Giáo trình luyện dịch tiếng anh_ Translation 5

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Giáo trình luyện dịch tiếng anh_ Translation 5

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TRANSLATION 5 is a basic course book written for the second-year students of the Department of English, College of Foreign Languages, Hue University. It is intended to equip the students with an overview of translating Vietnamese and English scientific texts. It also helps the students get familiar with the terms related to science and technology as well as the typical structures frequently used in scientific and technological texts.

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Nội dung Text: Giáo trình luyện dịch tiếng anh_ Translation 5

  2. 1 INTRODUCTION TRANSLATION 5 is a basic course book written for the second-year students of the Department of English, College of Foreign Languages, Hue University. It is intended to equip the students with an overview of translating Vietnamese and English scientific texts. It also helps the students get familiar with the terms related to science and technology as well as the typical structures frequently used in scientific and technological texts. Since the course book has been written for the students to learn either by themselves or in class with a teacher, there will be a course book and assignments. The course book contains the Vietnamese and English socio-politic texts with notes and suggested translations. The assignments contain the Vietnamese and English socio-politic texts that will be translated into either English or Vietnamese by the students. By the end of the course, the students will be able to: - obtain general knowledge of the Vietnamese and English scientific and technological documents. - get familiar with and effectively use scientific and technological terms and typical structures of scientific and technological texts in their translations. - accurately translate scientific and technological texts into English and Vietnamese. On the completion of this course book, I would like to express my deep gratitude to Dr. Ton Nu Nhu Huong for her encouragement. I would also like to be grateful to Dr. Tran Van Phuoc and other colleagues of the College of Foreign Languages for their kind help. Errors are unavoidable in this course book. Therefore, I appreciate and welcome any criticism on the course book. Hue, November 14th, 2006 Nguyen Van Tuan
  3. 2 Chapter 1: ENVIROMENTAL ISSUES Lesson 1: VËt liÖu míi -Mét c«ng nghÖ mòi nhän Khoa häc vµ c«ng nghÖ vËt liÖu trªn thÕ giíi ngµy nay ph¸t triÓn rÊt nhanh vµ m¹nh, liªn tiÕp tung ra thÞ tr-êng hµng lo¹t vËt liÖu míi víi tÝnh n¨ng -u viÖt ch-a tõng thÊy, t¸c ®éng ngay ®Õn thay ®æi diÖn m¹o vµ t¨ng hiÖu qu¶ kinh tÕ cïng søc c¹nh tranh, nhÊt lµ trªn c¸c lÜnh vùc x©y dùng kÕt cÊu h¹ tÇng, c«ng nghiÖp… VËt liÖu lu«n lµ mét trong nh÷ng s¶n phÈm chñ chèt quyÕt ®Þnh søc m¹nh kinh tÕ, quèc phßng, an ninh cña mçi quèc gia. C«ng nghÖ vËt liÖu míi ë n-íc ta hiÖn nay lµ mét trong nh÷ng khu vùc c«ng nghÑ ®-îc coi lµ mòi nhän, cã vai trß gãp phÇn t¹o ra b-íc n©ng cao râ rÖt vµ hiÖu qu¶ vµ søc c¹nh tranh cña nÒn kinh tÕ còng nh- t¨ng c-¬ng søc m¹nh an ninh, quèc phßng. Ngµnh khoa häc vµ c«ng nghÖ vËt liÖu n-íc ta cã thÞ tr-êng réng lín ®Ó ®-a nhanh c¸c s¸ng chÕ míi, s¶n phÈm míi cña m×nh vµo thùc tiÔn s¶n xuÊt vµ xuÊt khÈu. Víi ®éi ngò c¸n bé khoa häc, kü thuËt ngµy cµng tr-ëng thµnh, ph-¬ng tiÖn nghiªn cøu, thö nghiÖm ®-îc Nhµ n-íc ®Çu t- trang bÞ tõng b-íc hiÖn ®¹i, chóng ta ®· nghiªn cøu, chÕ t¹o thµnh c«ng nhiÒu lo¹i vËt liÖu míi ®-îc c¸c ngµnh kinh tÕ, an ninh, quèc phßng ®ãn nhËn, gãp phÇn t¨ng søc c¹nh tranh cña hµng ho¸ ViÖt Nam. Mét sè vËt liÖu míi ®-îc xuÊt khÈu. Tµi nguyªn n-íc ta dåi dµo, ®a d¹ng, ®éc ®¸o, t¹o ra thÕ m¹nh cho c«ng nghÖ vËt liÖu míi, lµm ra s¶n phÈm míi chÊt l-îng cao, gi¸ thµnh h¹, cung cÊp cho ngµnh then chèt cña kinh tÕ quèc d©n nh- n¨ng l-¬ng, x©y dùng kÕt cÊu h¹ tÇng, c¸c c«ng nghiÖp ®iÖn tö, c¬ khÝ, vËt liÖu d©n dông vµ xuÊt khÈu hiÖu qu¶ kinh tÕ cao. Kh¾c phôc nhanh t×nh tr¹ng cßn l¹c hËu, ph©n t¸n, thiÕu ®ång bé cña hÖ thèng c¬ së nghiªn cøu khoa häc vµ céng nghÖ vËt liÖu. Giíi khoa häc b¸m s¸t thùc tiÔn s¶n xuÊt ®Ó b¾t nh¹y nhu cÇu thÞ tr-êng vµ c¸c nhµ s¶n xuÊt gâ cöa c¬ quan khoa häc ®Ó ®Æt hµng. Nhµ n-íc cã c¬ chÕ, chÝnh s¸ch thÝch hîp ®æi míi thiÕt bÞ nghiªn cøu, n©ng cao ®éi ngò khoa häc vËt liÖu, còng nh- chÝnh s¸ch cÇn
  4. 3 thiÕt ®Ó rót ng¾n thêi gian tõ ph¸t minh, s¸ng chÕ ®Õn s¶n xuÊt trùc tiÕp. TriÓn väng khoa häc vµ c«ng nghÖ vËt liÖu míi n-íc ta rÊt s¸ng sña. Notes: - c«ng nghÖ vËt liÖu : material technology - tung ra thÞ tr-êng : bring into the market - tÝnh n¨ng -u viÖt : perfect feature - diÖn m¹o : face - hiÖu qu¶ kinh tÕ : economic effect/ efficiency - kÕt cÊu h¹ tÇng : infrastructure - mòi nhän : key factor - cã vai trß : play an important role - søc c¹nh tranh : competition - ®éc ®¸o : unique - c«ng nghiÖp ®iÖn tö : electronic industry - b¸m s¸t thùc tiÔn : have a hold of reality - Kh¾c phôc : overcome Suggested Translation : NEW MATERIALS -A KEY TECHNOLOGY Nowadays, material technology and science in the world have strongly and rapidly developed, bringing into the market a variety of new materials with perfect features that have immediate effects on changing the countenance and promoting the economic effectiveness as well as competition especially in the infrastructure building, industry and so on. Materials are always one of the major products, which decide the power of economy, national defense, security of each country. Now, new material technology in our country is one of the fields, which is considered essential and makes contributions to the remarkable enhancement of effectiveness and the competing ability of the economy to the reinforcement of security and national defense. Material technology and science sector in our country has a large market to apply new inventions, new products into production and export. With a staff of science and technology which is more and more developing, researching and testing facilities which are more and more modernly equipped, we have studied and successfully made a variety of new materials used in economic sector, security, national defense, partly increasing the competing ability of Vietnamese goods. Some of our new materials have been exported.
  5. 4 Out resources are abundant, diversified our unique, which facilitates our material technology to manufacture new products with high quality, low price, providing for the essential sectors of the national economy such as power, infrastructure building, electronic industry, mechanics, high economical domestic and export materials. To overcome the state of backwardness, divergence, lack unification of the basic system of research and material technology and science, the circle of science have hold of production reality to catch of with the market demand and manufactures have knocked on the door of scientific organizations to order. The State has had suitable mechanisms and policies, renewed he research equipment and improved the quality of the staff as well as the necessary policy to shorten the time from invention to direst production. The prospect of our new material technology and science of our country is very bright.
  6. 5 Lesson 2: 1. Chemicals enter our food in various ways and for various reasons. Farmers use herbicides to kill weeds, pesticides to kill insects, fungicides to kill mold and fertilizers to promote growth. All of them are very harmful to health and also to the environment. After harvesting, most crops are subjected to further "post-harvest" chemical treatment in order to protect them from fungus. Japanese rice, for example, is sprayed with methyl bromide, which can cause mental disorders and speech impediments. Fresh fruits and vegetables are sprayed with sulfites, to which many people are allergic. Bananas, mangoes and other tropical fruit are sprayed with even more poisonous chemicals. - Reason : lý do * for various reasons : v× nhiÒu lý do - Herbicide : thuèc diÖt cá - Fungicide : thuèc diÖt nÊm mèc - Fertilizer : ph©n bãn - To be harmful to : cã h¹i - To be subjected to : chÞu ph¶i - Post-harvest treatment : xö lý sau thu ho¹ch - Fungus : nÊm mèc - To spray : phun - Mental disorder : rèi lo¹n thµn kinh - Speech impediment : rèi lo¹n ng«n ng÷ - To be allergic : bÞ dÞ øng 2. Although fertility rates in poor countries have declined in recent years, the UN has estimated that the world‟s population should stabilize at approximately 10.2 billion people by the year 2100, when the number dying will match the number being born. This figure is two and a quarter times the present world population. A long-held and popular belief is that population growth in poor countries is the major cause of poverty. The “population explosion”, it is argued, is wiping out any economic development which the poor countries may achieve. The remedy to poverty is seen, therefore, to be increased birth control. This view has come under severe criticism by poor countries and their supporters in wealthy nations. They argue that large families and rapid population growth are consequences of poverty rather than its cause. Many of the poor consider a large family to be essential for survival in poor countries. In a society lacking social welfare payments, children are seen as a source of security in old age and when illness or unemployment strike. Children are also regarded as a means of bringing in additional income at an early age. In addition, because child mortality rates are high, a large family is considered necessary to ensure that at least one son survives to adulthood. Another argument is that employment opportunities and adequate social security schemes are the key to falling birth rates. Notes: - Fertility rate: tỷ lệ sinh đẻ - To decline: giảm xuống - To estimate: ước tính - It is estimated that…..: Người ta ước tính rằng…… - To stabilize: làm ổn định
  7. 6 - It is important to stabilize our population growth rates. - To match: sánh bằng - Worldly pleasures cannot match those joys. Những thú vui trần tục không thể sánh bằng những niềm vui này. - Belief : niềm tin to have belief in something: tin tưởng cái gì freedom of belief: tự do tính ngưỡng The patient comes to the hospital in the belief that he will be cured of his chronic disease. Bệnh nhân đến bệnh viện với niềm tin là mình sẽ được chữa khỏi căn bệnh mãn tính - poverty: sự nghèo khổ - Hunger eradication and poverty alleviation: xóa đói giảm nghèo - population explosion/boom: bùng nổ dân số - To wipe out: xoá sạch - To achieve: đạt được - Economic development: Sự phát triển kinh tế - Consequence: hậu quả - Social welfare payment: trợ cấp phúc lợi xã hội - To be regarded as : được xem là - additional income : khoản thu nhập thêm - adequate: đủ 3. The natural world is under violent assault. The seas and the rivers are being poisoned by radioactive wastes, by chemical discharges and by the dumping of dangerous toxins and raw sewage. The air we breathe is polluted by smoke and fumes from factories and motor vehicles. It is little wonder forests and lakes are being destroyed and everywhere wildlife is disappearing. The irreversible loss of biodiversity has a serious impact on the ability of maintaining species including humans to survive because humans depend on species diversity and healthy ecosystems. The destruction continues despite the warnings of the scientific community and the deep concern of millions of ordinary people. Governments and industries throughout the world are intensifying their efforts to extract the earth's mineral riches and to plunder its living resources. The great rain forests and the frozen continents alike are seriously threatened. However, we can create environmentally-clean industries, harness the power of the sun, wind and waves for our energy needs and manage the finite resources of the earth. Suggested Translation : 1. Hoá chất xâm nhập thực phẩm của chúng ta bằng nhiều cách và vì nhiều lý do khác nhau. Nông dân sử dụng thuốc diệt cỏ để diệt cỏ dại, thuốc trừ sâu để diệt sâu bọ, và thuốc fiệt nấm để diệt nấm mốc và phân bón để tăng sự phát triển. Tất cả các loại hoá chất này rất độc hại với sức khoẻ và môi trường của chúng ta. Sau khi thu hoạch, phần lớn nông sản phải được xử lý hoá chất sau thu hoạch, Chẳng hạn như lúa gạo ở Nhật Bản được người ta phun thuốc methyl bromide. Loại thuốc này có thể gây ra rối loạn thần kinh và rối loạn ngôn ngữ. Trái cây và rau tươi được phun thuốc sulfite. Loại thuốc gây dị ứng cho nhiều người. Chuối, xoài và các loại trái cây nhiệt đới khác được phun những loại hoá chất thậm chí độc hại hơn. 2. Trong những năm gần đây, mặc dù tỷ lệ sinh đẻ ở các nước nghèo có giảm xuống, nhưng Liên Hiệp Quốc ước tính rằng đến năm 2100 tỷ lệ sinh tử sẽ bằng nhau và lúc đó dân số thế giới sẽ ổn định ở mức xấp xỉ 10,2 tỉ người, tăng 2,25 lần so với dân số thế giới hiện nay. Lâu nay nhiều
  8. 7 người cho rằng phát triển dân số ở các nước nghèo là nguyên nhân chính gây ra nạn đói nghèo. Sự bùng nổ dân số đang huỷ hoại mọi thành quả kinh tế mà các nước này đã đạt được. Do vậy, cần phải đẩy mạnh công tác sinh đẻ có kế hoạch để thoát khỏi cảnh đói nghèo. Tuy nhiên, quan điểm này bị các nước nghèo và một số người ở các nước giàu phê phán gay gắt. Họ cho rằng gia đình đông con và dân số tăng nhanh là hậu quả hơn là nguyên nhân của sự đói nghèo. Nhiều người nghèo xem gia đình đông con là cần thiết cho sự sống còn của các nước nghèo. Con cái là cơ sở đảm bảo cho tuổi già cũng như lúc ốm đau hay bị thất nghiệp ở những nước không có trợ cấp phúc lợi xã hội. Con cái cũng là nguồn nhân lực góp phần vào việc tăng thu nhập cho gia đình ngay lúc chúng còn nhỏ. Hơn nữa, do tỷ lệ trẻ em tử vong cao nên gia đình đông con thật sự cần thiết để đảm bảo chắc chắn ít nhất có một đứa con trai sống sót cho đến tuổi trưởng thành. Một quan điểm khác cho rằng cơ hội tìm được việc làm và đảm bảo bảo phúc lợi xã hội thực sự đáng được xem là giải pháp cơ bản hạn chế sinh đẻ hữu hiệu nhất. 3. Thế giới tự nhiên đang bị tấn công dữ dội. Biển và sông đang bị ô nhiễm nặng do chất thải hạt nhân, chất thải hóa học và rác thải độc hại chưa xử lý. Không khí chúng ta thở cũng bị ô nhiễm do khói và khí thải của nhà máy và xe cộ. Cũng chẳng phải ngạc nhiên khi rừng và hồ cũng dang bị tàn phá và cuộc sống hoang dã khắp mọi nơi đang biến mất. Việc biến mất mà không cứu vãn nổi của đa dạng sinh học đã tác động rất lớn đến khả năng duy trì sự sống còn của các loài bao gồm cả con người vì con người phụ thuộc vào đa loài và môi trường sinh thái lành mạnh. Cho dù giới khoa học cảnh báo và hàng triệu người dân thường bày tỏ mối quan tâm sâu sắc nhưng sự tàn phá vẫn cứ tiếp diễn. Các chính phủ và ngành công nghiệp trên khắp thế giới đang nổ lực khai thác nguồn khoáng sản phong phú và nguồn sinh vật dồi dào. Rừng rậm nhiệt đới cũng như các lục địa đóng băng đang bị đe doạ nghiêm trọng. Tuy nhiên chúng ta cũng có thể xây dựng nền công nghiệp thân thiện với môi trường, khai thác năng lượng từ mặt trời, gió và sóng biển để phục vụ cho nhu cầu năng lượng của chúng ta và quản lý nguồn năng lượng hạn hữu trên trái đất này. Lesson 3: Population growth is one factor in rainforest destruction. However, it is a myth to assume that the expansion of subsistence agriculture to feed more mouths is the main factor. The majority of deforestation in Latin America, South-East Asia and the Pacific is caused by clearing land to grow cash crops for export and by commercial logging operations, and not by „shifting‟ cultivators or landless peasants. Each year commercial logging eliminates 45000 square kilometers of forest, much of the timber being exported to the United States and Japan. No clearer connection between deforestation and the demands of affluent societies can be found than in Central America and Brazil, where tropical forest has been converted to grazing land because cattle raising offers export earnings that help with external debt payments. These heavy payments, which affect the poor the most, have arisen largely from external loans taken out to finance the purchase of luxury items and arms by military and governing elite. The establishment of large ranch-style cattle grazing properties is the principal reason for the elimination of 20000 square kilometers of rainforest each year in Central or South America. The cleared land is mainly devoted to the export of beef for the fast-food industries in North America, Europe and Japan- the aptly named „hamburger connection‟.
  9. 8 Suggested Translation : Sù gia t¨ng d©n sè lµ mét nh©n tè g©y ra n¹n ph¸ rõng nhiÖt ®íi. Tuy nhiªn, nÕu cho r»ng viÖc më réng mét nÒn n«ng nghiÖp tù cung tù cÊp ®Ó nu«i sèng nhiÒu miÖng ¨n h¬n lµ nguyªn nh©n chÝnh, th× ®©y lµ mét gi¶i thÝch v« c¨n cø. §¹i bé phËn rõng ë Ch©u Mü La Tinh, §N¸ vµ Th¸i B×nh D-¬ng bÞ tµn ph¸ lµ do viÖc khai hoang ®Ó trång c¸c lo¹i n«ng s¶n xuÊt khÈu vµ do c¸c ho¹t ®éng bu«n b¸n gç , chø kh«ng ph¶i do n¹n du canh, du c- vµ t¸ ®iÒn g©y nªn. Hµng n¨m ho¹t ®éng bu«n b¸n gç ®· ph¸ huû 4500 km2 rõng, phÇn lín gç ®-îc xuÊt khÈu sang Mü vµ NhËt. Mèi liªn hÖ gi÷a n¹n ph¸ rõng vµ nhu cÇu thµnh lËp x· héi phån vinh ®-îc thÊy râ nÐt nhÊt ë Trung Mü vµ Brazin n¬i nh÷ng c¸nh rõng nhiÖt ®íi ®· bÞ biÕn thµnh ®ång cá ch¨n th¶ v× viÖc nu«i gia sóc mang l¹i c¸c kho¶n lîi nhuËn xuÊt khÈu gióp tr¶ nî n-íc ngoµi. Kho¶n nî n-íc ngoµi khæng lå ®ang ®Ì nÆng lªn vai d©n nghÌo chñ yÕu ®-îc dïng ®Ó trang tr¶i cho c¸c kho¶n mua s¾m xa xØ cña chÝnh phñ vµ qu©n ®éi. ViÖc x©y dùng c¸c ®iÒn trang ch¨n th¶ réng lín lµ nguyªn nh©n chÝnh dÉn ®Õn viÖc ph¸ huû 2000 km2 rõng nhiÖt ®íi hµng n¨m ë Trung vµ Nam Mü. §Êt khai hoang chñ yÕu dïng cho viÖc nu«i bß xuÊt khÈu phôc vô cho ngµnh c«ng nghiÖp thøc ¨n nhanh ë B¾c Mü, Ch©u ¢u vµ NhËt- vïng xøng vìi tªn gäi lµ “ vïng giao l-u hamburger ” Lesson 4: RIVER POLLUTION: CAUSES AND SOLUTIONS At its source, the Rheinwaldhorn Glacier in Switzerland, the Rhein River is crystal clear. But, by the time it reaches the North Sea near Rotterdam after a 1,320-kilometer journey, it has become a poisonous cocktail of chemicals and sewage. Germany, like other industrial nations, shows little respect for her rivers even though the health and prosperity of her people depend on the availability of clean water. The most obvious cause of river pollution is industry. German rivers contain thousands of different chemicals discharged by factories and mines. In 1990, a million fish in the Mosel and Saar Rivers died when cyanide was carelessly released from a factory. Germany has laws to prevent this sort of thing, but, as in most other industrial nations, penalties are too light to act as a deterrent. Surprisingly, however, factories account for less than 10% of the pollutants found in North American rivers, thanks to the Clean Water Act passed in 1972. The major source - responsible for 65% of all river pollution - is agriculture. Farmers use large amounts of toxic chemicals on their crops in order to kill weeds and insects, and the residues are washed into nearby rivers by rain. As long as the use of these chemicals is permitted, there is no way to prevent runoff pollution.
  10. 9 Sewage from nearby towns and villages is another major cause of river pollution. Many large cities lack sewage treatment facilities and the funds with which to build them. It is true that traditional waste water treatment plants are very expensive to build and operate, but cheap alternatives are now available. Sanitation engineers in New York have developed a system that uses microbes and marsh plants to transform raw sewage into clean water. The bacteria produce methane gas, which can be sold to power companies and burned to generate electricity. The Clean Water Act has led to a steady improvement in the U.S.A. Fish can now be seen swimming in rivers that were once full of deadly chemicals, and ducks have returned to formerly polluted lakes. The improvement is largely due to careful monitoring of waste water from factories and strict enforcement of the law. Now, most companies are eager to present an environmentally- friendly image and are willing to pay for it. But further improvement will require changes in current farming practices. Hopefully, the growing popularity of organically grown produce will eventually lead to the necessary transformation. Notes: - source : nguån (s«ng) * The source of the Red River : nguån s«ng Hång * Where does the Perfume River have its source? S«ng H-¬ng b¾t nguån tõ ®©u? - to be crystal clear : trong nh- pha lª * a necklace of crystal : vßng cæ lµm b»ng pha lª - to show respect to sb : t«n träng ai - poisonous : ®éc, cã ®éc * poisonous chemicals : ho¸ chÊt ®éc h¹i * poisonous snakes : r¾n ®éc * poisonous tongue : miÖng l-ìi ®éc ®Þa - cocktail : hçn hîp - sewage : chÊt th¶i * sewage treatment : (sù) xö lý chÊt th¶i - prosperity : sù thÞnh v-îng, sù giµu cã, cña c¶i * to live in prosperity : sèng trong giµu sang * a life of happiness and prosperity - prosperous : thÞnh v-îng * a prosperous year : mét n¨m thÞnh v-îng * a prosperous business : mét doanh nghiÖp ¨n ra lµm nªn - to discharge sth : th¶i c¸i g×
  11. 10 - cyanide : chÊt xi a nua - penalty : xö ph¹t * the penalty for (not) doing sth : viÖc xö ph¹t v× (kh«ng) ®· lµm g× * death penalty : h×nh ph¹t tö h×nh - deterrent : biÖn ph¸p ng¨n ngõa - to account for : chiÕm - pollutant : chÊt g©y « nhiÔm - Clean Water Act : ®¹o luËt n-íc s¹ch - to be passed : ®-îc th«ng qua - toxic chemical : ho¸ chÊt ®éc h¹i - weed : cá d¹i - insect : c«n trïng - residue : phÇn cßn d-, phÇn ch-a dïng hÕt - to be washed : bÞ tr«i d¹t - sewage treatment facilities : nh÷ng c¬ së xö lý chÊt th¶i - microbe : vi khuÈn - to generate electricity : ph¸t ®iÖn - to monitor : gi¸m s¸t * to monitor a project : gi¸m s¸t mét dù ¸n - strict enforcement of law : nghiªm chØnh chÊp hµnh luËt ph¸p Lesson 5: WETLANDS IN DANGER What do the Okavango Swamp in Botswana, the Pantanal Marsh in Brazil and the Mekong Delta in Vietnam have in common? All are wetlands, and all are threatened by development. Wetlands -bogs, marshes, swamps and estuaries - exist in every region of the earth and shelter a wide variety of animals, birds, fish, insects and plants. Their unique ecosystems help to purify water and to prevent flooding, and fish come to them to spawn. Why are they threatened? Many are being drained in order to provide land for farming. Their rich alluvial soil is very fertile, but without a constant supply of water, it soon becomes barren. The World Bank and other international development agencies have encouraged the draining of wetlands in the Third World with grants and loans, but have failed to allow for the environmental cost of their well-meant projects. In Thailand, old canals were filled in order to eliminate malaria; but this has resulted in disastrous floods. In Iraq, the Tigris Delta has been drained to facilitate a military campaign against Shiite rebels. The vast area thus reclaimed may help to feed Iraq's cities, but at great cost to the indigenous wildlife and to the traditional lifestyle of local villagers.
  12. 11 Another threat to wetlands is the construction of dams for hydroelectric projects. Although these provide necessary electricity without causing air pollution, they also interrupt the flow of water on which the wetland ecology depends. Swamps and marshes are also very vulnerable to acid rain, chemical runoff from farms and sewage from villages. The Danube Delta, a 500,000hectare wilderness visited by over 300 species of bird, has been badly polluted by pesticides as a result of projects carried out from 1983 to 1990 to cultivate the area. The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, which came into force in 1975, identifies 450 major wetland areas in need of protection. With an annual budget of less than $600,000, it is hard to see how the Convention can save the world's wetlands from projects paid for by the World Bank, the European Union and other powerful agencies currently more concerned with feeding people today than with protecting their environment for the future. Notes: - to be in danger : bÞ nguy hiÓm - the Mekong Delta : §ång b»ng s«ng Cöu Long - to have sth in common: cã ®iÒu g× chun, gièng nhau - wetland ; vïng ®Çm lÇy - estuary : cöa s«ng - unique : ®éc ®¸o, ®éc nhÊt - ecosystem: hÖ sinh th¸i - to purify: lµm tinh khiÕt * purify water : lµm cho n-íc tinh khiÕt - to spawn : sinh s¶n, ®Î trøng - alluvial soil : ®Êt phï sa - fertile : ph× nhiªu * fertile land : vïng ®Êt ph× nhiªu - barren : b¹c mµu, hoang ho¸ - grants and loans : kho¶n viÖn trî vµ cho vay - canal : kªnh ®µo - to be filled : san lÊp - malaria : bÖnh sèt rÐt - to eliminate : xo¸ bá - to result in : g©y ra - to be drained : x¶ n-íc, tho¸t n-íc - indigenous : b¶n ®Þa - traditional lifestyle : lèi sèng truyÒn thèng
  13. 12 - dam : ®Ëp - hydroelectric project : dù ¸n thuû ®iÖn - to interrupt : can thiÖp - flow of water : dßng ch¶y - to be vulnerable to : cã thÓ bÞ, dÔ bÞ * people who are vulnerable to criticism : ng-êi dÔ bÞ phª b×nh - pesticide : thuèc trõ s©u - to cultivate : canh t¸c, trång trät - to come into force/effect : cã hiÖu lùc - annual budget : ng©n s¸ch hµng n¨m - convention : c«ng -íc - to be paid for : ®-îc chi tr¶, ®-îc tµi trî * The projects are paid for by the World Bank : nh÷ng dù ¸n ®ã ®-îc Ng©n Hµng ThÕ Giíi tµi trî. - to be corncerned with : quan t©m ®Õn Lesson 6: POISONED SEAS The Mediterranean Sea is closed except for a small gap between Spain and Morocco. Because of this, it is extremely vulnerable to pollution. Rivers flowing into the sea from surrounding countries bring massive amounts of industrial, agricultural and human waste from factories, farms and cities. Oil spilled by tankers and from port terminals adds to the pollution. Still more pollutants fall from the sky as acid rain. From ancient times, the sea has been regarded as a convenient disposal site for the waste products of human civilization. But by the 1970s, the ecological ruin of the Mediterranean was beginning to alarm not only environmental activists concerned with dying dolphins and seals, but also fishermen and local residents. It also disturbed people involved in the tourist industry when com- plaints by visitors of raw sewage on beaches and foul-smelling water began to hit the headlines. Finally, representatives of surrounding nations adopted a plan known as the Nicosia Charter designed to protect the sea from further damage. The plan called for the construction of proper sewage treatment facilities for 25 major cities and 75 smaller communities, and the setting up of 25 centers for the disposal of dangerous wastes. The Mediterranean is not the only sea with problems. Studies have shown that the Baltic is suffocating. Large quantities of nutrients such as phosphates and nitrates from farms in
  14. 13 Scandinavia, Russia and Poland are washed into the sea, where they stimulate the growth of algae that consume the oxygen needed by fish. The seven adjacent nations have agreed on the need to cut the flow of nutrients and pollutants, but not on how to finance the necessary measures. The North Sea is more open than the Baltic, and is constantly rinsed; but it too is suffering a major crisis. In 1988, about 70% of the native seal population died of a mysterious illness thought to be caused by toxic chemicals in the fish they ate. The two biggest sources of pollution are sewage from Britain and toxic chemicals from German factories. Britain has recently agreed to ban the discharge of sewage into coastal waters and the dumping of sludge at sea by 1998; but by privatizing its waste treatment industry, the British Government has reduced the likelihood that its commitments will be met. Germany, whose rivers deliver millions of tons of zinc and thousands of tons of other metals into the North Sea, has also made promises that the costs of unification between West and East have rendered impossible to fulfill. If the necessary steps are not taken within the next 20 years, the North Sea fishing industry will probably be wiped out, along with many species of mammal. Notes: - the Mediterranean Sea : §Þa Trung H¶i - except for : ngo¹i tõ * The essay is good except for some minor grammatical mistakes. - acid rain : m-a a-xÝt - massive # great : lín,vÜ ®¹i - oil spill : v¸ng dÇu - to be spilled : bÞ loang, bÞ trµn, t¹o thµnh v¸ng - to be regarded as : ®-îc xem lµ * The immense network of rivers and canals is regarded as the great boon second to none in this area : hÖ thèng kªnh r¹ch mªnh m«ng ®-îc xem lµ c¸i duyªn cã mét kh«ng hai cña vïng nµy. - disposal site : b·i r¸c th¶i - human civilization : v¨n minh nh©n lo¹i - ruin : sù tµn lôi - to be ruined : bÞ lôi tµn, bÞ sôp ®æ - to alarm : bo¸ ®éng * Everybody was alarmed that war might break out. Mäi ng-êi ®-îc b¸o ®éng r»ng chiÕn tranh cã thÓ x¶y ra. - environmental activist : nhµ b¶o vÖ m«i tr-êng, nhµ ho¹t ®éng m«i tr-êng - dolphin : c¸ heo
  15. 14 - seal : h¶i cÈu - local ressident/inhabitant : c- d©n ®Þa ph-¬ng - to be/get involved in : cã dÝnh lÝu tíi, cã liªn quan tíi * The prominent scientists have been involved in the scientific research. C¸c nhµ khoa häc tÇm cì/cã tiÕng/næi tiÕng ®· tham gia vµo c«ng tr×nh nghiªn cøu khoa häc nµy. - foul-smelling water : n-íc cã mïi thèi - representative : ng-êi ®¹i diÖn - to adopt: chÊp nhËn * The Congress adopted new measures. §¹i héi ®· chÊp nhËn c¸c biÖn ph¸p míi. - to be designed : ®-îc thiÕt kÕ/viÕt ra - Charter : B¶n hiÕn ch-¬ng - to call for : kªu gäi * The Government called for foreign investment. ChÝnh phñ ®· kªu gäi ®Çu t- n-íc ngoµi. - community : céng ®ång * The Vietnamese Community : Céng ®ång ng-êi ViÖt * a speech community : céng ®ång ng«n ng÷ - to suffocate : ng¹t thë - nutrient : chÊt nu«i d-ìng, ph©n bãn - to stimulate : kÝch thÝch * They have used a special substance to stimulate the growth of these plants. Hä ®· dïng mét lo¹i chÊt ®Æc biÖt ®Ó kÝch thÝch sù t¨ng tr-ëng cña nh÷ng c©y nµy. - the growth of algae: sù ph¸t triÓn cña t¶o biÓn - to consume # to use : sö dông - to rinse : x¶/tÈy * to rinse soap out of clothes : x¶ xµ phßng khái quÇn ¸o - mysterious illness : c¨n bÖnh kh«ng râ nguyªn nh©n - to ban # to prohibit : cÊm * to ban firecrackers : cÊm ®èt ph¸o
  16. 15 - commitment : sù cam kÕt, sù rµng buéc * Marriage should be a five-year renewable contract not a life-long commitment. H«n nh©n nªn lµ mét b¶n hîp ®ång 5 n¨m cã gia h¹n h¬n lµ mét sù rµng buéc trän ®êi. - to take necessary steps/measure : thùc thi c¸c biÖn ph¸p cÇn thiÕt - to be wiped out : bÞ xo¸ s¹ch Lesson 7: SAVING THE RAINFORESTS The tropical rainforests are being destroyed primarily by greedy businessmen for a quick profit. What they don't realize is that they could make a lot more money in the long run by preserving the forests. A study by the New York Institute of Economic Botany found that one hectare of South American rainforest could produce $400-worth of fruit every year. If rubber, drugs, rattan, nuts and other products of the forest are also sold, the value of a hectare of rainforest over a 10-year period could exceed $10,000. If, on the other hand, all the trees were cut down for sale and cattle raised on the exposed land, a mere $4,000 could be earned before the soil became totally barren. So over the long term, conservatio n and sustainable use of the forest turns out to be far more profitable. If the destruction of rainforests continues at the present rate, they will disap pear completely by the year 2040. This will have serious consequences - economic, political and environmental - for the nations concerned. Yet most Third World governments maintain short-sighted policies encouraging the export of timber. Such policies will only be changed if the politicians can be convinced of the long-term benefits of conservation. Several European countries now prohibit the import of all tropical hardwood from countries lacking strict conservation and forest-management regulations. If the government of Japan, which buys over half of the tropical hardwood sold on the world market, were to adopt similar import restrictions, the situation might improve greatly. Rich countries could also help by offering financial assistance to countries such as Belize and Costa Rica which protect their rainforests and denying it to nations lacking effective conservation policies. Several large conservation groups have bought entire forests, and are now helping the indigenous people to earn a living through sustainable use of the forest. Major drug manufacturers ought to do likewise, in view of the enormous profits they could make by discovering and marketing cures for serious diseases. Merck, an American drug company, paid a million dollars to Costa Rica's National Biodiversity Institute in exchange for the supply of botanical samples. This sum represents less than 0.1% of Merck's 1993 research
  17. 16 budget. The company could easily afford to make a much larger investment in order to preserve the forests in which its future - and ours - lies. Notes: - tropical rainforest : rõng rËm nhiÖt ®íi - to be destroyed : bÞ tµn ph¸ - profit : lîi nhuËn * to sell sth at a profit - in the long run : rèt cuéc lµ - to preserve : b¶o tån * to preserve the world‟s cultural heritage : b¶o tån di s¶n v¨n ho¸ thÕ giíi * to preserve the national identity : gi÷ g×n b¶n s¾c d©n téc - exceed : v-ît qu¸ * to exceed the speed limit : v-ît qu¸ tèc ®é giíi h¹n - nut : h¹t chøa dÇu * cashewnut: h¹t ®iÒu - to cut down for sale : ®èn ®Ó b¸n - cattle raising : ch¨n nu«i gia sóc - exposed land : vïng ®Êt trèng - sustainable use : sö dông bÒn v÷ng/l©u dµi - to turn out to be : rèt cuéc lµ - short-sighted policy : chÝnh s¸ch thiÓn cËn - to be convinced : bÞ thuyÕt phôc - long-term benefit : lîi Ých l©u dµi - short-term benefit : lîi Ých tr-íc m¾t - to prohibit: cÊm * to prohibit the production of : cÊm s¶n xuÊt - forest-management regulation : ®iÒu lÖ qu¶n lý rõng - restriction : sù h¹n ®Þnh - financial assistance : gióp ®ì vÒ mÆt tµi chÝnh - to lack : thiÕu * to lack capital : thiÕu vèn - to earn a living : kiÕm sèng
  18. 17 - in view of : nh»m ®Ó - in exchange for : nh»m trao ®æi c¸i g× Lesson 8: DESERTS CAN BE FARMED With daytime temperatures reaching 50°C and less than 10 centimeters of rain per year, the Negev Desert in Israel has a hostile climate. Yet recently, it has become a major food-producing region, thanks to the introduction of new farming techniques. Vegetables and fruit are grown using trickle irrigation, a system in which each plant receives a small but sufficient amount of water and fertilizers through perforated plastic pipes. Most of the water is pumped up from underground. Since this is too salty for normal plants, agricultural scientists had to develop special varieties of salt-resistant plants. Now the region produces fruit, vegetables, cereals, peanuts and cotton, and is home to half a million people. Nearby Egypt is confronted with a double curse: rapid population growth and encroaching deserts. The only way for the country to feed its people is by reversing the process of desertification. Researchers are now experimenting with a resin which can absorb an amount of water equal to several hundred times its own weight. When mixed with soil, it helps the earth to retain moisture. The resin, which was originally developed in Japan for use in paper diapers, could enable Egyptian farmers to grow crops on arid land and eventually restore the forests which once covered North Africa. In Iran, large sand dunes are sprayed with oil. When this dries, it keeps the sand in one place and retains moisture. Grass seed is then planted, followed soon by saplings. Farmers are later able to grow vegetables on the land reclaimed from the desert. The new forests are protected from goats and sheep by guards riding motorcycles. This is very important, because overgrazing is one of the main causes of desertification. Camels, incidentally, present no problems; their flat feet do not disturb the soil and their sharp teeth cut the grass instead of tearing it out as goats and sheep do. Agriculture and reforestation need water. This can be drawn from underground, using solar- powered pumps, but eventually the source must dry up. Seawater could be used, but removing the salt requires a very expensive and time-consuming process. The only alternative is to bring fresh water from areas in which it is plentiful. In Libya, Kirgistan and India, great waterways have been built to bring water from mountain streams to arid regions targeted for cultivation. With enough money and effort, the battle against the desert can be won. But unless population growth is controlled, our victory over the desert will turn out to be only a mirage. Notes: - temprature : nhiÖt ®é - reach : ®¹t ®-îc, lªn ®Õn
  19. 18 * the growth rates reach 12% * the mountains reach the sea. ( nói v-¬n ra biÓn.) - hostile climate : khÝ hËu kh¾c nghiÖt - food-producing region : vïng s¶n xuÊt l-¬ng thùc - the introduction of : viÖc ¸p dông, viÖc ®-a (c¸i g×)vµo.... - farming technique : kü thuËt canh t¸c - irrigation system : hÖ thèng t-íi, hÖ thèng thuû lîi - sufficient : ®ñ * sufficient amount : mét l-îng ®Çy ®ñ - perforated plastic pipe : èng nhùa cã læ xung quanh - to be pumped up from the ground : b¬m tõ m¹ch n-íc ngÇm lªn - salt-resistant plant : c©y chèng ®-îc mÆn, c©y thÝch nghi víi ®Êt m¨n - cereal : ngò cèc - to be confronted with : ®-¬ng ®Çu víi - to reverse: lµm ®¶o ng-îc, chèng l¹i - process of desertification : qu¸ tr×nh sa m¹c ho¸ - to absorb : thÈm thÊu, hót n-íc - moisture : ®é Èm - arid land : ®Êt kh« c»n - solar-powered pump : b¬m ch¹y b»ng n¨ng l-¬ng mÆt trêi - time-consuming : mÊt thêi gian * time consuming work : c«ng viÖc chiÕm nhiÒu thêi gian - alternative : mét gi¶i ph¸p thay thÕ - waterway : ®-êng dÉn n-íc - to be targeted for : nh»m ®Ó, ®-îc nh¾m ®Õn ®Ó lµm g×


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