /> finally his freedom. He emerged from prison three years later, reborn as O. Henry, the pseudonym he now used to<br /> hide his true identity. He wrote at least twelve stories in jail, and after re-gaining his freedom, went to New York<br /> City, where he published more than 300 stories and gained fame as America's favorite short story writer. Porter<br /> married again in 1907, but after months of poor health, he died in New York City at the age of forty-eight in 1910.<br /> O. Henry's stories have been translated all over the world.<br /> 1. Why did the author write the passage?<br /> A. because it is a tragic story of a gifted writer<br /> B. to outline the career of a famous American<br /> C. because of his fame as America's favorite short story writer<br /> D. to outline the influences on O. Henry's writing<br /> 2. According to the passage, Porter's Father was….<br /> A. responsible for his move to La Salle County in Texas<br /> B. the person who gave him a life-long love of books<br /> C. a medical doctor<br /> D. a licensed pharmacist<br /> 3. The word "allegedly" in line 7 is closest in meaning to …..<br /> A. supposedly B. reportedly C. wrongly D. mistakenly<br /> 4.Which of the following is true, according to the passage?<br /> A. both of Porter's wives died before he died<br /> B. Porter left school at 15 to become a pharmacist<br /> C. Porter wrote a column for the Houston Daily Post called "Rolling Stone"<br /> D. the first recorded use of his pseudonym was in Austin<br /> 5. The word "venture" in line 10 is closest in meaning to …..<br /> <br /> - Học để khẳng định mình<br /> <br /> 4<br /> <br /> Hotline: 0432 99 98 98<br /> <br /> GV: Nguyễn Quỳnh Trang<br /> <br /> Facebook: lopcoquynhtrang<br /> <br /> A. challenging experiment<br /> B. bold initiative<br /> C. speculative action<br /> D. sorry experience<br /> 6. The word "subsequent" in line 12 is closest in meaning to…..<br /> A. resulting B. police C. alleged D. official<br /> 7. Porter lost all of the following wrhen he went to prison EXCEPT his…<br /> A. home B. wife C. job D. books<br /> 8. According to the author, how many stories did Porter write while in prison for three years?<br /> A. more than 300 B. 35 C. at least 12 D. over 20<br /> 9. The author implies which of the following is true?<br /> A. Porter would probably have written less stories if he had not been in prison for three years<br /> B. Porter was in poor health throughout his life<br /> C. O. Henry is as popular in many other countries as he is in America<br /> D. Porter's wife might have lived longer if he had not left her in Austin when he fled.<br /> 10. Where in the passage does the author mention a habit of Porter that was to become very useful for him later?<br /> A. lines 7-13 B. lines 16-22 C. lines 22-28 D. lines 28-34<br /> <br /> PASSAGE 5<br /> <br /> Twenty-five years after they were invented as a form of computer-geek shorthand, emoticons are now everywhere.<br /> The smiling, winking and frowning faces that inhabit the computer keyboard have evolved into a quasi-accepted<br /> form of punctuation. These sweet hieroglyphs have conquered both the young and the old, as our daily<br /> communication relies more and more on text rather than the spoken word. There was a time when emoticons seemed<br /> naively youthful. Yet nowadays, applied appropriately, emoticons can no longer be dismissed as juvenile. They<br /> come in handy in many adult social interactions, and help avoid serious miscommunications.<br /> Psychologists say it is only natural. People instinctively look for signals of intimacy in the human face. This results<br /> from countless generations of evolution, during which people relied on these signs as life-or-death signals to survive.<br /> When infants are given a series of geometric patterns, their eyes will naturally be drawn to those that seem to<br /> represent a face.<br /> Faced with the absence of facial expressions in e-communications we should make up for it by composing e-mails<br /> that make it clear through our language that we are being cheerful, but that, of course, happens only in the ideal<br /> world. And so we've turned to emoticons. At first glance, it seemed that only the younger generation took to the little<br /> faces. But in fact, in a recent emoticon survey of 40,000 users of Yahoo Messenger, 52 percent of the respondents<br /> were older than 30. Among those, 55 per cent said they use emoticons every day. 82 percent considered women<br /> more likely to use emoticons. But for men, who have a hard time using terms of tenderness, emoticons can be very<br /> helpful in conveying affection.<br /> Emoticons have now entered even the most serious areas of life. One military veteran says that he uses plenty of<br /> emoticons in his communications even with admirals at the Pentagon, where they provide a certain cover for highranking leaders to comment on sensitive matters. "A wink says quite a lot," he says. "It could be a thousand different<br /> things - but I know what it means. It's a kind of code." Also on Wall Street, businessmen will use the term 'QQ'<br /> (from an emoticon symbolizing crying eyes) in conversation as a sarcastic wray of saying "boo hoo".<br /> Supposedly, it all started in 1982. Scott Fahlman, a professor of computer science, was linked to an electronic<br /> university bulletin board where computer enthusiasts posted their opinions, in one note a joke about elevators was<br /> misinterpreted by some as a safety warning. So Fahlman suggested using :-) as a way to indicate jokes and :-( for<br /> serious remarks. Fahlman's "joke markers" spread quickly and within a month or so techies at Xerox were circulating<br /> a list of strikingly sophisticated new emoticons. He never received a trademark for his invention, and never made a<br /> dime from it. Before long, emoticons had accomplished what Esperanto never could, a universal lingua franca.<br /> 1. In the past, emoticons were...<br /> A. perceived as rather childish. B. used instead of punctuation.<br /> <br /> - Học để khẳng định mình<br /> <br /> 5<br /> <br /> Hotline: 0432 99 98 98<br /> <br />


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