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Language focus of unit 4

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Language focus of unit 4

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Gerund and Present Participle/ Perfect gerund and Perfect Participle I. Gerund and Present Participle 1. Gerund (danh động từ) được cấu tạo bởi một động từ + ING để trở thành danh từ. - Gerund có chức năng làm chủ ngữ trong câu. Ví dụ: Swimming in a swimming pool on a hot day is very interesting. -Gerund có chức năng làm tân ngữ trong câu. Ví dụ : He likes playing football. - Gerund có chức năng làm bổ ngữ trong câu....

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  1. Thinh Long High School Teacher: Mai ChÝnh §Ó vµng ®Çy r¬ng ch¼ng quý b»ng d¹y con häc mét quyÓn s¸ch. Cho con ngµn vµng ch¼ng b»ng d¹y con biÕt mét nghÒ ( S¸ch H¸n Th ) Language focus of unit 4 Gerund and Present Participle/ Perfect gerund and Perfect Participle I. Gerund and Present Participle 1. Gerund (danh ®éng tõ) ®îc cÊu t¹o bëi mét ®éng tõ + ING ®Ó trë thµnh danh tõ. - Gerund cã chøc n¨ng lµm chñ ng÷ trong c©u. VÝ dô: Swimming in a swimming pool on a hot day is very interesting. -Gerund cã chøc n¨ng lµm t©n ng÷ trong c©u. VÝ dô : He likes playing football. - Gerund cã chøc n¨ng lµm bæ ng÷ trong c©u. VÝ dô : Conservation is safeguarding and preservation of natural resources. - Còng nh nh÷ng danh tõ kh¸c, Gerund còng ® îc dïng sau mét m¹o tõ, tÝnh tõ së h÷u,… VÝ dô: Do you mind opening the door? The reclaiming is important for farmers. Thank you for your coming. -Gerund ®«i khi ®Ó thµnh lËp danh tõ kÐp. VÝ dô : a diving board, driving licence, landing car 2. Present Participle( Ph©n tõ hiÖn t¹i) ®îc cÊu t¹o bëi mét ®éng tõ + ING _ Present participle (V_ing) ®i sau ®«ng tõ TO BE ®Ó diÔn t¶ hµnh ®éng ®ang x¶y ra. VÝ dô: I am studying English now. - Present Participle ( V_ing) ®îc dïng thay thÕ mét mÖnh ®Ò quan hÖ. VÝ dô: The train arriving at the station is one hour late. ( The train which is arriving at the station is one hour late.) Present Participle ( V-ing) dïng ®Ó miªu t¶ hai hµnh ®éng. + x¶y ra cïng mét thêi ®iÓm, mét chñ ng÷. VÝ du; We sat in front of T.V, watching football. + x¶y ra nèi tiÕp nhau, cïng chung mét chñ ng÷ VÝ dô: Closing all the windows and the door carefully, she went to bed. - Present participle ( V_ ing) còng ®îc dïng nh mét tÝnh tõ . VÝ dô: running water, a boring story… Present participle còng ®îc dïng sau cÊu tróc have + sb + V_ing VÝ dô: I had him cleaning his bike. Present Participle.: ®îc dïng sau ®éng tõ “go” VÝ dô: go swimming, go fishing. Present participle ( V_ ing ) cßn cã thÓ ® îc dïng sau mét sè ®éng tõ thuéc vÒ gi¸c quan nh: see, hear, smell…. VÝ dô : I see him passing my house everyday. Present Participle ( V_ ing) còng ®îc dïng sau c¸c ®éng tõ catch, find, leave, object. VÝ dô : I caught them stealing my apples. He found a tree lying across the road. I left her talking to my mother. II. Perfect gerund and Perfect Participle. 1. Perfect gerund ®îc dïng thay cho d¹ng hiªn t¹i cña danh ®éng tõ khi chóng ta ®Ò cËp tíi hµnh ®éng qu¸ khø. VÝ dô : The boy was accused of having stolen/ stealing her money.
  2. Thinh Long High School Teacher: Mai ChÝnh She apologized for having broken / breaking my vase. Perfect gerund thêng dïng sau DENY VÝ dô: He denied having stolen her money. 2. Perfect Participle.( ph©n tõ qu¸ khø) cã cÊu tróc : Having + PII . Ph©n tõ qu¸ khø dïng ®Ó nhÊn m¹nh hnµh ®éng ®· x¶y ra hoµn t©t tr íc mét hµnh ®éng kh¸c x¶y ra trong qu¸ khø. VÝ dô: Having finished all my exercises, I went to bed. Exercises. I. Hoµn thµnh c¸c c©u sau ®©y víi d¹ng ®óng cña ®éng tõ vµ cho biÕt chóng lµ Gerund hay Present Participle. 1. ( Feel) ……….. hungry, he went into the kitchen and opened the fridge. 2. My boss spends two hours a day ( travel) …….to work 3. ( Swim) ………. is my favourite sport. 4. One of life’s pleasure is ( have) ……….breakfast in bed. 5. ( Whistle) ………. to himself, he walked down the road. 6. In spite of ( miss) ……… the train , we arrived on time. 7. They found the money ……….( lye) on the ground. 8. He was trapped in a (burn)……….. house. 9. I’m tired of …………( work) eight hours a day. 10. She always puts off (go) ………… to the dentist. II. Hoµn thµnh c¸c c©u sau ®©y víi d¹ng ®óng cña ®éng tõ lµ Gerund ,Present Participle, perfect participle. 1. She admitted ( kill) her husband. 2. I reget ( write) ………… her that letter. 3. I enjoy ( play)…… tennis with my friends. 4. Martin denied (see) …….. the accused man on the day of the crime. 5. ( Tell) …….. me that she would never speak to me again , she picked up her stuff and stormed out of the house. 6. – Will you enter for the next eloquence contest? - (Win) ……… twice , I don’t want to try again. Let’s give chances to other. 7. ( Improve ) ……. her English Pia’s promotion prospects are much better. III. ViÕt l¹i nh÷ng c©u sau b»ng c¸ch thay thÕ phÇn in nghiªng víi PerfecParticiple mµ nghÜa ko ®æi. 1. We switched off the lights before we went to bed. -> Having switched off the lights, we went to bed. 2. The boy asked his mother’s permission and then went out to play. ->……………………………………………………………………………………….. 3. As he had drunk too much, he didn’t drive home himself. ->……………………………………………………………………………………….. 4. We have done two tests today, so we are exhausted. ->……………………………………………………………………………………….. 5. She filled the washing machine and switched it on. ->……………………………………………………………………………………….. 6. She had been to disco the night before and she overslept in the morning. ->……………………………………………………………………………………….. 7. We had worked in the garden all day and were sunburned in the evening. ->……………………………………………………………………………………….. 8. She had not slept for two days and therefore she wasn’t able to concentrate. ->……………………………………………………………………………………….. 9. Since I had not seen him for ages, I didn’t recognize him. ->………………………………………………………………………………………..
  3. Thinh Long High School Teacher: Mai ChÝnh 10. I had not ridden a horse for a long time and I found it very difficult to keep in the saddle. ->……………………………………………………………………………………….. 11. Zoe had practiced a lot, so she was sure of her winning in the competition. ->……………………………………………………………………………………….. IV. ViÕt l¹i c¸c c©u sau mµ nghÜa kh«ng ®æi. 1. Nam won a scholarship. We are excited about that fact. -> We’re ……………………………………………………………… 2. Entering the room, I was surprised at what I saw. -> When ……………………………………………………………… 3. The volunteers couldn’t mow the old lady’s lawns because of the rain. -> The rain prevented ………………………………………………… 4. David did his homework and the went to bed. -> After having ………………………………………… …………… 5. It is easy for anyone to learn how to cook. -> Learning……………………………………………………………. VII. ViÕt l¹i c¸c c©u sau dïng After and Before. 1. I told him off. Then I realized I was wrong. -> After I had told him off, I realized I was wrong. 2. I worked very hard for the exam. Then I passed it. -> Before……………………………………………………………. 3. First I considered what to study. Then I decided to major in Maths. -> After……………………………………………………………….. 4. She wrote a letter. Then she went to bed. -> After…………………………… 5. He bought a radio. First he checked the price. -> After………………………………… 6. They argued. Then they fought. -> After…………………………………………… 7. She went out for a walk. Then she had a fatal accident. -> Before………………………………………………… 8. She decided to go away. First she faced the matter. -> After……………………………. 9. We read the book, then we wrote the assignment. -> Before……………………………………………….. 10. She watched the film, then she wrote a report. -> After………………………………… VIII. ViÕt l¹i c¸c c©u sau dïng Gerund Phrase ( côm danh ®éng tõ) 1. A good way of keeping fit is to swim everyday. -> Swimming everyday is a good way of keeping fit. 2. It takes a long time to learn a foreign language. ->……………………………………………………… 3. Grow your own food. It’s less expensive. ->………………………………………………………… 4. It is uncomfortable to sit in one place for so long. ->………………………………………………… 5. You are not allow to smoke here. ->………………………………………………….. C¸ch ph¸t ©m I. C¸ch ph¸t ©m cña nh÷ng tõ tËn cïng lµ - ed Nh÷ng ®éng tõ qu¸ khø cã quy t¾c kÕt thóc lµ - ed ®ùoc ph¸t ©m nh sau:
  4. Thinh Long High School Teacher: Mai ChÝnh 1. /d/ sau nguyªn ©m a, e, i, o, u vµ c¸c phô ©m h÷u thanh ( trõ /d/): / ð/, /b/, /v/, /z/, / ʒ/, /dʒ/, /g/, /m/, /n/, /l/, /η/ tried /traid/ clothed /kləuðd/ used /ju:zd/ failed /feild/ 2. / t/ sau c¸c phô ©m v« thanh (trõ /t/): / θ /, /p/, /f/, /s/, /∫/, /t∫/, /k/ stopped /stɔpt/ laughed /la:ft/ worked /wз: kt/ passed /pa:st/ watched /wɔt∫t/ 3. /id/ sau chØ 2 phô ©m /d/ vµ /t/ ended / ‘endid/ started/ ‘sta:tid/ II. C¸ch ph¸t ©m cña nh÷ng danh tõ sè nhiÒu cã quy t¾c. 1. Nh÷ng danh tõ kÕt thóc ë /s/, /z/ vµ nh÷ng ©m giã kh¸c. Sau mét trong nh÷ng ©m giã: /s/, /z/, / ∫/, /ʒ/, / t∫/, vµ /dʒ/, và cïng với nh÷ng danh tõ sè nhiÒu kÕt thóc ë –(e)s ® îc ph¸t ©m lµ /iz/ buses /‘bʌsiz/ crashes /‘kræ∫iz/ watches /‘wɔt∫iz/ garages /‘gæra:∫iz/ bridge / ‘bridʒz/ quizzes / ‘kwiziz/ 2.Nh÷ng danh tõ kÕt thóc ë nh÷ng ©m v« thanh Sau nh÷ng phô ©m v« thanh: ( /p/, /f/, /θ/, /t/, và /k/) và cïng với những danh từ số nhiÒu kÕt thóc ở –(e)s ®îc ph¸t ©m lµ/s/ cups /cʌps/ cloths /klɔθs/ books /buks/ beliefs / bi‘li:fs/ plates /pleits/ 3. Nh÷ng danh tõ kÕt thóc ë nh÷ng ph ụ ©m h÷u thanh . Sau c¸c nguyªn ©m, vµ nh÷ng phô ©m h÷u thanh trõ /z/, /ʒ/, vµ /dʒ/, vµ cïng với những danh tõ sè nhiÒu kÕt thóc ở –(e)s ®îc ph¸t ©m lµ /z/ days /deiz/ boys /biz/ trees /tri:z/ knives /naivz/ hills /hilz/ dreams /dri:mz/ legs /legz/ ends /endz/ clothes /kləuðz/ Choose the word which has the underlined part is pronounced different from the others. 1. A. fitted B. wicked C. locked D. intended 2. A. matched B. educated C. enriched D. washed 3. A. attended B. improved C. dedicated D. exhibited 4. A. killed B. developed C. threatened D. endangered 5. A. wanted B. looked C. needed D. visited 6. A. planned B. worked C. helped D. galloped 7. A. hoped B. referred C. shopped D. laughed 8. A. hurried B. studied C. stayed D. started 9. A. watched b. passed C. used D. washed 10. A. moved B. hoped C. married D. danced 11. A. retired B. escaped C. faded D. played 12. A. believed B. asked C. allowed D. died 13. A. called B. phoned C. showed D. finished 14. A. fired B. traveled C. enjoyed D. decided 15. A. apologized B. explored C. rained D. wondered 17. A. programs B. individuals C. subjects D.celebrations 18. A. churches B. commandos C. photos D. wives 19. A. barracks B. series C. means D.headquarters 20. A. crossroads B. species C. works (company) D. mosquitoes 21. A. babies B. Kennedys C. shops D. schools 22. A. houses B. horses C. matches D. computers
  5. Thinh Long High School Teacher: Mai ChÝnh 23. A. walls B. bosses C. goods D. fingers 24. A. arms B. legs C. heads D. chests 25. A. brothers B. parents C. uncles D. nephews 26. A. hears B. dreams C. wishes D. sees 27. A. knows B. lives C. stays D. meets 28. A. regrets B. remembers C. drinks D. laughs
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